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GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY 

CENTRAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
LIBRARY 

Cail No. Ml. 3 C’-Ma4L 


D.G A. 79. 



MUNSHI RAM M ANOKML Ltlk 
Oriental & For-i-;-! Book-Sdtel 
ts. U65, Nai Sank, C^IHM 




Calcutta Sanskrit College Research Series. No. I I 

Published under the Auspices of the 
Government of West Bengal. 


STUDIES NO. 1 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

VOL. I 


SANSKRIT COLLEGE 
CALCUTTA 
1958 

HHNSHI ram manohar lal 

Orieotel & Foreign Booi-5e!ler* 
P.B. 1 165; Nai Sarak, DELHl-6 



Board of Editors : 

Dr. Radha Govinda Basak, M.A., Ph.D,, Chairman. 

Dr. Sadananda Bhaduri, M.A., Ph.D. 

Prof. Durgamohan Bhattacharya, M.A., 

Kavya-Samkhya-Purana'tlrtha. 

Pandic Anancakumar Nyaya-Tarka-tIrtha. 

Dr. Gaurinach Sastri, M.A„ P.R.S., D.Litt., 

Secretary and General Editor. 



STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 



By 

R. C. HAZRA, M.A., Ph.D., D.Litt. 


Professor of Smrti and Purina, 

Department of Post-Graduate Training and Research, 
Sanskrit College, Calcutta. 


i H 



VOL. I 

(SAURA AND VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS) 



CALCUTTA 


Th» D • by 


central ARCHAEO' ogigau 
library, new 

Aoo. No. . / ' 

Date , ti/7/Jt:,.^^ 


Price 


Indian R*. 25/. 

Foreign 42 Shilling, 







FOREWORD 


The Government o£ West Bengal started the Department o£ Post- 
Graduate Training and Research at the Sanskrit College, Calcutta, in 
1951, and made arrangements for the publication of a half-yearly 
bulletin entitled '‘Our Heritage” embodying the contributions made 
by its members. Last year the Government decided to undertake the 
publication of a series of Texts and Studies. The present work, Studies 
in the Upapuranas, the first in the Studies Series, is from the pen of 
Dr. R. C. Hazra, Professor of Smrti and Purina at this College. The 
work is expected to consist of four more volumes of equal length, and 
will cover the entire Upapurana literature, about which very little was 
known to scholars. The value and importance of the Purina literature for 
the study of social, religious and even political history of ancient and 
mediaeval India have been widely felt and recognised by all Indologists. 
In the present volume. Dr. Hazra deals with the Saura and 
Vaisnava Upapurinas examining fully the various problems connected 
with the individual texts, and also giving analysis of their contents, I 
have reasons to believe that this and the other volumes to be published 
subsequently will remove a long-felt want and bring out the manifold 
interest of an important but much neglected branch of Sanskrit litera- 
ture. 


Gaurinath Sastri 
General Editor, 




PREFACE 


It is a long-standing, but erroneous, belief of wide popularity that 
the Upapuranas are ,‘later and inferior works’ and scarcely deserve any 
serious attention. My chief object in the present work has been to 
point out to the scholarly world that the Upapuranas are rich as much 
in number as in content, that some of them are much earlier than 
many of the so-called Mahapuranas, and that, like the extant Maha- 
puranas, they are of capital importance not only for the study of the 
social and religious institutions of the Hindus from the pre-Gupta 
period downward but also for varied information of literary, historical, 
geographical and cultural interest. I have, therefore, taken pains to 
analyse briefly the concents of chose Upapuranas which have been 
available to me either in printed forms or in mansucripts and to 
furnish as much useful and interesting information as possible on these 
points. I could not overlook the fact that it is by no means easy for 
many ardent and inquisitive students of ancient Indian history and 
culture to get access to the printed editions or manuscripts of the 
different Upapuranas, which are often very difficult to procure, or 
to go conveniently and profitably through these mostly extensive works 
written in Sanskrit. Feeling that without any idea of the period of 
origin and development of a work, especially of the Purana literature, 
it is neither possible nor safe to enter into a critical and scientific 
study of its concents, I have tried to determine the approximate daces 
of the individual Upapuranas, or parts thereof, by thoroughly utilising 
all such materials, including those contained in the works themselves, 
as have been found helpful in determining their relative and absolute 
chronology. I have also taken full notice of the references and quota- 
tions from these works in the Smrti commentaries, Nibandhas, etc. 
But in the case of those Upapuranas which have been drawn upon 
profusely by the comparatively early Nibandha-writers, the quotations 
made from them in the later Nibandhas have generally been over- 
looked. Those references and quotations, however, which I have been 
able to trace in the respective Upapuranas, will be enlisted in Appen- 
dix I at the end of the final volume. As regards the lost Upapuranas, 



[ iv ] 


I have tried to give as much information as possible about their con- 
tents, dates and provenance, on the basis of the references and quota- 
tions contained in the Nibandhas and other works, Sanskrit or other- 
wise. I should mention in this connection that in examining the 
different Upapuranas I have found some (viz., Devl-purana, Kriya- 
yogasara, Kalika-purana, Mahabhagavata, Dharma-purana, Brhad- 
dharma-purana, etc.) which contain highly valuable materials for the 
reconstruction of the social and religious history of Eastern India, 
especially of Bengal and Kamarupa. 

As the Purana literature consists of the eighteen Mahapuranas as 
well as of the numerous Upapuranas, a complete idea of this vast litera- 
ture is not possible without the study of both these classes of writings. 
My present work, therefore, has been devoted exclusively to the latter 
class of books, my previous one entitled ‘Studies in the Putanic Re- 
cords on Hindu Rites and Customs’ being concerned with the 
Mahapuranas only. I should point out here that in the present volume 
as well as in the others to be published subsequently I have collected 
materials which support my views, set forth in the second part of my 
Puranic Records, regarding the different stages in the development of 
the Hindu rites and customs. 

In writing these volumes I have utilised the works of various 
modern authors in different connections, but I am specially indebted 
to the veteran scholar Mahinahopadhyaya Dr. P.V. Kane, M.A., 
LL. M., D. Litt., whose monumental work, viz.. History of Dharma- 
sastra, has been a great source of inspiration to me and encouraged me 
to take up a vast subject for critical ttudy. As regards the dates of the 
Smrti works, I have followed Mm. Dr. Kane’s conclusions almost 
invariably. 

1 feel much hesitation in treading upon a field which is almost 
untrodden, in writing upon a subject on which very little has been 
written; but I leave my work, which has extended over a number of 
years, to speak for itself, I venture, however, to claim that my efforts 
will add to the knowledge of the much neglected subject and bring out 
its many-sided importance. I have tried to confine myself, from direct 
reading, strictly to available facts and avoid vague or sweeping 
generalisations, always bearing in mind that the chains of historical 



[ V ] 

research can never be forged without the links supplied by individual 
facts. 

For reasons stated in the Preface to my Puranic Records on Hindu 
Rites and Customs and for the sake of uniformity I have used, in a 
few cases, the VahgavisI Press (Calcutta) editions of the Puranas and 
Upapuranas, printed in Bengali characters, in preference to the more 
widely used Devanagari editions; but in doing so I have always taken 
particular care to give full references to, or add comparative notes on, 
the different editions of these works, so that scholars may not find any 
difficulty in tracing the references in the South Indian and other 
Devanagari editions. 

I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to the 
Board of Editors of the Calcutta Sanskrit College Research Scries 
for accepting the present work for publication and also to our principal 
Dr. Gaurinath Sastri for recommending it to the Board. 

Certain portions of this work were published as isolated articles in 
different oriental journals. But I have spared no pains to improve con- 
siderably upon these published portions with fresh materials collected 
by more recent studies. 


Calcutta 

March, 


RaJendra Chandra Hazra 




ABBREVIATIONS 


Adyar Library Car. = A Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the 
Adyar Library (Madras). 

AnSS = Anandasrama Sanskrit Series (Poona). 

ASB = Asiatic Society of Bengal (Calcutta). 

As. Soc. = Asiatic Society. 

Aufrecht, Bod. Cat. = Theodor Aufrccht, Catalogus Codicum Manus- 
criptorum Sanscriticorum Bibliothecae Bodleianae. 

Benares Sans. College Cat. = Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts 
in the Sanskrit College Library, Benares. 

Bhag. = Bhagavata-purana. 

Bhandarkar, Report = R. G. Bhandarkar, Report on the Search for 
Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Bombay Presidency during the 
years 1887-88, i888-8g, 1885-90, and 1890-91. 

Bhandarkar, Vaisnavisin ecc. = R. G. Bhandarkar, Vaisnavism, Saivism 
and Minor Religious Systems. 

Bhav. = Bhavisya-purana . 

Bibl. lnd. = Bibliotheca Indica (Calcutta). 

Bnar. = Brhannaradlya-purana. 

Bod. Cat. — See ‘Aufrecht, Bod. Cat’. 

Brhaddh. = Brhaddharma-purana. 

B. S. = Bengali Samvat. 

Biihler, Report = G. Biihlcr, Detailed Report of a Tour in Search of 
Sanskrit Manuscripts made in Kashmir, Rajputana and 
Central India. 

Burnell, Classified Index = A. C. Burnell, A Classified Index to the 
Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Palace at Tanjorc. 

Bv = Brahmavaivarta-purana. 

Cal. Sans. Coll. = Calcutta Sanskrit College (i, Bankim Chatterji 
Street, Calcutta). 

Cat. = Catalogue. 

Chakravarti, Vahglya Sahitya Parisat Cat. = Chintaharan Chakravarti, 
A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the 
Vahglya Sahitya Parisat (Calcutta), 



[ viii 3 


Chap., chaps. = Chapter, chapters. 

Com. = Commentary. 

Dacca Univ. = Dacca University. 

Dbh = Dcvi-bhagavata. 

Ed. = Edition (or, Edited by, as the case may be). 

Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat. (or, India Office Catalogue) = Julius Eggeling, 
A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the 
Library of the India Office (London). 

Ep. Ind. = Epigraphia Indica. 

Farquhar, Outline = J. N. Farquhar, An Outline of the Religious 
Literature of India. 

Fol., fols. = Folio, folios. 

Gan. =Ganesa-purana. 

Gd = Garuda*purana. 

Hazra, Puranic Records = R. C. Hazra, Studies in the Puranic Records 
on Hindu Rites and Customs. 

Hiralal, Cat. of Sans, and Pkt. Mss in the Central Provinces and 
Berar = Hiralal, Catalogue of Sanskrit and Prakrit Manuscripts 
in the Central Provinces and Berar. 

IHQ = Indian Historical Quarterly (Calcutta). 

Ind. Ant. = Indian Antiquary. 

Ind. Off. ss India Office (London). 

Ind. Off. Cat. — See ‘Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat’. 

JASB = Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

JRAS = Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

Keith, Ind. Off. Cat. = A. B. Keith, Catalogue of the Sanskrit and 
Prakrit Manuscripts in the Library of the India Office 
(London). 

-kh. (as in Srsti-kh., Bhumi-kh., ctc.) = -khanda. 

Kur. = Kurma-purana. 

Lg = Lihga-purana. 

List of Sans., Jaina and Hindi Mss = List of Sanskrit, Jaina and Hindi 
Manuscripts purchased by order of Government and deposited 
in the Sanskrit College, Benares, during 1897, 1898, 1899, 
1900 and 1901 . 



[ ix J 

Macdoncll, Sanskrit Literature = A. A. Macdodell, A History o£ 
Sanskrit Literature. 

Mark. = Markandeya-purana. 

Mat. = Matsya-purana. 

Mbh = Mahabharata. 

Mitra, Bikaner Cat. = R. L. Mitra, A Catalogue of Sanskrit Manus 
cripts in the Library of His Highness the Maharaja of Bikaner. 

Mitra, Notices = R. L. Mitra, Notices of Sanskrit Mss. 

M. Rangacharya, Madras Cat. = M. Rangacharya, A Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Government 
Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras. 

Ms, Mss = Manuscript, Manuscripts. 

Nar. = Narasitnha-purana. 

P., pp. = Page, pages. 

'p. (as in Matsya-p., Kurma-p. etc.) = 'purana. 

Poleman, Census of Indie Mss = H. 1. Poleman, A Census of Indie 
Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. 

P. P. S. Sastri, Tanjore Cat. = P. P. S. Sastri, A Descriptive Catalogue 
of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Tanjore Maharaja Serfoji’s 
Sarasvati Mahal Library, Tanjore. 

Pd =Padma-purana. 

Shastri and Gui, Calcutta Sans. College Cat. = Hrishikesa Shastri and 
Sivacandra Gui, A Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit Manus- 
cripts in the Library of the Calcutta Sanskrit College, 

Sastri and Sastri, Madras Cat. = S. Kuppuswami Sastri and P. P. 

Subrahmanya Sastri, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit 
Manuscripts in the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, 
Madras. 

Shastri, ASB Cat. = Haraprasad Shastri, A Descriptive Catalogue of 
Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Government Collection under the 
care of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (Calcutta). 

Shastri, Nepal Cat. = Haraprasad Shastri, A Catalogue of Palm-leaf 
and Selected Paper Manuscripts belonging to the Durbar 
Library, Nepal. 

Shastri, Notices = Haraprasad Shastri, Notices of Sanskrit Mss, Second 
Scries. 



t X 1 


Siv. = Siva-purana. 

Sk = Skanda-putana. 

Stein, Jammu Cat. = M. A. Stein, Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manus- 
cripts in the Raghunatha Temple Library of His Highness 
the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. 

Univ. = University. 

Vahga. = Vahgavasi Press (Calcutta). 

Var, = Varaha-purana, 

Vehkat. = Vehkatesvara Press (Bombay). 

Vis. = Visnu-purana. 

Visnudh. = Visnudharmottara. 

Weber, Berlin Cat. = A. Weber, Verzeichniss der Sanskrit- und Prakrit- 
Handschtiftcn der Koniglichen Bibliothek zu Berlin. 

Weber, Berlin Cat. of 1853 = A. Weber, Die Handschriften-Verzei- 
chnisse der Koniglichen Bibliothek, Vol. I (Verzeichniss der 
Sanskrit Handschriften). Berlin, 1853. 

Winternitz, Cat. of South Indian Sans. Mss = M. Winternitz, A 
Catalogue of South Indian Sanskrit Manuscripts (especially 
those of the Whish Collection) belonging to the Royal Asiatic 
Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Yaj. = Yajnavalkya-smrti. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Subject 


Page 

Foreword 

• • • 

i 

Preface 


iii 

Abbreviations 

... 

vii 

CHAPTER 

I. THE UPAPURANA LITERATURE— ITS 

EXTENT. ANTIQUITY AND ORIGIN 

... 

1 

II. THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 

... 

29 

I. The Samba-purana 

... 

32 

III, THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

• • • 

109 

I. The Visnudharma 

• •• 

1 18 

a. The Visnudharmottara ... 

• • * 

'55 

3. The Narasimha-purana ... 


219 

IV. THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


267 

I. The Kriyavogasara 

... 

267 

2. The Adi-purana 

... 

279 

3, The Kalki-purana 

... 

303 

4. The Purusottama-purana 

• •• 

308 

5. The Brhannaradlya-purana 


309 

V. SOME LOST SAURA AND VAISNAVA 

UPAPURANAS 

••• 

346 

(A) 

I. The Sauradharma 

• •• 

347 

2. The Sauradhartnotcara 


349 

3. The Surya-purana 

... 

349 

(B) 

I . The Adi-purana ... 

• •• 

350 

2. The Ahgirasa-upapurana ... 


35* 



[ xii 1 


3. The Brhad-vamana-purina 

35 * 

4. Tlie Brhad-visnudharma 

352 

5. The Brhad-visnu-purina ... 

353 

6. The Bthannarasimha-purana 

356 

7. The Daurvasasa-upapurana (alias 


Ascarya-upapurana?) 

356 

8. The Kausika- (or KausikI-) purana 

357 

9. The Laghu-bhagavata-purana 

358 

10. The Migha-purana ••• 

359 

II. The Prabhasa-purana 

359 

12. The Visnudharmottaramrta 

360 

13. The Vrddha-padma-purana 

360 

Bibliography 

361 

Index 

00 



STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


VOL. 1 




CHAPTER I 


THE UPAPURANA LITERATURE— ITS EXTENT, 
ANTIQUITY AND ORIGIN 

In these days when all Indologists are feeling the want of a true 
history of Indian life and thought of the past and our able antiquarians 
are directing their attention and energy towards its reconstruction, it 
IS a matter of great surprise and disappointment that very little is 
known and still less has yet been said about those valuable records of 
Indian life and thought which are known as Upapuranas (or secondary 
Puranas'). The whole responsibility for such apathy of scholars to- 
wards these valued treasures must be laid on the high importance 


I The work done by scholars on the Upapuranas is very meagre and 
scarcely deserves any serious mention. H. H. Wilson, who. in his Essays 
Analytical, Critical and Philological, and in the Preface to his translation of the 
Visnu-purana, says much on the Puranas, devotes only about five pages to the 
Upapuranas (see Wilson, Vishnu Purana, Preface, pp. Ixxxvi-xci); Haraprasad 
Shastri’s treatment of some of the Upapuranas in the Preface (pp. cc-ccxv) to 
his Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Collections of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. V (Purana Manuscripts), is no better than mere 
cataloguing; M. Winternitz devotes on the whole about seven pages to the 
treatment of only a very few of the Upapuranas in his History of Indian 
Literature, Vol. I; J. N. Farquhar gives, in his Outline of the Religious 
Literature of Indii, very short and scrappy information about a few Upapuranas 
only; the Cambridge History of India, Vol. I spares only about half a page for 
the treatment of these works; the Bengali encyclopaedia Visvakosa, which 
devotes as many as 163 pages to the principal Puranas, deals with the 
Upapuranas in j columns only (see Visvakosa, Vol. II, pp. 419-420); A, A. 
Macdonell finishes his treatment of the Upapuranas in four lines only, without 
mentioning even a single name (see Macdonell, Sanskrit Literature, p. 302); 
and the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (Vol. X, p. 455 ) I*** fourteen 
lines devoted to the Upapuranas. Besides these there are the Notices and the 
Catalogues of Sanskrit Mss, especially those of R. L. Mitra, J. Eggeling and Th. 
Aufrccht, as well as about a dozen isolated articles (except those of the present 
writer) on only a few of the Upapuranas. This is practically the whole wixk 
that has been done on the Upapur^as up to the present time. 



2 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


which has been attached, deservedly or undeservedly, for hundreds 
of years to the eighteen ‘great’ (Mahat) Puranas* as well as on the 
disparaging prefix attached to the common title (Purana) to 

characterise those Puranic works which are different from the ‘great 
eighteen’. Whatever the reason may be, we should not, with our 
critical outlook befitting the present age and its culture, be swayed 
by mere tradition and baseless impression but be ready to give due 
consideration to this long neglected branch of Sanskrit literature. 

Following the tradition of the Mahapuranas, orthodox opinion tries 
to limit the number of the Upapuranas rigidly to ‘eighteen’® even in 
those cases where the promulgators of such opinion are fully conscious 
of the existence of a larger number;^ but while in the enumerations 


2 Though the name ‘Mahapurana’ for the ‘eighteen’ principal ‘Puranas’ 
is of very late origin, being found only in Bhag. XII. 7. 10 and 22 and Bv IV. 
131. 7 and 10, it has now become very papular and is universally used for the 
older name ‘Purana’. 

3 See Pd, Patala-khanda iii. 94^98; Kur, I. i. 16-20; Sk V. iii (Reva- 
khanda). i. 46-52; Sk VII. i. 2. 11-15; Siva-mahatmya-khanda (of the Suta- 
samhita of the Skanda-p.) i. 136-18 (for which see also Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat., 
VI, p. *378); Saura-samhita of the Skanda-p. (Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat., VI, 
p. 1382); Reva-mahatmya (which claims to be a part of the Vayu-p. and is 
very much the same as the Reva-khanda occurring in Sk V ; see Aufrecht, Bod. 
Cat., p. 65, Nos. 114-116); Dbh I. 3. 13-16; Gd I. 223. 17-20 ( = Jivananda’s 
edition I. 215. 17-20 = Vangavasi edition I. 27. 17-20); Brhaddh. I. 25. 18-19 
and 23-26; Parasara-upapurana i. 28-31 (for which see also Eggeling, Ind. Off. 
Cat., VI, p 1230); Gan. I. i. 8; Bhag. XII. 7. 22; Bv IV. 131. 22; Ek^ra-p. 
I. 206-23; Vindhya-raahatmya, chap. 4 (ASB Ms No. 8091, fol. 8a); 
Varunopapurana, chap, i (Sastri and Sastri, Madras Cat., XXVII, p. 10331); 
Bhakti-ratnakara of Gopala-dasa (Mitra, Notices, IX, No 2918, p. 32). 

For the lists of eighteen Upapuranas contained in verses quoted from the 
‘Kurma-p’ , ‘Brahmavaivarta-p.’ etc., also sec Nityacara-pradipa, I, p. 19, Smrti- 
tattva, 1 , pp. 792-3, V'iramitrodaya, Paribhasa-prakasa, pp. Caturvarga- 

cintamani, I (Dana-khanda), pp. 532-3 and II ( Vrata-khanda). i, p. 21, and 
Prasth^a-bheda, p. 10. 

Mat. 53. 59-62 mention only four Upapuranas, viz., Narasimha, Nandi- 
purana. Samba and Aditya, and seem to be ignorant of the group of 
‘eighteen’. 

4 For example, after expressly mentioning that the Upaputwas are 



THE UPAPURANA LITERATURE 


3 


of the Puranas there is almost complete agreement with regard to the 
titles,® this is by no means the case with the titles of the Upapuranas. 
In order to acquaint ourselves with the nature of the disagreement we 
give below a number of lists of ‘eighteen’ Upapuranas which we have 
been able to collect from different sources. 


‘eighteen’ in number and then giving the titles of the ‘eighteen’ Upapuranas, 
the Brhaddharma-p. (I. 25, 27) says: 

anyas ca samhitah sarva matica-kapiladayah/ 
sarvatra dharma-kathane tulya-samarthyam ucyate/ /, 
thus intimating its knowledge not only of the Marica and Kapila Upapuranas 
but also of others which were considered as much authoritative as the famous 
‘eighteen’. (Mote the word ‘adayah’ in ‘marica-kapiladayah’). 

5 In some of the lists of ‘eighteen’ principal Puranas the title ‘Siva’ or 
‘Saiva’ is found in place of ‘Vayaviya’. See, for instance. Vis. 111 . 6. 2iff., 
Bhag. Xtl, 7. 23ff. and XII. 13, 4ff., Kur. I. 1, 131!., Pd I. 62. 2ff,, IV. iii. 
9off., VI. 219.256., and VI, 263. 77!!., Var. 112. hpff,, Mark. 137. 8ffi, 
(=Vehkat. edition 134. 8fE.), Lg I. 39. 6iff., Siv. V (Vayaviya-samhiti). i. i. 
3885,, Siva-mahatmya.khanda (of the Suta-samhita of the Skanda-p.) 1. 7-10 
(for which see also Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat., VI, p. 1377), Saura-saqihita of the 
Skanda-p. (Eggeling, Ind. Off, Cat, VI, p. 1382), Sambhava-kanda of the 
Siva-rahasya-khanda of the Sarnkara-samhita of the Skanda-p. (Eggeling, 
Ind. Off. Cat., VI, p, 1363), and so on. 

Dacca Univ. Mss (Nos. 319,4196 and 4649) of the 6rhaddharma-p. 
(1.25) give the titles of the ‘eighteen’ Puranas thus: Brahma-p., Padma, 
Brahmanda, Vaisnava, Brahmavaivarta, Mahabhagavata, Bhavisya, Garuda, 
Lainga, Saiva, Varaha, Markandeya, Skanda, Kaurma, Matsya-p., Agncya, 
Vayavya and Sribhagavata. (It is to be noted that this list omits the Vamana 
and the Naradiya and names the Mahabhagavata and the Saiva in their stead). 

The ASB edition ol the Brhaddharma-p. (I. 23. 20-22) mentions the 
Mahabhagavata but omits the name of the Sribhagavata, the number of 
Puranas named in it being thus seventeen. But the Vahga. edition, which 
mentions the Sribhagavata, wrongly replaces the Mahabhagavata by the 
‘Nrsimha’, which is reckoned again in a subsequent verse as one of die 
eighteen Upapuranas. 

In the verses of a ‘Kalika-p’. quoted in Caturvarga-cintiinani, I, p. 531, 
the ‘Saiva', Kalik^ (for Bhagavata), Saura and Vahnija (i.e. the genuine 
Agneya-p. passing under the title ‘Vahni-purana’) arc included among ihe 
eighteen principal Puranas. 



4 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


I. Kurma-p. I. i. 17-20 — 

I. Adya, declared by Sanatkumara ; 2. Narasiinha ; 3. 
Skanda, spoken out by Kumara; 4. Sivadharma, declared by 
Nandlsa in person; 5. Diirvasasokca, (called Ascarya?); 
6. Naradlya ; 7. Kapila ; 8. Vamana ; 9. Usanaserita ; 

I o. Brahmanda ; ii. Varuna; 12. Kalika; 13. Mahesvara; 
14. Samba; 15. Saura, the repository of all the ends of life ; 
16. Parasarokta ; 17. Marica ; i8. Bhargava.® 

II. Nityacara-pradipa (I, p. 19) of Narasimha Vajapeyin (who 
gives the following list of ‘eighteen’ Upapuranas on the authority of 
the ‘Kurma-p.’) — 

I. SanatkumarTya ; 2. Narasitiiha; 3. Nandipurina; 4. 
Sivadharma; 5. Durvasah-purana; 6. Naradlya ; 7. Kapila; 
8 . Vamana; 9. Ausanasa ; 10. Brahmanda ; ii. Varuna ; 

12. Kalika; 13. Mahesvara; 14. Samba; 15. Saura; 

16. Parasarokta ; 17. Marica; 18. Bhargava. 

III. ‘Kaurma’ (i. e. Kunna-p.) quoted in Raghunandana’s Mala- 
masa-tattva^ — 

I. Adya, declared by Sanatkumara; 2. Narasiinha; 

3. Vayavlya, spoken out by Kumara ; 4. Sivadharma, 

6 adyjin sanatkumarokcam narasimham atah param/ 
trtiyam skanclam uddistoni kumacena tii bhasitam// 
caturtharn sivadhattnakhyam saksan-nandiia-bhasitam/ 
durvasasoktam alcaryam naradiyam atah param// 
kapil jin vamanatn caiva tathaivosanaseritam / 
brahmandam varunam caiva kalikahvayam eva ca// 
mahesvaram tatha sambam sauram sarvartha-saincayam/ 
parasacoktam raaricatn tachaiva bhatgavahvayam / / 

(Kur, I. I. 17-20). 

These verses occur in the Vehkat. and ASB editions of the Kurma-p. 
without any difference in readings, but in the former edition there is the 
alternative leading ‘aparain maricatn’ for ‘mvicarn tathaiva’ in the last line. 

7 See Smrti-tattva, I, pp. 792-3 — 

kaurme — anyany upapuranani munibhih kathitany api/ 
tani ca narasitnha-nandy-aditya-kalika-puranadini, yatha — 

adyam sanatkumaroktarn narasimham tatah param/ etc. 



IHE UPAPURANA LITERATURE 


5 


declared by Nandlsa in person; 5, Durvasasokta, (called 
Ascarya? — durvasasoktam ascaryam); 6. Naradlya; 7-8. 
Nandikesvara-yugma; 9. Usanaserita; 10. Kapila; ii.Varu- 
na ; 12. Kahka; 13. Mahesvara; 14. ^amba; 15. Daiva, 
which yields success in all the ends oE life; 16. Another 
(work) spoken out by Parasara® ; 17. Marica ; 18. Bhas- 
kara. 

IV. ‘Kaurma Mahapurana’ (i.e. Kurma-p.) quoted in Mitra 
Misra s Viramitrodaya, Paribhasa-prakasa, pp. 13-14 — 

I. Adya, declared by Sanatkuniara; 2. Narasitnha; 3. 
Nanda, spoken out by Kumara; q. Sivadharma, declared by 
Nandlsa in person ; 5. Durvasasokta (called Ascarya? — 

durvasasoktam ascaryam); 6. Naradlya ; 7. Kapila ; 8. 
Manava; 9. Usanasenta ; 10. Brahmanda ; ii. Varuna ; 
12. Kalika ; 13. Mahesvara ; 14. Samba; 15. Saura, 
the repository of all the ends of life; i6. Another (work) 
spoken out by Parasara (parasaroktam aparam); 17. Marka; 
18, Bhargava. 

V. 'Kurma-p.’ quoted in Hemadri’s Caturvarga-cintamani, I, pp. 
532-3— 

I- Adya, declared by Sanatkumara; 2. Narasimha; 3. Nanda, 
spoken out by Kumara (v. I. ‘naradam’ for ‘nandarn’); q. 
^ivadharma, declared by Nandlsa in person; 5. Durvasa- 
sokta (called Ascarya? — durvasasoktam ascaryam); 6. Nara- 

Raghunandana reads ‘daivam sarvartha-siddbidam' and 'parasaroktam aparam’ 
lot saurarn sarvartha-saincayani’ and 'parasaroktain maricam’ respectively of the 
Kirrma-p. (for which see the immediately preceding foot-note). 

verses of the Kurma-p., as given in the Vahga. edition (pp. 264-5) and 
Candicarana Smrtibhusana’s edition (pp. 212-3) of the Malamasa-tattva, reads 
sSrabarii for ‘catha’ (in the line ‘kSpilatn varunam catha’), and ‘padmatn’ for 
sambarn’ (in the line ‘mahesvararn tatha fambam etc’.). As these readings 
make the number of the Upapuranas nineteen, they should be rejected. 

8 Thus the Parasara-upapurana seems to be distinguished from the Visnu- 
P- or the spurious ‘Vaisnava’ (mentioned by Valialasena in his Danasagata, p. 7, 
verse 63), which was spoken out by Paraiara. 



6 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


dokta ; 7. Kapila; 8. Manava; 9. Usanaserita; 10. Brah- 
manda; ii. Varuna ; 12. KalikS ; 13. Mahesvara; 

14. $amba; 15. Saura, the repository of all the ends of life; 
16. The highly excellent (Porana) spoken out by Parasara 
(parasaroktam pravaram); 17-18. Bhagavata-dvaya (bhaga- 
vatam dvayam). 

VI. ‘Kurma-p.’ quoted in Heniadri’s Caturvarga-cintamani, II. i, 
p. 21 — 

I. Adya, declared by Sanatkumara; 2. Narasimhaj 3. Nanda, 
spoken out by Kumara; 4. Sivadharma, declared by Nandlsa 
in person (v.l. ‘nandikesvara-yugmam’ for ‘sivadharmakhyarn’); 
5. Durvasasokta (called Ascarya? — durvasasoktain ascaryam); 
6 Naradokta; 7. Kapila; 8. Manava (v.l. ‘maricarn’ for ‘man- 
avam’); 9. Usanaserita: 10. Brahmanda; ii. Varuna; 12. 
Kalika; 13. Mahesvara; 14. Samba; 15. Saura, the reposi- 
tory of all the ends of life; 16. The foremost (Purana) 
spoken out by Parasara (parasroktam prathamam); 17-18. 
Bhagavata-dvaya. 

VII. ‘Kurma-p.’ quoted in the Sabda-kalpadruma (under 

‘Upapurana’)® — 

I. Adya, declared by Sanatkumara; 2. Narasimha; 3. Vaya- 
vlya, spoken out by Kumara (kumarenanubhasitam); 

4. Sivadharma, declared by Nandlsa in person; 5. Durvas- 
asokta (called Ascarya? — dutvasasoktam ascaryam); 6. Nara- 
dlya; 7. Nandikesvara-yugma; 8. Usanaserita; 9. Kapila; 10. 
Varuna; ii. Samba; 12. Kalika; 1 3. Mahesvara; 14. Padma; 

15. Daiva, which accomplishes all the ends of life (daivam 

9 It is to be noted tliat although the verses of the Kurma-p. quoted iMhe 
Sabda-kalpadruma agree a'most literally with the verses of the ‘Kaurma’ quoted 
in the Vahga. ed. fpp. 264-5) and Candicarana Smrtibhusana’s ed. (pp. 212-3) 
of the Malamasa-tattva of Raghunandana, the mention of the ‘Nandikesvara- 
yugma’ and the ‘Padma’ (occupying the seventh and the fourteenth place 
respectively in the list) makes the number of the Upapuranas nineteen. If the 
two Nandikesvara-puranas are taken to form one Upapurana, then, of course, 
the number becomes eighteen. 


THE UPAPURANA UTERATURE 


7 


sarvartha-sadliakam); i6. Another (Purina) spoken out by 
Parisara (parisaroktam aparam); 17. Marica; 18. Bhaskara. 

VIII, Saura-samhita of the Skanda-purana — 

I. Adya, declared by Sanatkumara; 2. Narasimha; 3. 
Skanda, spoken out by Kuniara; 4. Sivadharma, declared 
by Nandin; 5. Durvasa-samprokta; 6. Naradiya; 7. Kapila; 

8. Manava; g. Usanascrita; 10. The sacred Brahmanda; 

II. Varuna; 12. KalT-purana, also called Kalakantha; 13. 
Vasistha-lihga, also called Mahesvara; 14. Sambapurana, also 
called Susuksma; 15. Saura-purana, also called Savitra; 16. 
Parasarya; 17. Marica; 18. Bhargava.*" 

IX. Skanda-p. V. iii (Reva-khanda). i. 46-52*’ — 

I . Saura, a 6aiva work consisting of two Samhitas spoken out 
respectively by Sanatkumara and Surya and being widely 
known under the name of Sanatkumara; 2. Nirasirnha, be- 
longing to the Padma-p.; 3. Saukeya, belonging to the 
Vaisnava Purina; 4. Birhaspatya, belonging to the Viyavya 
(Purina); 5. Daurvisasa, belonging to the Bhigavata; 6. 
Naradokta, belonging to the Bhavisya; 7. Kipila; 8. Minava; 

9. Usanaserita; 10. Brahminda; ii. Viruna; 12. Kiliki; 
13. Mihesvara; 14. Simba; 15. Saura, the repository of all 
the ends of life; 16. Pirisara; 17. Bhigavata; 18. Kaurma. 

10 adyain sanatkum^oktain narasiiphain tacah param/ 
trtiyain skandana uddisMin kumarena tu bhasitam/ / 
caturtham sivadharmakhyani puranain nandineritain/ 
tato durvasa-sarnproktam naradiyain tatah param// 
kapilam manavain caiva tathaivoianaseritam/ 
brahmandatn ca tatah punyam varunakhyam tatah param/ / 
tatah kalipuranakhyaip kalakan^ain ca namatah/ 

tato vasisthalihgakhyam namna mahesvaram tv iti/ / 
tatah sambapuranakhyain susuksmam iti ceritam/ 
tatah saurapuranakhyam savitram iti ceritam/ / 
parasaryain ca maricain bhatgavam muni-puingavah// 

Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat,. VI, p. 1382. 

1 1 These verses, as given in the Vahga, cd, o£ the Skanda-p,, have no 
variation in readings. 



8 STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

X. Reva-mahatmya which, though much the same as the Reva-khanda 
o£ the Skanda-po claims to be a part of the Vayu-p. — 

1 . Saura, which forms an excellent supplement (khila) to the 
Brahma-p., deals with topics on Siva, consists of two 
Sainhitas spoken out respectively by Sanatkumara and Surya, 
and is widely known under the name of Sanatkumara also; 

2. Narasimha, belonging to the Padma-p.; 3. Nanda-purana, 
belonging to the ‘Vaisnava’; 4. Sivadharma, belonging to the 
Vayu-p.; 5. Daurvasasa, belonging to the Bhagavata; 6. 
Naradokta, belonging to theBhavisya; 7. Kapila;8. Manava; 
9. Usanaserita; 10. Brahnianda; ii. Varuna; 12. Kalika; 
13. Mahesvara; 14. Samba; 15. Saura, the repository of all 
the ends of life; 16. Parasara; 17. Bhagavata; 18. Kaurrna^®. 

XI. Skanda-p. Vlt (Prabhasa-khanda) i. 2. 11-13'® — 

I. Adya, declared by Sanatkumara; 2. Narasimha; 3. Skanda 
(v.l. ‘nandam’ both in the Vahga. and Vehkat. editions of 
the Skanda-p.), spoken out by Kumara (kumarenanu- 
bhasitam); 3. Sivadharma, declared by Nandisa in person; 

3. Durvasasokta, (called Ascarya? — durvasasoktam akaryam); 
6. Naradokta; 7. Kapila; 8. Manava-, 9. Usanaserita; 10. 
Brahmanda; ii, Varuna; 12. Another Kalika (anyat kalika- 

12 idam brahtnapuranasya khilain sauram anuctamain/ 
samhita-dvaya-samyuRtam punyam siva-kathasrayam/ / 
adya sanatkumarokta dvitiya surya-bhasita/ 
sanatkumara-namna ’pi tad vikhyatatn mahamune// 
dvitiyam narasimham ca putane padma-samjnite/ 
nandapur^am ca talha trtiyam vaisnave matam// 
caturtham sivadharmakhyam purane vayu-samjnite/ 
daurvasasam pancamain ca smrtatp bhagavate sada/ / 
bhavisye naradoktam ca suribhih kath(icain) pura/ 
kapilarn manavam caiva tathaivoianaseritam// 
brahm^dam vatunatn catha kalikahvayam eva ca/ 
mahesvarain tatha sambam sauram sarvartha-saincayam/ / 
parasaram bhagavatain kaurma(m) castSdasam kramat// 

Aufrecht, Bod. Cat., p. 65. 

13 These verses, as occurring in the Vahga. ed. of the Skanda-p., have no 
difference in readings. 



THE UPAPURANA LITERATURE 


9 


hvayam); 13. Mahesvara; 14. Samba; 15. Saura, the 
repository of all the ends of life; 16. The excellent (Purina) 
spoken out by Parasara (parasaroktam paramam)-, 17. Marica; 
r8. Bhargava. 

XIL Siva-mahatmya-khanda (of the Suta-samhita of the Skanda-p.) 

I. I 3 b-i 8 ‘^ — 

1. Adya, declared by Sanatkuniara (sanatkumarena proktam); 

2. Narasimha; 3. Nanda; Sivadharma; 5. Daurvasa; 6. 
Naradiya; 7. Kapila; 8. Manava; 9. Usanaserita; 10. 
Brahrriinda; 11. Varuna; 12. The eminent (visistam) Kall- 
purana; 13. Vasistha-laihga, also called Mahesvara; 14. 
Sambapurana; 15. Saura, an extremely wonderful work 
(sauram mahadbhutam); 16. Parasara; 17. Marica; 18. 
Bhargava, that accomplishes Dharma and Artha in their 
entirety (sarva-dharmartha-sidhakam). 

XIII. Garuda-p. I. 223. 17-20** — 

I. Adya, declared by Sanatkumara; 2. Narasimha; 3- Skanda, 
spoken out by Kumara; 4. Sivadharma, declared by Nandi- 
svara (nandisvara-bhasitam); 5. Durvisasokta, (cadled 
Ascarya? — durvasasoktam ascaryam); 6. Naradokta; 7. Kapila; 
8. Vamana; 9. Usanaserita; 10. Brahmanda; 11. Varuna; 
12. Kalika; 13. Maliesvara; 14. Samba; [ * 5 ' ] • 

1 6. Another (Purina) spoken out by Parasara (parasaroktam 
aparam); 17. Marica; 18. Bhargava. 


14 For these verses see also Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat., VI, p. 13?® (''• b 
‘vasistha-lihgakhyam’ for ‘vasisAa-laingakhyaip in verse 17a). 

15 For these verses see also Jivananda’s ed. I. 2 i 5 - 1 7-20 and Vahga. cd. 
I. 227. 17-20. 

Note that with the reading *evam sarvartha-saincayam (in verse 20a— 
mahesvaram tatha sambam evam sarvartha-samcayam) the number of die 
Upapuranas becomes seventeen, and not eighteen. So, we should read ‘sauram 
sarvartha-samcayam’ for ‘evam sarvartha-samcayam’. For the reading 'sauram 
sarvartha-samcayam’ sec Kur. I. i. 20a, Sk V. iii (Reva-khanda). i- 5tb and 
yil. i. 2. 14a, and so on. See also the odier lists mentioning die Saura-p. 

2 



10 STUDIES IN The UPAPURaNAS 

XIV. Padma-p., Patala-khanda, iii. 94b-98 — 

1. Adya, named Sanackumara (adyam sanatkumarakhyam); 

2. Narasitnha; 3. Anda (Skanda?); 4. Durvasasa (? Daurva- 
sasa); 5. Another Naradiya (naradlyam athanyam ca, v. 1 . 
athanyac ca); 6. Kapila; 7. Manava; 8. Ausanasa-prokta; 

9. Another Brahmanda (brahmandam ca tachaparam); 

10. Varuna; 11. Kaliki; 12. Mahesa; 13. Samba; 14. Saura; 
15. Parasara ; 16. Marica; 17. Bhargava ; 18. Kaumara. 

XV. Devi-bhagavata I. 3. 13-16 — 

I. Sanackumara; 2. Narasimha ; 3. Naradiya; 4. Siva; 
5. The excellent (anuctamam) Daurvasasa ; 6. Kapila ; 

7. Manava; 8. Ausanasa ; 9. Varuna ; 10. Kaliki ; 1 1 . Samba ; 

1 2. Nandi-krta; 13. Saura; 14. Parasara-prokta ; 13. The 
highly extensive (ativistarani) Aditya ; 1 6. Mahesvara ; 

17. Bhagavata; 18. The extensive (savistaram) Vasistha. 

XVI. Brhaddharma'p. I. 25. 23*26 — 

1. Adiputana; 2. Aditya; 3. Brhannaradlya; 4. Naradiya; 
5. Nandisvara-purana;** 6. Brhannandisvara; 7. Samba; 

8. Kriyayogasara; 9. Kaliki; 19. Dharmapurina; ii. Visnu- 
dharmotcara; 12. Sivadharma; 13. Visnudharma; 14. Vamana; 
15. Varuna; 16. Nirasiinba; 17. Bhargava; 18. The 
excellent (uctamam) Bthaddharma. 

XVII. Parisara-upapurana i. 28-31 — 

I. Adya, declared by Sanackumara; 2. Nirasimha; 3. Ninda; 
4. Sivadharma; 5. Daurvisa; 6. Niradiyaka; 7. Kapila; 
8. Minava; 9. Usanascrita; 10. Brahmanda; ii. Varuna; 


16 This Upapurana, which occupies the fifth place, is named as ‘Nandikes- 
vara-purana’ (and not as 'Nandisvara-purana’) in the ASB cd. (I. 25. 24) as well 
as in the Dacca University Ms No. 4 199 (fol. 71b) and Ind. Off. Ms 
No. 1313a (Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat., VI, pp. 1226-29, No. 3402) c£ the 
Brhaddharma-p.; but in the Dacca Univ. Mss Nos. 319 (fol. 4.^3) and 4649 
(fol. 96a), it is mentioned as ‘Nandikesvara-purana’. 


THE UPAPURaNA LITERATURE 


11 


12. Kallpurana; 13. Vasistha-laihga; 14. Samba; 15. Saura; 

16. Parasara; 17. Matica; i8. Bhargava.*^ 

XVIIl. Vindhya-mahatmya (claiming to belong to the Bthad-ausanasa- 
upapurana), chap. 4 — 

I. Sanatkumara; 2. Narasimha; 3. Naradlya; 4. Siva; 5. The 
excellent (anuttamam) Daurvasasa; 6. Kapila; 7. The holy 
(punyam) Manava; 8. Ausanasa; 5. Varuna; 10. Kalikakhya; 

II. Samba; 12. The auspicious (work) compiled by Nandi 
(nandl-krtam subham); 13. Saura; 14. Parasara; 15. The 
highly extensive (ativistaram) Aditya; 16. Mahesvara; 

17. Bhargavakhya; 18. The extensive (savistaram) Vasistha.** 
XIX. ‘Brahmavaivarta’ quoted in Mitra Misra’s Viramitrodaya, 

Paribhasa-prakasa, p. 14 — 

1. Adya (called) Sanatkumara (adyam sanatkumaram); 

2. Naradlya; 3. Narasimha; 4. Saivadharma; 5. Daurvasa; 

17 adyarn sanatkumaroktam narasimham tatah param/ 
nandakhyam livadharmakhyam dautvasam naradiyakam/ / 
kapilam tnanavam caiva tathaivoianaseritam/ 
brahmandam vatunam kalipuranakhyarn tathaiva ca// 
vasisthalainga-samjain ca satnbam sauratn tathaiva ca/ 
parasara-samakhyam ca mweam bhargavahvayam/ / 

ASB Ms No. 8205, fol. 2b (Shastri, ASB Cat., y. No. 4098). See also Shastri, 
ASB Cat., V, No. 4097 (Ms No. 308), p. 762; Eggeling, Ind. 0 £E. Cat., VI, 
p. 1230 (v.l. ‘tatha cosanaseritam’ for ‘tathaivoianasetitam’ in line 3, and 
'vasisAam laihga-sarnjnam’ for •vasisthalaihga-samjnam’ in line 5); and Ms 
No. 38 in the Calcutta Government Sanskrit College (v.l. ’vasis^am lainga- 
samjnam’ in line 5J, 

The above verses of the Parafara-upapurana have been quoted as from 
‘Parasara-puraga’ in Tryambaka Oka’s Acara-bhusana, p. 318 (v.l. ‘nandakhyam’ 
in line 2). 

18 sanatkumara(m) pratbamam narasimham tatah param/ 
naradiyam sivam caiva durgasasanam (? daurvasasam) anuttamam/ / 
kapilain manavain punyam tatha caufanasa(m) smrtam/ 

varunam kalikakhyarn ca sambam nandikrtatn iubham/ / 
sauram parasaram proktam adityam cativistaram/ 
mahesvaram bhargavakhyain vaiis^am ca savistaram// 

ASB Ms No. 8091. fol. 8a (Shastri, ASB Cat., V. pp. 745-6. No. 4086). See 
also Shastri, ASB Cat.. Y, pp. 746-7, No. 4087 (Ms No. 538). 



I 

t 

12 STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS ’ 

6. Kapileya; 7. Manava; 8. Saukra; 9. Varuna; 10. Brahma- 
nda; ii. Kallpurana; 12. Vasistha-lainga; 13. Mahesa; ~ 

14. Samba; 15. Saura; 16. Parasarya; 17. Marlca; 18. Bhar- | 

gava, which sets on foot all (kinds of) Dharma (sarva-dharma- I 

pravartakam). 

XX. ‘Brahmavaivarta’ quoted in Gopala-dasa’s Bhakti-ratnakara — 

I. Sanatkumara; 2. Nanda; 3. Narasimha; Daurvasasa; 

5. Saivadharma; 6. Kapileya: 7. Manavaj 8. Saukral 9. 

Varuna; 10. Vasistha:ii. Samba; 12. Kallpurana; 13. 

Mahesa; 14. Parasara; 15. Bhargava; 16. Marlca; 17. Saura; 

18. Brahmanda.*® 

XXL Verses (on the Upapuranas) quoted anonymously in Madhu- 
sudana Sarasvati’s Prasthana-bheda, p. 10 — 

I. Adya (sanatkumarena proktam); 2. Narasimha; 3. Nanda; 

4. Sivadharma; 5. Daurvasa; 6. Naradiya; 7. Kapila; 8. 

Manava; 9. Usanaserita; 10. Brahmanda; 11. Varuna; 12, 
Kallpurana, declared by Vasistha (vasistham)®®; 13. Vasistha- 
lainga, also called Mahesvara; 14. Sambapurana; 15. Saura, 
an extremely wonderful work (sauram mahadbhutam); 16. 

Parasara ; 17. Marlca; 18. Bhargava. 

19 tatah asudasa upapuranani ca brahmavaivarta-mace — 

sanatkumaratn nandani ca narasimbain tathaiva ca / 
daurvasasain saivadharmatn kapileyain ca manavatn/ / 
saukrain ca v^unam caiva vasis^atn sambatn eva ca / 
kalipurwam mahesatn parasaram ca bhargavam / / 
markatn ca tatha sauram brahmandakhyam tathaiva ca/ 
etany upapuranani nigadanti puravidah / / 

(Mitra, Notices, IX, No. 2918, p. 32). 

It should be mentioned here chat these verses are quite different from those 
ascribed to the ‘Brahmavaivarta’ in Mitra Misra’s Viramitrodaya, Pdribhasa- 
prakasa, p, 14. 

20 The relevant line naming the ‘Kallpurana’ is “tatah kalipuranakhyam 
vasisdiam muni-pumgavah,” in which ‘vasistham’ may be a wrong reading for 
‘visistain’. This latter reading (‘visisum’) is found to occur in the Siva-mahat- 
mya-khanda (of the Suca-samhita of the Skanda-p.) whose verses on the titles 
of the eighteen Upapuranas agree with those quoted in the Prasthana-bheda, 

'4 


THE UPAPURANA LITERATURE 


13 


XXII. Ekamra-purana i. 2ob-23 — 

I. Brhannarasimha; 2. Brhadvaisnava; 3. Garuda;®^ 
4. Brhat Naradlya; 5. Naradlya;®® 6. Prabhasaka; 7. Lllavatl- 
purana; 8. Devi; 9. Kalika; lO. Akhetaka; ii. Brhan- 
nandi; 12. Nandikesvara; 13. 'Ekamra; 14. Ekapada; 15. 
Lagbu-bhagavata; 16. Mrtyunjaya; 17. Angirasaka; 18. 
Samba. 

XXIII. Varunopapurana, chap, i — 

1. Adya, spoken out by Kumara (adyarn kumara-kathitam); 

2. Nrsimha; 3. Naradlyaka; 4. Vasistha-laihga; 5. Marica; 

6. Nandakhya; 7. Bhargava; 8. Mahesvara; 9. Ausanasa; 
10. Aditya; ii. Ganesaka; 12. Kaliya (Kailya ?); 13. 
Kapila; 14. Durvasa (Daurvasasa ?); 15. Sivadharmaka ; 

1 6. (The Upapurana) spoken out by Parasara (parasarena 
kathitam); 17. Samba; 18. Varuna.®® 

A glance over the above lists will show how greatly divergent the 
lists sometimes are. Though, as will be shown hereafter, the same 
Upapurana is in some cases mentioned in different lists under different 
titles, the obove lists supply us with the titles of many more Upa- 
puranas than eighteen. 

Besides the Upapuranas mentioned in these lists, there were many 
others, of which some arc available in printed forms, some still exist 
in manuscripts, some arc known only from references and quota- 
tions,®* and some must have been lost altogether without leaving any 
trace of their existence. In spite of the serious loss that has been 

21-22 The ‘Garuda’ and the ‘Naradiya’ have not been named in the list o£ 
Mahapuranas given in the Ekamra-p. (i. iS-zoa). They have been replaced 
by the ‘Saiva’ and the ‘Narasimha.’ which are really Upapuranas. 

23 For the relevant verses see Sastri and Sastri, Madras Cat.. XXVIl, 
No. 15663, p. 10331. 

24 From an examination of a large number of works, especially of the 
Sanskrit literature, we have been able to collect the names of mote than one 
hundred Upapuranas including those mentioned in the above lists. Questions 
relating to the identification, date and contents of these Upapuranas will be 
dealt with as fully as possible in their respective cases. 



14 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


brought upon the Upapurana literature by the progress of time and 
the consequent changes in political administration as well as in the 
ideas, manners and customs of the people, the Upapuranic works are 
still rich in number and content. 

Though it must be admitted that in this extensive Upapurana 
literature there are works which are of comparatively late dates, it is 
by no means wise to suppose that the whole literature cannot lay 
claim to an early beginning. The verses of the Kurma-p., which 
contain the list of ‘eighteen Upapuranas’, are found quoted in Raghu- 
nandana’s Smrti-tattva ( 1 , pp. 792-3), Mitra Misra’s Viramitrodaya 
(Paribhasa-prakasa, pp. 13-iq), and Hemadn’s Caturvarga-cintamani 
( 1 , pp. 532-3 and II. i, p. 21). The titles, as occurring in this list, 
are also given as derived from the ‘Kurma-p.’ in Narasimha Vajapey- 
in’s Nityacara-pradipa, I, p. 19. A list very similar to that of the 
Kurma-p. is found in the Saura-samhita of the Skanda-p.,*® in Sk 
VII. i. 2. 11-15, in the Siva-mahatmya-khanda of the Suta-samhita 
(which belongs to the Skanda-p. and of which all the four Khandas 
have been commented on by Madhavacarya), in the Parasara-upa- 
purana (i. 28-31),^® and in the Garuda-p. (I. 223. 17-20).^' In 
his Danasagara Vallalasena refers to the lists of Upapuranas occurring 
in the Kurma and the Adi-p.** These and similar other evidences, 
which can be adduced from different sources, are perhaps sufficient to 
show that the date of formation of the group of ‘eighteen’ Upa- 
puranas as found in the Kurma-p. should be placed not later than 
81 ^ A.D. The upper limit of this date seems to be supplied by 
Matsya-p., chap. 53, which, by its mention of only those four Upa- 
puranas (viz., Narasiinha, Nandl-p., Samba and Aditya) which were 

25 Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat., VI, p. 1382. 

26 For these verses see also Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat., VI, p, 1230, Shastri, 
ASB Cat,, V, p. 762 (No. 4097). 

27 The extant Garuda-p. should be dated between 850 and 1000 A.D. and 
most probably in the tenth century. See Hazra, Studies in the Puranic Records 
on Hindu Rites and Customs, pp. 141-5. 

28 tatha fcurmapuranadipuranayoh / 

uktany upapuranani vyakta-dana-vidhini ca / / 

Dwasagara, p. 3, verses I2b-I3a. 



THE UPAPURaNA literature 


15 


‘well-established in society’,®* betrays its knowledge of a few more 
Upapuranas and at the same time its ignorance of any group of 
‘eighteen’. The probable date of Matsya-p., chap. 53 being 550-650 
A. D. and the verses (59-63), in which these four Upapuranas have 
been mentioned, appearing to be spurious but by no means very late 
additions,*® the date of formation of the group should be placed 
approximately between 650 and 800 A. D.*^ 


29 C£. upabhedan pravaksyami loke ye satnpratisthitah.- Mat. 53 ' 59 ®‘ 

30 Mat. 59-63, which give the titles and contents of the Upapuranas. 
appear to be spurious for the following reasons r — 

(i) Nothing is said about the gift of any of the Upapuranas, although 
the chapter is on dana-dharma', 

(ii) there is no mention of the Upapuranas in verses other than those 
mentioned above; 

(iii) though in the verses following verse 6j the classification and 
contents of the Puranas and the titles and extents of the epics are 
given, there is not even a single worn on the Upapuranas. 

These verses are, however, not very lace additions; for, Narasiinha 
Vajapeyin, who quotes all these verses except 59a in his Nityacara-pradipa, 
refers to Laksmidhara’s explanation of verse 63 (astadafabhyas tu prthak 
puranam etc.) as meaning the Kalika-p. etc. (see Nityacara-pradipa. I. p. 18). 
As a matter of fact, Laksmidhara quotes Mat, 53 . 596-63 in his Krtya- 
kalpataru. I (Brahmacari-kanda), p. 30 and takes the expression ‘tad etebhyo 
vinirgatam’ of Mat. 53. 63 (astadasabhyas tu prthak puranam yat pradliyatc, 
etc.) to mean the Kalika-p. etc. Candeivara and Hemadri also quote verses 
59 b- 6 i and 62C-63 in their Krtya-ratnakara, pp. 31-32 and Caturvarga-cintamani, 
II. i, pp. 2 1-22 respectively. Following Laksmidhara Candesvara also explains 
the words ‘tad etebhyo vinirgatam’ (occurring in Mat. 53. 63) as ‘vimrgatam 
udbhutam yatha kalikapuranadi . 

The omission of these verses by Apararka who quotes verses 3-4. 1 1-20, 
22-253 and 26b-56a in his com. (pp. 392 - 6 ) on the Yajnavalkya-smrti, by 
Vallalasena who quotes verses 3-4 and 1.-56 in his Danasagara (pp.463-6). and 
by Govindananda who has a few lines in his Dana-kaumudi (p. 7 °)» should nM 
be taken seriously. These authors, who drew upon Mat. 53 m connection wi 
donation, had nothing to do with verses 59-63 in which there b no mention 

of donation. . , . , 

31 Kur. I. 1. 16-20. which deal with the origin and titles of the eighteen 

Upapuranas and are given immediately after the list of the principal l^apas, 
do not seem to have belonged to the pre«mt Kurma-p. m its Pancaratr, 



16 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


This approximate date of the grouping must not be taken to be 
the date of composition of the individual works forming the group, 
because all the eighteen Upapuranas, which do not belong to the same 
sect, could not have been written at the same time. The mention of 
the Narasimha, Nandl-p., Samba and Aditya in Matsya-p., chap. 53 
shows that there were Upapuranas which were written much earlier 
than the date of formation of the group; and such formation could be 
possible only when, in course of time, the Upapuranas attained the 
number of eighreen. It can be taken, therefore, that the age of the 
V j Upapuranas began approximately from the Gupta period.’* Orthodox | 
opinion, however, is sometimes in favour of tracing the Upapuranas to 1 
a much earlier date.” 

As to the origin of the Upapuranas the Kurma-p., Siva-mahatmya- 
khanda (of the Suta-samhita of the Skanda-p.) and Parasara-upapurana 
record a tradition that the sages proclaimed the Upapuranas after 
listening to the eighteen Puranas from Vyasa.’* This tradition, which 

character; because the line ‘idam tu pancadasamam puranam kaurmam uttamam’, 
which occurs after the list of the Upapuranas, clearly shows that it immediately 
followed the list of the principal Puranas and could not be separated by the 
list of the Upapuranas. 

For the date of the Kurma-p. see Hazra, Puranic Records, pp. 57!!. 

32 That this presumption is not totally baseless, we shall see when we 
analyse the Upapuranas individually. 

33 For instance, in connection with the Upapuranas Mitra Misra says in 
his Viramitrodaya (Paribhasa-prakasa, p. 15); “etany upapuranani puranebhya 
eva nirgataniti yajnavalkyena puranatvena samgrhitani”, thus implying that 
the Upapuranas were known to Yajnavalkya. 

34 Cf. Kur. I. I. 16 — 

anyany upapuranani munibhih kathitani tu/ 
astadasa puranani frutva samk^pato dvijah//; 

5iva-mahatmya-khanda i. lab-iaa — 

astadasa puranani srutva satyavati-sutat/ 
anyany upapuranani munibhih kirtitani tu/ / 

(for which see also Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat., VI, p. 1378); 

Parasara-upapurana i. 27-283 — 

evam ajnapitas tena iivena munayah pura/ 
srutva satyavati-sunoh puranam sakalam muda/ / 
anyany upapuranani cakruh saratarani vai/ 

(for which see also Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat., VI, p. 1230, and Shastri, ASB Cat., 
V, p. 762). 



THE UPAPURANA LITERATURE 


17 


is accepted as true by the Nibandha-writers and others,®* assigns the 
Upapuranas to a date posterior to that of the Puranas and consequently 
to a position inferior to that of the latter. The Matsya-p. goes a step 
farther when it calls the Upapuranas mere subsections (upahheda) of 
the Puranas and propounds the theory that any Puranic work, which 
will be found to be ‘different’ (prthak) from the eighteen Puranas, 
must be known to have originated from one or other of these Puranas.*® 
The great popularity of this theory is evidenced not only by its verbal 
reproduction in some of the Puranic works themselves*^ but also by 
the fact that the Nibandhakaras and others refer to, or reproduce, the 
lines of the Matsya-p. either in explaining the origin and nature of 
the different Upapuranas in accordance with this theory or in including, 
in the class of Upapuranas, those works of Puranic character which 
were not mentioned in the lists known to the respective writers, so 
that these last-mentioned works might be regarded as equally authori- 


35 The entire verse 

anyany upapuratiSat munibhih kathitani tu/ 
asadasa puranani srutva samksepato dvijah/ / 
of the Kurma-p. is quoted in Nityacara-pradipa, I, p. 19, Viramitrodaya, Pari- 
bhasa-prakasa, p. 13, and Caturvarga-cintamani, 1 , p, 53 * II. i, p. 2t, 

whereas only the first line is quoted by Raghunandana in hb Smrti-tattva, 1 , 
p. 792 and by Jiva Gosvaniin in his commentary (named Krama-samdarbha) on 
Bhag. XII. 7. 17-22. 

36 Cf. Mat. 53. 59a and 63 — 

upabhedan pravaksyami loke ye sampratb^tah/ 

« > • • • » 

astada^abhyas tu prthak puranam yat pradifyatc/ 
vijanidhvam dvija-s'resthas tad etebhyo vinirgatam/ / 

For the reading 'pradbyate' (in the second line), see also the AnSS. and Venkat. 
editions as well as that published by Jivananda VidySsagara. 

37 Cf., for example, Sk VII. i. 2.*79b and 83 

upabhedan pravaksyami loke ye sampratbthitah/ 

astadasabhyas tu prthak puranam yac ca dr^atc/ 
vijanidhvam dvija-sresthas tad etebhyo vinkgatam/ / 

These lines agree remarkably with Mat. 53 * 59 * rfwfe* 

3 



18 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


tative.** The extant Saura-p. also lends strong support to the above 
theory when it calls the Upapuranas mere supplements (khila) to the 
principal Puranas and attaches itself in that capacity to the Brahma-p/ 
Though from these evidences it is clear that the above theory is 
one of long standing and wide acceptance, an examination of the 


38 The verse ‘asdda^abhyas tu prthak piiranam’ of the Matsya-p. (53. 63) 
has been quoted in )iva Gosvamin's commentary (named Krama-satndarbha) 
on Bhag. XII. 7. 17-22 (v.l. ‘pradrsyate’ for ‘pradisyate’), in Viramitrodaya, 
Paribhasa-prakasa, p. 15 (v.l. ‘tu drsyate’ for ‘pradisyate’), in Nityacara- 

pradipa, I, p. 18 (v.l. ‘tu drsyate’), in Krtya-ratnakara, p. 32 (v.l. ‘tu drsyate’), 
in Caturvarga-cintamani, I, p. 533 (v.l. ‘pradrsyate’) and II. i. p. 22 (v.l. ‘tu 
drsyate’), and in Krtya-kalpataru, I, p. 30 (v.l. ‘tu drsyate’). As has already 
been said, Laksmidhara explains this verse as referring to the Kalika-p. etc. 
(See Krtya-kalpataru, I, p. 30 — astadasabhyas tu prthak puranam yat tu 
drsyate/vijanidhvam dvija-lresAas tad etebhyo vinirgatam/ /vinirgatam 
udbhutam/yatha kalikapur^adi. For this explanation of Laksmidhara see also 
Krtya-ratnakara, p 32, and Nityacara-pradipa, p. 18). On the basis of this 
verse Mitra Misra even goes so far as to say that as Yajnavalkya knew that the 
Upapuranas originated from the Puranas, he made no separate mention of the 
former but included them among the latter (cf. etany upapuranani puranebhya 
eva nirgataniti yajnavalkyena puranatvena samgrhitani. — Viramitrodaya, Pari- 
bhasi-prakaia, p. 15), 

Sec also Madhusudana Sarasvati’s Prasthana-bheba (p. i) which says: . 
‘atropapurananam api puranC ’ntarbhavah’. 

On the authority of this verse of the Matsya-p. the Nityacara-pradipa 
( 1 , pp. 18-19) and the Viramitrodaya (Paribhasa-prakaia, p. 15) include the 
Kalika-p., Vayu-upapurana, Devi-p., Bhavisyottara, Nandikefvara-p., Adi-p. 
etc. among the Upapuranas. 

39 Cf. Saura-p. 9. 1 2b- 1 3a — 

khilany upapurwani yani coktani suribhih/ 

idam brahmapuranasya khilam sauram anuttamam/ / 

Cf. also Saura-p. 9. 5b — 

etac copapurwan^ khilatval laksanatn smrtam. 

All these three lines have been quoted in Caturvarga-cintamani, I, p, 532, 
whereas only the second line is found to occur in the Skanda-p. (V. iii. i, ^6a, 
with v.l. ‘sulabham sauram uttamam’ for ‘khilana sauram anutcamam*), the 
Reva-mahatmya (Aufrecht, Bod. Cat., p. 65), and the ‘Saiv%-purana’ drawn 
upon in Jiva Gosvamin’s commentary (Krama-samdarbha) on Bhag. XII. 7, 

1 7-22. 


THE UPAPURANA LITERATURE 


19 


Upapuranas themselves shows that these works do not oEten look upon 
this theory with the same respect as the principal Puranas or ocher 
works do. In a large number of cases the Upapuranas are found to 
style themselves simply ‘Purina’ and not ‘Upapurana’ and to try to 
pass on their own merit without caring to attach themselves for the 
sake of authority to any of the principal Puranas;*“ and in a few cases 
they even vie with the principal Puranas by laying claim to their 
position.** Sometimes they are found to go a step farther and claim 
to be superior to the Mahapuranas.** It is to be noted that the older 
of the extant Upapuranas do not give any list of Upapuranas, nor do 
they seem to be familiar with their common title ‘Upapurana’ or with 
the theory of their origin which makes them mere supplements to the 
principal Puranas.*® This disagreement between the time-honoured 
theory and the actual practice of the Upapuranas, especially of the 
older ones, naturally raises doubt as to the amount of truth contained 
in this theory. So, in order to acquaint ourselves with the actual state 
of things and thus to explain successfully this disagreement between 
theory and practice, we shall have to investigate into the origin of the 
present Puranas and Upapuranas. 

In connection with our study on the present form and character of 
the principal Puranas we have said elsewhere** that the Purina 

40 For examples we may refer to the Narasimha-p., Devi-p., Kalika-p. etc. 

41 For instance, in its Vayaviya-sarnhita (i. 1.41) the Siva-p. lays claim 
to the position of a principal Pur^a by saying thaj the Devi-bhagavata (I.3i-t6) 
includes the Bhagavata-p. among the Upapuranas, obviously in order to 
establish its own claim to the status of a Purana; the ‘Kalika-p. claims to be 
the real Bhagavata-p. probably because of its dealing with the exploits of 
Bhagavati (see the verse of the ‘Kalika-p.’ quoted in Caturvarga-cintamani, 
1. p- 531); and so on. 

4a See the line ‘anyany upapuranani cakruh saratarani vai of the Parafara- 
upaputana quoted in foot-note 34 above. 

43 For instance, see Devi-p., Narasitnha-p, and Samba-p. 

44 Problems relating to the eighteen Puranas have been dealt with elabora- 
tely in Our Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs, published by the 
University of Dacca . See also B. C. Mazumdar’s article on the origin and 
character of the Purana literature in Sir Ashutosh Mookerjee Silver JubilM 
Volumes III, Orientalia — Part 2, pp. 9-30. 



20 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


literature, which can be traced back to the Vedic period and was as 
sacred and important to the Vedic Aryans as the Vedas themselves, 
dealt with five subjects*® m its earlier (but most probably not in its 
original) form, and that, in course of time, its character was changed 
by the Smarta Brahmin sectaries who took it up for successfully 
propagating their own ideas among the people who were gradually 
losing respect for the Vedas and the Brahmanical rules of life, and 
conduct under the influence of the heresies as well as of the popular 
systems of religion then prevailing in the country. Hence the 
question arises — who among the Smarta Brahmin sectaries first 
concerned themselves with the writing and rewriting of the present 
Pur anas? 

From a study of the historical records of ancient India as well as of 
the Mahabharata*® and other early works of the Sanskrit literature we 
understand that in the pre-Gupta days the most powerful and popular 
systems of religion, except the heresies, were those of the Brahmas (i.e. 
Brahma-worshippers), the Pancaratras and the Pasupatas. So, it may be 
supposed that it was the Smarta adherents to these religious systems 
who first took up the Puranas for establishing the Varnasramadharma 
and the authority of the Vedas among the people and increased the 
number of the already existing Puranas by fresh additions of Puranic 
works which were often characterised by the names of the sectarian 
deities or their chief forms. This supposition gai. s ground when we 
see from our examination and analysis of tlic contents of the extant 
Puranas*^ that those portions of these works which are to be dated 


45 Viz., (i) sarga (creation), (ii) pratisarga (re-creation, i.e. the periodical 
annihilation and renewal of the worlds, including the geography of the earth 
and the atmosphere as well as the distribution of different races on the surface 
of the earth), (iii) vamsa (genealogies of gods, kmgs and sages), (iv) manvantara 
(cosmic cycles or the Manu-periods of time, i. e. those great periods each of 
which is reigned over by a Manu or primal ancestor of the human race), and 
(v) vamianHcarita (history of the royal dynasties and of the families of sages), 

46 In the Mahabharata the Pancaratras and the Pasupatas have been descri- 
bed. It makes no mention of the sub-sects which arose in course of time bom 
these two mother sects. 

47 For analyses of the different Puranas see Hazra, Puranic Reemds, pp. Sff. 



THE UPAPURANA LITERATURE 


21 


earlier than 500 A. D. exhibit prominently the influence of the Smacta 
Brahmas, Smarta Pancaratras and Smarta Pasupatas.*® 

The next most important and powerful group of sectaries to con- 
cern themselves with the composition of the Puranas were the Bhaga- 
vatas who rose to great prominence during the Gupta period. It was 
undoubtedly the Smarta adherents to the Bhagavata system who wrote 
the Bhagavata-p. 

Though it is next to impossible to say definitely when the Smarta 
adherents to the four systems mentioned above first began to use the 
Puranas for controlling the masses who had become seriously influenced 
by these^® and other systems of religion, and what the number of 
the prevalent Puranas was when these sectaries first set their hands to 
them, it can scarcely be denied that more Puranas than one had come 
into existence long before the beginning of the Christian era. By its 
mention of a ‘Bhavisyat-purana’®® the Apastamba-dharmasutra shows 
that at the time of composition of this Sutra work ‘the term Purana 
had become so thoroughly specialised as to have lost its proper mean- 
ing, and had become merely the designation of a particular class of 
books. It would have required the existence of a number of books 
called Puranas to produce that change, and manifestly they must have 
had their own special names to distinguish from one another and so 


.§8 For instance, the influence of Brahma as Supreme Brahma is prominent 
in Markandeya-p., chap. 45 (=chap. 42 in the Vehkat. cd. and chap. 48 in 
BiW. Ind. and Jivan' nda’s editions) which is one of the earliest chapters of the 
extant Markandeya-p. (sec Pargiter, Markandeya-purana, English translation. 
Introduction, p. xx, and Hazra, Puranic Records, pp. 8-13); the Srso-khanda, 
which preserves in it the earliest portions of the extant Padma-p.. was originally 
written, or compiled, by the Brahma-worshippers (see Hazra, Puranic Records, 
pp. i2ofE.); the Vayu and the Brahmanda-p. are pre-eminently Pasupata, Ac 
Visnu and the extant Kurma-p, in its earliest form are Pancaratra in character; 
and so on. 

49 For the original nature and early spread of these systems, see Hazra, 
Puranic Records, pp. 193®. 

50 The term ‘Bhavisyat-purana’ is seU-contradkting, because Ae word 
‘purana' originally means ‘ancient’, and Aen, as a name m literature, it siga^es 
not an ancient book but an ancient subject, Arcbaita- 



22 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


convert their common title Parana into a class designation.’®^ Hence 
it must be admitted that the number of Puranas had begun to multiply 
even before the time of Apastamba. An examination of the titles of 
the ‘eighteen’ Puranas®* shows that this growth in their number must 
have been accelerated by the activities of the sectaries mentioned 
above; and when, in course of time, their number became ‘eighteen,’®® 
it was rigidly fixed. 

Here a question may be raised as to how the eighteen Puranas, 
which were the mouth-pieces of sectaries following different faiths, 
could be grouped together and regarded as equally important and 
authoritative by all of them and how they came to believe deeply in 
this group even at the sacrifice of their respective sectarian interests. In 
reply to this question we may refer to the spirit of religious 
syncretism,®* as well as that of sectarian rivalry,®® that went hand in 
hand in ancient India®* and is to be found in the Hindu society even 
at the present day. These tendencies must have been incentives to the 
recasting of the same Purina sometimes by different sects as well as 
as to the interpolation of chapters on different deities in a particular 
Purina; and in this way all the Puranas had come to attain equal, or 
almost equal, importance in the eyes of the worshippers of Brahma, 
Visnu and Siva before the grouping was made. 

51 Pargiter, Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, pp, 50-51. 

52 For instance, the titles ‘Brahma-putana,’ ‘Padma-purana,’ etc. connect 
these works with Brahma, who came out of the Lotus issuing from Visgu’s 
navel. Similarly, Matsya, Kurma, Vamana, etc. are the names of Visnu’s 
incarnations; Garuda is yisnu’s mount; and so on, 

33 Among the numerals used for summing up a multitude of concrete 
objects, a line of abstract ideas, a number of traditional texts, and the hke, the 
numeral ‘eighteen’ is often used in the position of a sacred number. 

For a detailed study on this numeral see O. Stein in Poona Orientalist, Vol. 
I, No. 3, pp. 1-37. 

5<} Cf., for example, the great influence of the Sainkhya and Vedanta 
systems as well as of the doctrine of Trimurti on the Puranas. 

55 Sec, for instance, Vataha-p., chaps. 70 and 71, Padma-p. (Srsti-kh.), 
chap. 17, Lihga-p. I. 107, 41-42, and so on. Sec also Hazra, Puranic Records, 
pp. 8ff. 

56 The present Puranas amply testify to both these tendencies. 



THE UPAPURANA LITERATURE 


23 


The non-inclusion of the word ‘ufapurana’ in the Amarakosa 
which defines ‘Parana’ as ‘panca-laksana’, and the mention of the 
titles of the 'eighteen’ Puranas in the Visnu-p., Markandeya-p. etc. 
without any reference, direct or indirect, to any Upapurana, tend to 
show that the group of the ‘eighteen’ Puranas had been formed be- 
fore the Upapuranas came into existence.®^- After this grouping had 
been complete, there came into prominence many sub-systems which 
arose from the main systems of religion, mentioned above, either 
directly or by identifying the local deities with one or other of the 
prominent deities of the main systems. In addition to these, there 
were also other independent systems, viz., Saura,®* ^akta etc., 
which began to hold the field and attain rivalry with the systems 
already established in the country. These sub-systems and in- 
dependent systems also had their Smarta adherents who interpolated 
chapters in the Puranas of the already established group, and, in some 
cases, wrote new and independent Puranic works styled ‘Purina in 
order to propagate their own ideas. Thus, with the progress of time 
the number of the Puranas was further increased with fresh additions. 
But as the followers of the famous group of the ‘eighteen Puranas 
believed deeply that there could be no ‘Purina beyond the famous 
‘eighteen’, they were unwilling to assign these new Puranic works to a 
status equal to that of the famous Purinas. On the other hand, these 
new Purinic works had become too well-known and popular to be 
ignored totally. So, they introduced verses into the Matsya-p. to 
the effect that any Purinic work, which would be found to be different 

57 The tradition recorded in the Kurma-p., Siva-mahatmya-tth, etc. also 
says that the Upapuranas were written by different sages alter the eighteen 
Puranas had been completed by Vyasa. (See footnote 34 above). 

58 Though Sun-worship is of very ancient origin, the Saura sett, wi* 

Persian elements in the cult of the Sun, became prominent in India mu 
later. See Farquhar, Outline of the Religious Literature of India, pp. 15 «' 3 ' 
Bhandarkar, Vaisnavism etc., pp. i 53 ' 5 ! J- B®**®*')®*' Oevcloftaeat 
Hindu Iconography, pp. 137-140, 198-9, 43 °' 445 - ‘ 

59 Note that Mat. 53-60 mentions ‘Nandipu^’ (and not ‘Naodi- 

upapurana*), although the latter is called an 'ttpabheds. ^ 

Th. N„.iph.-p., si»b.-p., D™.p. cJI -P-i?* -a 

•upapurana.’ 



24 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


from the established eighteen, would be known to have originated 
from the latter. Thus, we think, the original position of the 
‘eighteen’ Puranas and the rigidity of their number were maintained, 
and the Upapuranas also were given a position. 

The theory, thus propounded and introduced into the Matsya-p. 
by the staunch believers in the ‘eighteen’ Puranas, influenced not only 
the later Puranas but also the Upapuranas in some cases and was the 
root cause of giving rise to the common title ‘Upapurana’®“ for the 
new Puranic works by calling them mere supplements {u-pabheda) 
of the famous eighteen. It is for this reason that these new Puranic 
works are grouped under the common title ‘Upapurana’ in some 
of the extant Puranas and that in a few cases the new Puranic works 
are found to attach themselves as supplements to one or other of the 
eighteen Puranas®^ or to call themselves ‘Upapuranas’ in spite of their 
independent character.®* 

As to the contents of the Upapuranas the Saura-p. says: “A 
Purina has five characteristics, viz., creation, re-creation, genealogy 
(of gods, kings and sages), Manu-periods of time, and history of the 
royal dynasties and the families of sages. These are the characteris- 
tics of the Puranas such as the Brahma etc. These, again, are known 
to be the characteristics of the Upapuranas because of their supplement- 
ary character.”®® The Bhagavata and the Brahmavaivatta-p. also 
express the same opinion chough from a different standpoint. Of 
these tpo works, the former says: “According to the Purana-experts, 


6 0 The Bhagavata-p. (XII. 7. 10 and 22) divides the Puranic works into 
two classes, (i) Alpa or Ksullaka and (ii) Mahat. But the passage, fin which this 
classification occurs, is of a very late date. 

6 1 For instance, the Saura-p. is called a supplement to the ‘Brahma-p.’ in 
the body of the work as well as in the chapter-colophons. 

62 See, for instance, the Parasara-upapurana (a Ms of which has been descri- 
bed by Eggeling in his Ind. Off. Cat., VI, pp. 1229-30). 

63 sargas ca pratisargas ca vatnio manvantarani ca /, 
vamsanucaritatn caiva pur^am panca-Iaksanam/ / 
brahmadinam purananacn uktam etat tu laksanam / 
etac copapurananam khilatval lak^am smrtam/y 

Saura-p. 9. 4.5. 



25 


the upapurana literature 

a Purana must be furnished with ten characteristics, viz., sargt, 
visarga, vrtti, raksa, antara, vamsa, vamsanucarita, samstha, hetu and 
apasraya, and some, O Brahman, ascribe to it five characteristics by 
distinguishing between ‘great’ and •smail’.”*i The latter work, which 
is more direct and clear and seems to follow the former in its enumera- 
tion, says that an Upapurana is to have five characteristics, viz., 
creation, re-creation, genealogy of gods and sages, cosmic cycle, and 
history of the royal dynasties and the families of sages, whereas a Maha- 
purana is to have ten, viz., srsti, visrsti^ sthiti, palana, karma-vasana, 
manu-varta, pralaya-varnana, moksd-nirupana, hari-ktruna and devd- 
kiTtdna.^^ Whatever may be the views about the contents of the Upa- 
putanas, an examination of the extant Upapuranas shows that very few 
of them conform even approximately to the above views. In spite of the 
great influence of the old tradition chat a Purana is to deal with five 
subjects, the Upapuranas, which are more exclusively adapted to suit the 
purposes of local cults and the religious needs of different sects than the 

64 sargo’syatha visargaj ca vrtti-raksantarani ca/ 

vain^o vamianucaritam samstha hetur''apairayah / / 
dalabhir laksanair yuktam puranam tadvido viduh/ 
kecic panca-vidhatn brahman mahad-alpa-vyavasthaya// 

Bhag. XII. 7, 9-10. 

(The terms 'sargd, 'visarga etc. have been defined in Bhag. XII. 7, 11-21). 

The second verse is explained by 5 ridhara Svamin as : ‘daiabhir etair laksan- 
air arthair yuktam mahapuranam viduh/, kecit panca-vidham/ sargaj ca prati- 
sargas ca vamso manvantarani ca / vatnsanucaritam ceti puranam panca-laksa- 
nam/ / iti/ mahat puranam alpam ced vyavasthaya/ yatra dalapi laksanani 
prthak prthah nirupyante tan mahapuranam/ yatra tv anyesam 
pancasv evanurbhavasya vivaksa tad alpam iti vyavasthayetyarthah/’ 
Viivanatha Cakravartin also explains this verse in the same way, and even 
with the same words, as Stidhara. According to these explanations the Mahi- 
puranas must deal with the ten subjects separately, whereas in the Upapuranas 
the five topics (creation, re-creation etc.) must include the remaining five. 

As regards its own contents the Bhagavata-p. (II. 9. 43) **ys that it has 
ten characteristics which are enumerated, with explanation, as sargd, visargd, 
sthana, posana, iti, manvantara, isiniskatha, nirodha, mukti and diraya (Bhag. 
II. 7. 1-7). That there is practically no difference between the two lists of die 
ten characteristics of a Purana, is shown by ^ridhara Svamin in his exj^anadoo 
of the verse ‘sargo’syadia visargaf ca’ (Bhag. XII. 7, 9 .) 

4 



26 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Mahapuranas and which arose at a time when the genealogies began 
to be neglected,®* ate never found to be serious about the genealogies 
of kings and sages. In chose cases in which the Upapuranas include 
such genealogies, the ancient kings, especially of the Solar and Lunar 
races, ate the chief points of interest, probably because of their giving 
a stamp of antiquity to these works, and nothing is said about any of 
the dynasties of the Kali age. Even as regards those genealogies 
which have been included in the Upapuranas, no care has been taken 
to preserve their correctness, but new myths and stories have been 
unscrupulously fabricated and attached to the important names in 
these genealogies. But in spite of such defects the Upapuranas are 
of inestimable value from the point of view of the history of 
religion and culture, and on this head alone they deserve far more 
careful study than has hitherto been devoted to them. They not only 
\ afford us great insight into all phases and aspects of Hinduism — its 
j mythology, its idol-worship, its theism and pantheism, its love of God, 
/ its philosophy and superstitions, its festivals and ceremonies, and its 
ethics, but also supply us with important information about the 
different branches of science and literature which were developed in 
ancient India and at the same time render us inestimable help in 
reconstructing some of those monumental works of the Sanskrit litera- 
ture which have been lost for ever.®^ In these respects the Upapuranas 
ate sometimes more important than the Mahapuranas. The latter 
attained such an enviable and authoritative position from an early date 
that they were often worked upon by the different sectaries and, in 

65 Bv ly. 131. 6-10. 

66 An examination of the extant Mahapuranas shows that the custom of 
recording new dynastic history ceased with the early Guptas, after whom no 
important dynasty or monarch of India has been mentioned or described in the 
Putanas. This proves that from the Gupta period the Puranic tradition took, in 
practice, a new trend which culminated in turning the Puranas into books of 
m}iths and legends and Smrti topics with highly imperfect, and sometimes 
forged, genealogical lists. 

67 In some cases the Puranas and Upapuranas contain summaries of ancient 
Sanskrit works such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, and, more often, 
incorporate chapters and verses from old and authoritative works, some of which 
are no longer extant. 



THE UPAPURANA LITERATURE 


27 


some cases, bodily replaced by later works bearing the same titles as 
those of the earlier ones.*® So, the text of the extant Mahapuranas 
which are the results of innumerable changes, modifications and 
interpolations made in different times and by diSerent sects, is 
scarcely reliable and can be used only with great caution and careful 
discrimination. But very diff erent is the case with the Upapuranas 
which, probably on_accqunt_pf.-tbcit .secondary position, Jiayc Been 
worked upon much less freely by the later redactors and interpolators.^ 
They have thus been able to preserve, in a_ few cases, _.thcir (dder 
materials along with their distinctive sectarian cha racter. It is for 
this reason that among the extant Upapuranas there are some which 
are much older than many of the extant Mahapuranas.** In those 
cases in which the Upapuranas have been subjected to modifications 
and interpolations or have been replaced by later works bearing the 
same titles as those of the works replaced,'^® the authors of these 
changes, modifications etc. are very often persons belonging to those 
sects to which the respective Upapuranas originally belonged. So, 
in spite of their modifications, interpolations or totally new forms, 
they are to be valued as the records of changes undergone in different 
ages by the respective sects to which these works originally belonged; 
and the hands of people belonging more sects than one being 
scarcely laid oh any one of them, their study is generally a little easier 
than that of the extant Mahapuranas. \ 

68 For instance, we may refer to the present Brahma, Agni, and Garuda-p. 

For information about these Puranas, sec Hazra. Puranic Records, pp, 

>34-157. 

69 We shall try to prove the truth of tfab statement when we shall deal 
with the question of chronology of the different Upapuranas. 

The Upapuranas are cetainly not aU 'later and inferior works’ as F, E. 
Patgitcr would make us believe. (See Hastmgs’ EncyciofacdUi of Migion and 
Ethics, Vol. X. p. 455 for Pargiter’s views regardmg the Upapuranas). 

70 The old tradition recorded in the verse 

•kalenagrahanam drstva puranasya tato nr pa/ 
vyasa-rupam ahaxn krtva samharami yuge yugc/ /.’ 
was as much applicable to the Upapuranas as to the Mahapuranas. It is for 
diis reason that works or chapters on older rites and customs ware sonwtiaies 

replaced by new ones. 



28 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


It has already been said that the Upapurana literature consists ol a 
large number of works, of which some are available in printed forms, 
some exist in manuscripts, some arc known only from references and 
quotations, and some must have perished altogether without leaving 
any trace of their existence. Of these works, I shall first analyse 
those which were available to me in printed forms or manuscripts. 
The Upapuranas still existing in manuscripts beyond my reach or 
known from references and quotations will be dealt with later. 



CHAPTER II 


THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 

The Sun has been, under diEEerent names, an object ot great 
adoration from the early Vedic period, and it is possible that there 
arose quite early a fairly extensive literature, both Puranic and other- 
wise,^ on the praise and worship of this god, who appears in the Vedic 
works as one of the most prominent deities; but of the numerous 
Puranic works now extant it is only the Simba-p. which deals princi- 
pally with the cult of the Sun. Chapters and extracts on the method 
and praise of Sun-worship occur in some of the other Puranas also, viz., 
Bhavisya-p., Brahma-p., Skanda-p., Varaha-p., Matsya-p,, Agni-p., 
Garuda-p., Visnudharmottara, Bhavisyottara, Kalika.-p., and so on. 
The Markandeya-p. contains a few chapters on the praise of and 
stories about the Sun. 

The Vedic, epic and Sanskrit literatures abound in evidences 
regarding the early beginning and spread of the worship of the 
atmospheric sun as a god, but the conception of the Sun as an imaginary 
god of light and the practice of his worship in images came into vogue 
at a comparatively late period. That this later phase of Sun-worship 
was due to Magian influence is amply evidenced by the Scythian 
coins,* the Puranic works, the Brhat-samhita (chaps. 58 and 60), and 

1 For instance, in Bhavisya-p. I. 4. 89 mention of an anaent work 

dealing with the Saura Dbarmas as declared by Narada (saura dharmaf ca 
rajendra naradokta mahipate). According to the Bhavisya, thu work (most 
probably called ‘Saura-dharma’) as well as the Mahabharata. Ramayana, etc. 
Was designated technically by the term ‘)aya’ (see Bhavisya-p. I. 4. 87^89). 

The above line of the Bhavisya-p. is found quoted in Laksmidhara’s K^tya- 
kalpataru (I, p. 25), Candeivara’s Krtya-ratnakara (p. 30), and NarasinAa 
Vajapeyin’s Nityacara-pradipa (I, p. «) with the reading ‘manavoktah’ £ot 
‘naradoktah’. 

It should be mentioned here that the Saura work spoken out by Narada 
(or Manava) has become extinct. 

2 Ind. Ant., 1888, pp. 89ff. ; Gardner, Coins of Greek and Scyduan 
Kinp of Bactria and India in the Btiosh Museum, pp. r3». i 34 . » 4 ** 3 - * 55 * 



30 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


a number of seals and inscriptions.® Probably during the reign of 
the Scythian kings or even earlier, a new form of Sun-worship was 
introduced in Northern India by bands of Magi priests who called 
their deity ‘Mithra’ (or ‘Mihira’). These Magas, as the Magi priests 
were called in India, seem to have established their first settlement 
at a place called ‘Mitra-vana’ (‘forest of Mitra’) on the bank of the 
Caudrabhaga in the Punjab, and at this place they constructed a city 
called ‘Mula-sthana’ (‘original place of settlement’ or ‘original place 
of the Sun’ — modern Multan) and a Sun-temple* containing an image 
of the deity. As the Magian adherents to the worship of the Sun 
(Mithra) had a proselytising spirit and must have enjoyed state-support 
at least under the Scythian kings,® they set themselves most zealously 
to popularising their faith in different parts of India. In striking 
agreement with the orthodox followers of the Vedas, they pointed 
out to the people the various benefits of Sun-worship, viz., freedom 
from sins and diseases, attainment of peace and prosperity, success 
in enterprises, and so on.* They also took full advantage of the 
long-standing popularity of the deity in India and of his worship in a 
symbol which was very often a wheel or disc and not rarely a circle or 
a lotus.^ As Visnu, Siva and many other deities had begun from a 

and so on; Whitehead, Catalogue of Coins in the Panjab Museum, Lahore, 
Vol. I, pp. 188-9, 198, and so on. 

3 See Bhandarkar, Vaisnavism etc., p. 154; J. N. Banerjea, Development 
of Hindu Iconography, pp. 198-9. 

4 This historic temple, with the enshrined image of the Sun, was visited 
by the Chinese Uavellcr Hiuen Tsiang as well as by Albcruni, A 1 Edrisi, Abu 
Ishak al Ishtakhri, and several others. 

For Hiuen Tsiang's description of this temple see Samuel Beal, Buddhist 
Records of the Western .World, II, pp. 274-5. 

5 For the probable connection of the kings of the Suhga and Kanva 
dynasties as well as of the Hunas with Mitra- (Mithra-) worship, see Nagendra 
Nath Vasu, Castes and Sects of Bengal, IV, pp. 56-7. 

6 Sahitya Parisat Patrika (Calcutta), LVII, 1357 B.S., pp. 25-43. 

The story of Samba, as given in the Samba-p., Bhavisya-p. and Varaha-p., 
shows clearly that the Magas laid special stress on the Sun’s capacity for destroy- 
ing sins and curing various diseases, especially leprosy, 

7 For the basis of the Vedic custom of representing Surya by a wheel or 

disc sec Rg-veda I. 175. 4, IV. *8. 30. 4. and y. 29. 10, in which Surya has 



THt SAURA UPAPURaNAS 


3 * 


very early period to be widely worshipped in images,® for which public 
or private temples were often built, Indian people must have felt a 
great want in these respects with regard to the worship of the Sun, 
for which the Vedic people made no provision for the construction of 
any image or temple. Fortunately, the Magas came forward to remove 
this long-felt want, and it was to this contribution of these foreigners 
that their remarkable success in speedily popularising their faith was 
due to a very great extent. The Samba-p. (29. 2-6) points to this 
truth when it says : 

“na pura pratima hy asit pujyate mandale ravih | 
yathaitan mandalain vyomni sthiyate savitus tada || 
evam eva pura bhaktaih pujyate mandalakrtih | 
yatah prabhrti capy esa nirmita visvakarmana || 
sarva-loka-hitarthaya suryasya puruMkrtih j 
* * * 

grhesu pratimayas tu na tasatn niyamah kvacit || 

* # * 

devayatana-vinyase karyarn murti-parlksanam ||” 

been called a ‘wheer (cakra) or ‘the wheel (cakra) of Surya’ has been mentioned. 
See also Satapatha-brahmana VII. 4 . i®. which mentions the placing of a disc 

of gold on the Fire altar to represent the Sun. 

For wheels and lotuses representing the Sun on coins, etc. sec Journal of the 
Indian Society of Oriental Art. XVI, pp. 5 ‘- 3 * and J. N. Banerjea, Development 
of Hindu Iconography, pp. 137-140- ‘ 98-9 432!!. See also Mat. 74-80, 

Pd. Srsti-khanda. 21. 216-321. Bhavisyottara (le. Bhav. IV). chaps. 48-53. and 
SO on. 

For a Mandala for Sun-worship see especially the Bbavisya-p, (Brahma- 

parvan). In commenting on Apastamba-dharmasutra ii. 11.29. 16 Haradatta 

says that the Dravidas used to worship Aditya (the Sun) by drawmg Mandalas 
on the ground ( dravidah kanyi-mesasthe saviury aditya-pujam acarann 

bhumau mandalam alikhya )• _ _ 

8 See for instance. Gautama-dharmasutra 9. 13 (na vayv-agni-vipr-adiqr- 
apodevatagascaprati pafyan va mutra-puris-amedhyan vyudasyet) and 9. i 4 
(naite devatah prati padau prasarayet). According to Haradatta and Maskari. 
the word ‘devatah’. occurring in the former Sutra, means images (praomah). 

The separate'usc of the word ‘deva^’ m the former Sutra shows that the 

word ‘aditya’ meant the atmo^heric sun and not any image of Aditya, 

The word ‘devatah’ in the latter Sutra must have been intended for cte^M^ 



32 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


“In ancient times there was no image- (o£ the Sun); the Sun was 
worshipped in a circle. The Sun, worshipped by his devotees in early 
days, was circular, just as there is the disc (of the Sun) in the sky. 
The human form of the Sun (came into vogue) for the good of all the 
worlds from the time it was made by Visvakarman. 

No rule is (to be observed) in the case of those images which are 
(worshipped) in (private) houses ; ... ... • The examina- 

tion of the image is to be made in case it is placed in a temple. 
There was another strong ground for the wide popularity of the 
Magian method of Sun-worship. It was that the Magas allowed 
great privilege in religious matters to women and members of lower 
castes. However, the spread of Magian ideas was not, in all respects, 
very favourable to the Varnasrama-dharma and the authority of the 
Vedas. As regards conception of Mithra and the procedure of his 
worship, the Magi priests differed much from the Sun-worshippers of 
India. Their manners and customs also were, to a great extent, 
different from those of the members of the Vedic fold. Hence, in 
order to modify the earlier cult of the Sun by incorporating Magian 
elements (which must have been too popular to be neglected), to 
establish the position of Magas as full-Bedged Brahmins authorised 
to worship the Sun, and to conform the Magian ideas and practices to 
the Vedic notions, the Samba-p. had to be written and chapters had 
to be insetted into the Bhavisya and other Puranic works. What steps 
were taken to achieve these ends and how and when, will be evident 
from the following analysis of the Samba-p. 

I. THE SAMBA-PURANA 

This work,* as we have it in the Vehkat. edition, is divided into 
84 chapters. It begins with a salutation to the Sun (variously named 

a sense of divinity with regard to wind, fire etc. and thus for pointing out their 
sacred character. 

9 The only printed edition of this work is that published by the Venkate- 
svara Press, Bombay 1899. This edition has been accomplished so carelessly 
that innumerable mistakes, due to both omission and commission, have crept in. 
It is based most probably on a single Ms ; otherwise, variants would have been 
given at some place or other of this edition. We have, however, used the 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 

as Savur, Bhaskara. Arka. Ravi. Aditya etc.) who is the cause of 
ae«.on protection and destruction of the universe and is the soul of 
itamaha, Narayana and Sarnkara, whose manifestations are the three 
e as. and who pervades the universe in the forms of Sakra, Vabni, 
rama. Varuna. Samirana (i. e. VSyu), Dhanada and others who crowd 
the quarters. It then states that during a twelve-year sacrifice in 
aimisaranya Saunaka asked Suta, “Here. O Suta. you have narrated 


materials of this Parana with extreme caution. As large numbers of verses, nay 
cl^apters, of the Satnba-p, are found common with the Bhavisya-p, 
( tahma-parvan), Brahma-p. and Skanda-p. (Prabhasa-khanda), we have, in 
casj of doubt as regards the correctness of the readings of any of these verses, 
ma e a careful comparison before accepting any reading as authentic, 
for Mss of the Samba-p, see 

(») Eggeling. Ind. Off Cat., VI. pp. 1316-18 

int * complete Ms consisting of 70 chapters. Its second 

ntroductory verse ^timira-kira-kiratah etc.' does not occur in the printed 
c ition hough Eggeling’s description of this Ms as well as a comparison of 
concluding verses with those of the ASB and Calcutta Sanskrit College Mss 
ows t at the contents of this Ms are practically the same as those of the 
2^ mon, chap. 55 of the printed edition docs not seem to occur in this 

e difference in the numbers of chapters between this Ms and the 
^ d edition is due to the fact that in a few cases single chapters of this Ms 
each been split up into two or mote in the printed edition. For instance, 
chap. I of this Ms = chaps. 1-2 of the printed edition, 

” ” ” = .. 49-52 . 

and so on. 

The contents of this Ms after chap. 48 are divided into 22 sectious which 
neithei numbered nor designated as Adhyayas. Some of these sections are 
th'^*'*^^ *l^cse sections form practically a distinct part comprised under 

general title ‘Jnanottara’; and the last of these sections, which corresponds 
c ap. 84 of the printed edition, ends with a few verses which occur in die 
Mter. These concluding verses agree with those of the Calcutta Sanskrit College 
(for which see below). 

No. 3620. This is practically the same as the preceding Ms.] 

(a) Shastci, ASB Cat., V. pp. 750-7 

Off This incomplete Ms, which agrees considerably with the lad. 

• Ms mentioned above, lacks the second introductory verse ‘dmira-kira-kiritah 

• of the latter. It ends with chap. 81 and a part of chap. 8a of the priat»i 
**on. Thus, it lacks chaps. 83-84 and a part of chap. 8a of the latter. 

No. 4092. — Jhis Ms was copied in Saka 1764. It consists of 75 chapters. 


5 



34 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

to us, first of all, the old and much elaborate story of the six-faced 
[god Karttikeya] ; next [you have told us about] the Cosmic Egg 
(brahmanda), and also what was spoken by Vayu and by Savatnika, by 
Markandeya and by Vaisampayana, by Dadhici and by Sarva (i.e. 
Siva), by Hari, by the sages, and by the Baiakhilyas. And we have 
heard all these [from you] in company with the sages. But, O sage, 
you have not narrated what was done by the son of Hari (i.e. by Samba) 

The Purina of Bhaskara (bhaskarasya puranam), which was 

enquired into by the wise Samba, is concerned with the twelfth form 

of which the last corresponds to chap. 84 of the printed edition. In spite of 
this difference in the numbers of chapters, the contents of this Ms and the 
printed edition are practically the same. In this Ms, chaps. 52-74 have been 
grouped under a general title ‘jnanottara,’ but this title does not occur in the 
colophon of chap. 75, in which Narada speaks to Samba. 

No. 4093. — Though this Ms consists of 83 chapters and has a defective 
beginning, it is practically the same as the printed edition. Of the last six 
verses of the concluding chapter of this Ms, the first two and a half agree with 
verses 14-15 of chap. 84 of the printed edition, and the remaining ones are the 
same as the verses immediately preceding the two concluding verses of the 
Calcutta Sanskrit College Ms. Like the other Mss and the printed edition, 
this Ms contains a latter part called 'Jnanottara’, but in the colophon of its con- 
cluding chapter, in which Narada speaks to Samba, the word ‘Jnanottara’ does 
not occur. 

No. 4 ^ 94 ' — <Ieals with the praise of the Saka-dvipi Brahmins and claims 
to be the seventh chapter of the Samba-p. But in the printed edition the Saka- 
dvipi Brahmins are praised in chap. 26. Moreover, the opening verses of this Ms, 
as given by Sbastri, do not agree with those of chap. 26 of the printed edition. 
So, we are not sure whether these two chapters are considerably the same.) 

(3) Shastri and Gui. Calcutta Sans. College Cat., IV, pp. 122-3 

[No. 214. — ^The introductory and the concluding verses of this Ms, as 
given in the Catalogue, show that the contents of this Ms also are practically 
the same as those of the printed edition. The two concluding verses of this 
Ms agree with those of the Ind. Off. Ms; and the three verses and a half, 
immediately preceding those two concluding verses, are found to occur at the 
end of an ASB Ms (Cat. No. 4093).] 

(4) Keith, Ind. Off. Cat., 11 . ii, pp. 1000- 1001. 

(5) Benares Sans. College Cat., p. 338. 

(6) Burnell, Classified Index, p, 193, 

(7) P. P. S. Sastri, Janjorc Cat., XV, pp, 7177-78, No. 10584. 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


35 


of the Sun (? dvadasakara).., O blessed one, please narrate this 

entire Parana which is based on all scriptures”/® Consequently, Suta 
praised the Satnba-p. over the Mahabharata and all other Puranas and 
said that this Parana would contain chapters dealing with the following 
matters. 

Various old and interesting stories; essence of the Vedas and the 
Smrtis given in connection with the duties of the different castes; 
[various kinds of worship of the Sun; how Narada caused Krsna to 
curse Samba; (the Sun’s) foundation of a town by way of favouring 
Samba; measurement of Surya-mandala; the paring of the Sun s rays 
by means of a lathe, and the eulogy of the Sun; Samba s joy, and his 
consecration of an image of the Sun; Samba s bringing of the Magas, 
praise of the Magas; method of the worship of the Sun;] - the past, 
present and future; dissertation on mantras', description of the origin 
and destruction of the universe; sangopanga-samahara; introduction of 
the rules about, and worship of, the Sun; the six acts, viz., vasikarapa, 
akarsana, marana, uccatana, vidvesana, and stamhhana, characteristics 
of the Sun’s image: rules about the construction of the house for the 
worship of the Sun; description of mandalas (circles), and the 
performance of various kinds of yaga (viz., kriya-yaga, siddhi y^a, 
mahamandala-yaga, etc.); means of attaining the proximity 
of the tv;clvc'formed Sun; placing of the Sun on the lathe, 


10 Samba-p. 1. 8b-i4- ^ 

11 After I. 17a our printed edition omits the following ve v 

stnudhvatn munayah sarve sambakhyam papanasana 
puranatn sarva-rogaghnain patam kalyana-dayakam/ / 
atra nana-vidha puja suryasya ca maharaanah/ 
pituh fapo hi sambasya naradas tatra karanam// 
sapanugrahataf caiva tatha pura-nivefanam/ 
mandalasya pramanam hi bhramcr aradbanam tatha// 
tejasam facanatn caiva surya-suvas tatbaiva ca/ 
sambasya ca tadollasaip pratima-stbapanam tatha// 
maganayanam atraiva maga-mahatmyam eva ca/ 
puja-vidhim raver atra pujanisthas tatbaiva ca, / 

For these verses see Eggeling, Ind. OS. Cat., Vb P- ^ 



36 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


about flowers and incense; duties on the SaptamI Tithi ; method 
o£ fasting; results of gifts; determination of proper time; method of 
performing the duties to the Sun; method of burning incense; direc- 
tions regarding the study of scriptures (called ‘jaya’y, description of 
dreams; penance; characteristics of spiritual preceptors; initiation, and 
selection of mantras for the initiated; and various eulogies. — (Chap, i). 

Suta then said that once king Brhadbala, who was born in the 
race of Raghu, wanted to hear from his preceptor Vasistha about the 
eternal Brahma which caused cessation of rebirths, and put to him the 
following questions : — 

(1) Which god should be worshipped by a member of any of 
the four asramas who wishes to attain final release ? 

(2) How could he be sure of the attainment of heaven as well as 
the highest bliss ? 

(3) What should he do after passing to heaven, so that he may 
not lose it again ? 

(/}) Who is the chief among the gods and Pitrs ? 

(5) Whence did this universe originate, and where will it go 
after destruction ? 

In answer to these questions Vasistha praised the Sun as the only 
visible and eternal deity who is the highest among the gods and Pitrs 
and is the only source of energy, who never moves from his fixed 
position, who manifests the universe from himself in creation and ab- 
sorbs it into himself at the time of destruction, into whom the Yogins 
and the Samkhyas enter after forsaking their bodies, and into whose 
region the kings like Janaka, the sages like the Balakhilyas, Panca- 
sikha and Suka, and many members of different varnas entered in 
times of yore by practising yoga, and who, therefore, is the only 
god deserving devotion and worship.— (Chap. 2). Brhadbala then 
wanted to know where the original place (adyam sthanam) of 
worship of the Sun was situated on earth. Consequently, Vasistha 
said that out of affection for Samba and in order to favour the 
whole world the Sun permanently resided, in his twelfth form, viz., 

probably ‘bhramitn aropanain or ‘bhratner aropanam.’ It is more probable that 
the reading was ‘bhramav aropanam.’ 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


37 


Mitra,*® in the ‘city called Samba’ on the bank of the Candrabhagi 
and thence favoured his worshippers by accepting their worship 
duly performed. At Brhadbala’s request Vasistha narrated the story 
of Samba in the following way. 

Visnu, one of the twelve sons of Aditi,‘* was born as Visudeva, 
and Samba was the son of this Vasudeva. Once the irascible sage 
Narada, who had access into all the regions of the universe, came 
with some sages to the city of Dvaravati in order to see Vasudeva. 
Pradyumna and other young Yadavas received Narada with proper 
respect, but Samba was so proud of his youth and physical beauty 
and was so much addicted to amorous sports that he neglected the 
sage. In order to teach Samba modesty, Narada told Vasudeva that 
all his 16000 wives were so much enamoured of Samba that they 
were always anxious to meet him. But Vasudeva did not believe in 
Narada’s words. So, Narada promised to convince Vasudeva of the 
truth of his allegation, and went away. After a few days Narada 
returned to Dvaraka and found Vasudeva enjoying water*sports etc. 
in the pleasure-garden in Raivataka in company with his wives, who 

13 Samba-p. 3. 3 reads : — 

pritya sambasya tattarko jagato ’nugrahaya ca/ 
sthito dvadasa-bhagena mitro maitrena caksusa/ /, 

In Samba-p. 4.6 Mitra is mentioned as the last of the twelve Adityas. 

14 Samba-p. 3.6 reads: — 

aditer dvidasah pucro visnur yah sa punas tv iha/ 

vasudevatvam apannas tasya sambo ’bhavat sutah/ / 

In this verse Visnu is called the twelfth son of Aditi, but in none of 
lists of the names of the twelve Adityas given in Samba-p., chaps, 4 
and 9 (verses 3b-4) Visnu is assigned the twelfth place. Moreover, in th 

corresponding to Samba-p. 3 . 6 the Bhavisya-p. does not mentioa Visnu as 

twelfth Aditya. These lines of the Bhavisya-p. (I. 7*’ 
ya ete dvadasaditya virajante mahabalab/ 
tesatn yo visnu-samjnas tu satva-lokesu visrutab/ 
tasmat sambah suto jajne etc. . , v 

So, the present text of Samba-p. 3.6 (aditer dvadasah putro vi^ . 
must be due to a revision made according to the list of the names ** Vimii 

Adityas as given in Samba-p. 51 (verses 66-67 and 162-170) m w i ■ ^ 
is assigned the twelfth place. We shall see hereafter that chap. 5 * 

Samba-p, was a later addition. 



38 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


were coming under the influence of wine they were drinking. This 
was a great opportunity for Narada. He went to Samba and told him 
that he was wanted by his father immediately. Samba hastened to 
Vasudeva and stood before him. At the sight of Samba all of Vasu- 
deva’s wives, except three, namely, Rukminl, Satyabhama and Jamba- 
vati, became extremely passionate. At this moment Narada went 
there. As Vasudeva’s wives stood up to receive the sage, signs of 
their extreme passion became prominent on their dress. Vasudeva 
understood their mental condition and cursed them all, except the 
above-mentioned three, to be unable to pass to the region of their 
husband after his death and to be forcibly carried away by robbers. 
(Here the Purana states that after Vasudeva’s death, his wives were 
carried away by some ‘thieves of the land of five rivers’ even before 
the eyes of Arjuna). Vasudeva did not spare Samba but cursed him 
to become an ugly leper. Samba immediately became so, and Narada 
went away. (Here the Purana informs us that ‘later on, being 
impelled by destiny and by the recollection of the previous event. 
Samba enraged the sage Durvasas again in the same way and had his 
family exterminated by a musala born as a result of the sage’s 
curse’).*® — (Chap. 3). Being thus cursed by his father, Samba 
pleaded innocent, and Krsna advised Samba to take recourse to Narada 
for remedy. In accordance with this advice Samba met Narada at 
Dvaravati when the latter came there to see ‘Visnu’ (i. e. Vasudeva) 
on another occasion, and requested him to name the highest deity who 
deserved adoration of all gods and to whom he could take recourse for 
getting rid of the curse. Narada described his visit to the Surya-loka 
(Solar region), where he found the Sun attended by the gods, Yaksas 
Gandharvas, Apsarases etc., by the three Vedas incarnate, by the sages 
who were reciting the Vedic hymns of praise, by the three Samdhyas 
incarnate, Adityas, Vasus, Maruts and Asvins, by Brahma, Visnu and 
Rudra, by the Sun’s two wives Rajnl and Niksubha who remained at his 

15 Samba-p. 3. 52-53 — 

sambena punar apy evam duevasah kopito munih/ 
bhavyenarthena cityarthatn purvanusmaranena vai / / 
praptavan sumahacchapam sambo vai manujottamah/ 
cac-chapan musalam jatam kulam yenasya padtam/ / 


THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


39 


sides, by Pingala, the recorder of good and bad deeds of creatures,** 
by Danda-nayaka, by Rajna*" and Stosa,** by Kalmasa (i. e. Yama) 
and Paksin (i. c. Garuda) who were stationed at the gate, by the four- 
horned (or four-peaked — catuh-srhga) god Vyoman who resembled the 
Meru, and by the naked Dindi.** He spoke on the greatness of the 
Sun arid advised Samba to take recourse to this deity who pervaded 
the universe and was eulogised by Brahma and other gods. — (Chap, 
6). Consequently, Samba started, with his father’s permission, from 
the northern shore of the sea (?)/* reached the ‘great river (mabanadl) 

Samba-p. 6. aib reads ‘pingalo devakah.’ but in the corresponding line 
the Bhavisya-p. (I. 76. 13) reads ‘pingalo lekhakah.’ That the reading of the 
Bhavuya-p. is the correct one is evidenced by Samba-p. 16. bb-ya, in which 
Pingala is described as being engaged by the Sun in recording the good and bad 
deeds of all beings. See also Samba-p. 7, 2 for the same function of Pingala. 

In Visnudb. III. 67. 5 7 also Pingala is described as ‘atipirigala,' ‘uddipta- 
vesa, ‘lekhani-patra-kara’ and 'carma-iula-dhara.' 

* 7 "*^ In Bhav. I. 76. 13b and 18, which correspond to Samba-p, 6. 22a 
and 7. 3a respectively, these two names are given as Raja and Srosa. Butin 
Bhav. I. 124. 13 and 22-242 these names occur as Rajna and Srausa, the latter 
name being said to have been derived from the root ‘sru’ used in the sense of 
motion. Sec also Bhav. I. 143. 40a in which the names are given as Rajna and 
Srausa. Bhav. I. 130. 52b wrongly gives the former name as ‘Rajna.’ 

Samba-p. 36. 39 gives the names as ‘RSjan’ and ‘.Tosa.’ 

In the Avesta Rashnu (‘justice’) and Sraosha (‘obedience’) have been men- 
tioned as divine beings and companions of Mithra. 

19 In the Samba-p. (6. 23, 7. 4, and 16, 25) Dindi is described as ‘naked’ 
(nagnah, nagnakah); but in Bhav. I. 76. 14 and 19 and I. X24. i, which corr- 
espond to S3mba-p. 6, 23 (dindir nagno 'graias tasya), 7. 4 (ko dindir nagnako 

yas ca etc.), and 16. 25 ( samtisthati yas tu nagnah ) the words 

tatha*, ‘agratah’ and ‘magnah’ arc found in place of ‘nagnah and nagnakah 
of the Samba-p. 

On the other hand, in Bhav. I. 124. 3 and 7 (=Samba-p. i6. 26 and 31 
respectively) Rudra is described as naked (nagna). 

20 The text of Samba-p. 24. ^-6 runs as follows: 

» anujnatah sa krsnena sindhor uttara-kulatah/, 
jriatva samtarayamasa candrabhagam mahanadimj f 
tato mitravanatn gatva tirtham trailokya-visrutam/, 
upavasa-krsah sambah krfo dhamani-samtatah/ / 

These verses are the same as Bhav. I. 127. 6-7. The Bhavisya-p. reads 
‘gatva’ for ‘jnatva,’ and ‘opavasa-parah’ for ‘upavasa-kriah.’ 



40 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Candrabhaga’, thence went to the famous holy place Mitravana, 
emaciated his body there with fasts, and eulogised the Sun, who lived 
in the solar orb as an extremely effulgent Purusa, comprised all gods 
and the universe, was the same as the Paramatman, and was able to 
cure all kinds of skin diseases and physical defects. The Sun was 
pleased to confer devotion on Samba and to cure his leprosy. He 
asked Samba to establish an image of the Sun on the bank oE the 
Candrabhaga, and granted a boon that the town, thus created, would 
be known after Samba, and promised to appear daily to Samba in 
dream. — (Chap. 24). Now, once, after attaining his former physical 
beauty. Samba went, as usual, to have his bath in the Candrabhaga 
which was ‘not very far’ from his hermitage and found that an image 
of the Sun was being carried by the current with its face turned 
upwards. Samba brought this image to his hermitage, established 
it in a part of Mitravana, and asked it by whom it was constructed. 
The image related its history in the following way. When, in 
times of yore, the Sun’s brightness became unbearable to all 
creatures, he was requested by the gods to make himself 
endurable. Consequently, at his command Visvakarman mended 
his form by placing him on a lathe in Saka-dvTpa. Afterwards 
Visvakarman made this image with the Kalpa-vrksa, took it to the 
Himalayas, and sent it down the Candrabhaga for the sake of 
Samba. The image assured Samba that the Sun would always remain 
present at that place. On hearing this from the image and seeing the 
Sun with his own eyes. Samba built a temple (deva-grha) for the image 
and approached Narada for his advice regarding the selection of the 
best Brahmin priests for its worship, Narada decried the Devalaka 
Brahmins of Jambu-dvipa, because they lived on the property of the 
images they worshipped, denounced the Manava Sastra (the Code of 
Manu), and were degraded (patita) and excommunicated (apahkteya). 
He advised Samba to take recourse to the Sun for the purpose. Samba 
did so; and the Sun was pleased to advise him to bring the Magas 


21 Cf. Samba-p. 26. 23b garhitam manavatn iastrain na prasainsanti te 
dvijah. This line does not occur in the Bhavisya-p. It is highly probable that 
in this line the original reading for ‘garhitain’ was ‘garhanti.’ 



THE SAURA UPAPURaNAS 41 

from ^aka-dvlpa which was sicuatcd on the other side of the salt-ocean 
and was encircled by the ocean of milk, and where the people were divided 
into four castes, viz., Maga, Mamaga, Manasa and Mandaga** corres- 
ponding respectively to the Brahmins, Ksatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras 
of Jambu-dvipa but having no mixed caste among them. The people 
of Saka-dvipa, who were born of the Sun’s energy (tejas) and to whom 
the four Vedas were given by the Sun, worshipped the Sun by 
citing Vcdic hymns and wore Avyahgas.*® The image added that 
the Sun was worshipped as Visnu in Sveta-dvipa, as Mahesvara in 
Kusa-dvipa, as Brahma in Puskara-dvipa, and as Bhaskara in Saka- 
dvipa. Being thus advised by the image Samba saw his father at 
Dviravati, mounted Garuda and went to Saka-dvipa, whence he 
brought to Mitravana on the bank of the Candrabhaga eighteen 
families of Magas, who worshipped the Sun and performed sinti^ 
homas for the people. — (Chap. 26), 


22. Samba-p. 26. 30-31. 

The text of these verses, as given by Nagendra Nath Vasu in his Castes 
and Sects of Bengal, IV, p. 9, has ‘Masaga’ for ‘Mamaga. 

In Bhav. (Vehkat. ed.) I, 139. 74-75 the names of these four castes of Saka- 
dvipa arc given as Maga, Magaga, Ganaga (or Manasa) and Mandaga. These 
verses, as quoted by Nagendra Nath Vasu (b hb Castes and Sects of Bengal. 

p. 9), give the names as Maga. Masaga, Manasa and Mandaga (or Mand- 
afa); while according to Aufrecht’s Ms of the Bhavisya-p. the names are Maga. 
Magasa, Manasa and Mandaga (see Bod. Cat., p. 33 )* 

Mahabharata VI (Bhisma-parvan). n. 3 ^- 3 ® as Maga (or 

Manga), Mafaka, Manasa and Mandaga; Visnu-p. II. 4 . 69-70 have cm « 
Mrga (but ‘Maga’ in some Mss), Magadha, Manasa and Mandaga; and the 
Brahma-p„ which incorporates many of the chapters of the Visnu-p. including 
chap, 4 of Visnu-p. II, gives the names as Maga. Magadha, Manasa an 


Mand^a (see Brahma-p. 20. 71). 

One of the Mss of the Samba-p. described by Haraprasad Shasm has Maga, 
Magasa, Manasa and Mandaga (see Shastri, ASB Cat., V. P- 753 * 4 *^*)' 

Greek hbtorians, such as Herodotus and Strabo, mention the warlike Mas^ 
getae as livbg in Sakitai with other clans. So. the Massagetae seem to be the 

same as the ‘Masaga’ or ‘Mafaka’Ksatriyas of Saka-dvipa. 

23 Avyahgafr a girdle origbaUy worn by the Mag. pnests of anaent 
Pmi., In dw Avck. it i. cJled Aivyiongt**®- t /l _ - 

TWSnn-. g^t b tJltJ » Vi,n»U., lU. 67. 3b (k™,,. 

tafana casya yaviyanged samjnim^. 


6 



42 


STUDIES IN JHE UPAPURANAS 


The above-mentioned story of Samba’s establishing an image 
of the Sun at Sambapura in Mitravana and his settling of 
eighteen families of Magi priests from Saka-dvipa for the regular 
worship of this image forms the nucleus of the Samba-p., and in 
connection with this main story, a few subsidiary stories of interest 
have been introduced into this Purina for the glorification of the Sun. 
For instance, there are the stories of Sainjna’s penance in the Northern 
Kuru country and of Visvakarman’s paring of the Sun’s rays by means 
of a lathe. Of these, the former is narrated in Samba-p., chaps, lo-i x 
as follows. 

Brahma’s son Marici had a son named Kasyapa and a daughter 
named Surupa. Kasyapa’s son (on Diti) was Hiranyakasipu, whose 
son was Prahlada. Prahlada had a son named Virocana and a daughter 
named Prahladl. This Prahladi was married to Visvakarman, who was 
the son of BhuvanI, daughter of Surupa. The Sun’s wife Rajnl, who 
is said to be the same as Dyauh, was born to Prahladl under the 
name of Sainjna or Sarenu.®* The Sun took a human form in order to 
have physical union with Satnjna,*® and begot on her two sons, 
namely Vaivasvata Manu and Yama Sraddha-deva, and a daughter 
named YamI or Kalindl. Now, Satnjna could no longer stand the heat 
and brilliance of the Sun. She secretly created from her own body a 
female named Chaya (called to be the same as Niksubha, who, again, 
is identified with PrthivI), requested her to attend the Sun and look 
after Manu, Yama and YamI, and went to her father’s house. She 
lived there for one thousand years; and, being repeatedly asked by 
her father to return to her husband, she took the form of a mare and 
went to the Northern Kuru country. During Sarnjna’s absence Chaya, 

24 Samba-p. 10. 17b (sarenur iti vikhyata etc.). This line, as occurring in 
the Bhavisya-p. (I. 79. 17b) and the Skanda-p. (VII. i. ii. 65b), reads ‘surenuh’ 
for ‘sarenuh’. 

25 Samba-p. 10. 19c reads 'rantum vai nara-rupena suryo bhavati vai 
pura.’ This line, as occurring in the Bhavisya (I. 79. 20a) and tbc Skanda-p. 
(VII, i. II. 79a), reads ‘na tu tarn nara-rupena suryo (‘bharyam’ according to the 
Skanda-p.) bhajati vai pura.’ 

The text of this line, as given by the Samba-p., is obviously wrong. Cf. 
Samba-p. ii. 4 b" 5 ® ^golakaram tu tadrupam drsna samjha vivasvatah^asahanti 
tu tat tejah svaqx chayam presya c^ravit/ /), 


THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


43 


who resembled Samjna fully, attended the Sun as his wife and gave 
birth to two sons named Srutasravas and ^rutakarman (of whom the 
former was destined to be known as Savarni Manu and the latter 
became the planet Sanaiscara later on) and a daughter named Tapatl. 
Now, Chaya was so partial to her own children that Yania could not 
tolerate it. Once he threatened Chaya with his foot (padena samtarjay* 
imisa) and was cursed by her chat his foot would fall down without 
fail. Being afflicted in mind Yama approached the Sun with Manu 
and informed him of the whole matter. The Sun first minimised the 
severity of the curse by ordaining that worms would fall to the ground 
after taking flesh from his feet, and then asked Chaya the cause of 
her differencial treatment towards the children. But as Chaya remained 
silent, the Sun understood the whole situation through medication and 
was about to curse Cliaya, when the latter related the whole mattter 
to the Sun. Being thus informed of the whole situation, the Sun 
approached his father-in-law Visvakarman in rage ; but the latter told 
him chat being unable to bear the extreme brightness of his form, 
Sarnjna went to a grassy wood in the Northern Kuru country and was 
practising severe penance there for an endurable figure of the Sun (cf. 
ruparthatn bhavato ’ranye caranti sumahac tapah). Visvakarman 
then intimated to the Sun that he was ready to act up to Brahma s 
proposal of paring the Sun’s figure, only if the latter gave his consent. 
The sun agreed to it gladly and had his rays cut down by means of a 
lathe. The Sun then met Samjna in the Northern Kuru country in 
the form of a horse and had physical union with her. As a result of 
this union, the two Asvins, named Nasatya and Dasra, were born. 
The Sun had another son born of the earth. This son, who was 
named Raivata (or Revanta),” had the body of a horse and was armed 
with a bow and arrows. Yama ruled over the creation with justice 
and became Dharmataja ; Manu became a rulir and the progenitor of 
the line of Iksvaku ; YamI was transformed into the river Yamuna ; 
Savaini Manu was destined to become a ruler in future ; Sanaiscara 

26 The name is given as ‘Raivata’ and ‘Revanta’ in the Samba-p., but in 
the Bhavisya-p. it is given as ‘Raivata’. ‘Revata’ and ‘Revanta’ (see Bhav. I. 
79, verses 59. 63. 79; I. .24. 30 - In Visnudh. III. 67. 9 the name is given 
as ‘Revanta.’ 



44 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


became a planet : Tapati, who became the wife of king Samvarana, 
was turned into a river of the same name in the Vindhya mountain; 
the Asvins became the divine physicians; and Revanta became a 
noble and sanctifying deity easy to please. 

The story of Visvakarman’s paring of the Sun’s rays by means 
of a lathe is briefly this : — 

As Samjna went to her father’s house and then practised austeri- 
ties (in the Northern Kuru country), the Sun became favourably 
inclined towards her and intended to fulfil her desires. In the mean- 
time Brahma, being requested by the sages to save the creation from 
the trouble caused by the burning rays of the Sun, approached the 
Sun with other gods and Prajipatis and asked him to have his figure 
carved out by Visvakarman. Ac Brahma’s request Visvakarman 
placed the Sun, with the latter’s consent, on a lathe and pared his rays 
up to the knees. While the Sun’s body was thus being cut out ‘for 
the creation of the seasons of frost, heat and water’, Brahma, Visnu, 
Rudra, Indra, Visvakarman and other gods, as well as the sages (viz., 
Balakhilyas, Visvamitra and others), Vidyadharas, Nagas etc. eulogised 
the Sun, and the Gandharvas (well versed in the three gramas, viz., 
sadja, madhyama and gandhara) and Apsarases etc. honoured the Sun 
with songs, dances and musical concerts. With the rays thus mopped 
off Visvakarman made a disc for Visnu and various missiles for other 
gods. The Purina adds that as the Sun’s rays were pared up to his 
knees, his feet are always kept under a cover. — (Chaps, i 2-1 5). 

Another story may be mentioned here. 

Once Brahma and other gods found out that it was only through 
the boons of the compassionate Sun that the demons became powerful 
enough to trouble the gods. So, they decided to be devoted to the 
Sun and to surrround him in such a way that the demons might not 
see him. Accordingly, Indra stood, under the name of Danda- 
nayaka,*’’ on the left side of the Sun and was engaged by the latter 
to rule over the world with his danda (sceptre) and nlti (science of 
politics); Agni, who took his stand on the right side of the Sun, was 
known as Pihgala due to his tawny colour and was engaged in rccord- 

27 Dandanayaka is named as Dandin in Yisnudh. III. 67. 5. 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


45 


ing the good and bad deeds of all creatures; the two Asvins stood on 
two sides of the Sun; Karttikcya and Hara stood ‘at the eastern gate* 
under the names of Rajha and Stosa respectively** ; Yama and Garuda 
assumed the names of Kalmasa and Paksin respectively (because 
the former was kalmasa i.e. variegated, and the latter had 
wings) and stood, with two asses,** at the gate, which was thus 
rendered inaccessible ; on the south, stood Citragupta (the officer of 
Yama) and Kala under the names of Jandakara and Mathara respec- 
tively ; on the west, stood Varuna and Sagara under the names of 
Prapnuyana and Ksutapa** respectively; on the north, stood Kuvera 
and Vinayaka, the latter having the form of an elephant; and on the 
east, stood Revanta, and Rudra under the name of Dindi. Thus the 
Sun’s attendants were ‘eighteen in number*. In order to prevent the 
demons these attendants as well as the Vedic hymns assumed various 
forms and surrounded the Sun with missiles in their hands. (Samba- 
p. 1 6. 1-24). 


28 Samba-p. 16. 8a reads ‘purva-dvarc sthitau tasya rajna-stosau inababalau' ; 
but in the corresponding line the Bhavisya-p. reads ‘dvara-palau sthitau tasya 
rajnah h'es^au mahabalau’ (sec Bhav. I. 124. 21a), there being no mention of 
‘purva-dvara.’ The reading 'rajnah sresAau’ of the Bhavisya-p. is obviously 
wrong, C£. Bhav. I, 124. 22-24 where the derivative meanings of ‘Rajna and 
‘Stosa’ (and not ‘srestha*) are given. See also Bhav, I. 13®' 5 *^' 

29 Saniba-p. 16. 1 la reads ‘kharain hi duratikrantain krtva dvaram vyava- 
sthitau,’ but Samba-p. i6. 21a reads ‘sakharadvarikau jncyau tajna-stosau tatah 
sthitau.’ JVith whomsoever the ‘/feixfM’ (ass) may be connected, it is clear that 

the asses were there. 

The Bhavisya-p. has these two lines as follows : —‘dvitiyaya^ tu kaksayam 
apradhrstau vyavasthitau’ and ‘tau surya-dvarapau jneyau rajna srausau tatah 
smrtau’ (see Bhav. I. 1 24. 25b and 35 ^). 

30 The name ‘Mathara’, which may have been derived from the Avestan 
Mathra. is found in the Bhavisya-p. (I. 53 - 0 . t^e name ‘Jandakara,’ which 
also seems to have an Avestan origin, does not occur in the Bhavisya, 

31 These two names are given respectively as ‘Prapnuyana’ and 'Ksauya’ 
in Samba-p. 16. 1 6a, as ‘Prapnuyana’ and ‘Ksutapa’ in Samba-p. 16. 16b and 
20a, and as ‘Prapnuyan’ and 'Nuksutaya' in Samba-p. 29. 20a, 

The Bhavisya-p, does not contain diesc names. 



46 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


In Samba-p. i6 (verses 25-35) ^ 7 ’ story of Dindi is 

narrated as follows: — 

After tearing away Brahma’s head, Rudra took the skull in his 
hand and went naked to Daruvana for practising penance. At the 
sight of Rudra, the minds of the wives and daughters of the sages 
residing there became agitated. So, the sages drove Rudra away from 
that place. Rudra thence went to the Solar region, where the Sun’s 
chief attendants advised him to take recourse to the Sun for getting rid 
of the sin committed. Rudra did so and eulogised the Sun, the result 
being that he became purified and was given the name ‘Dindi’. The 
Sun advised Rudra to live in a highly sacred place on earth where he 
himself would live with him in company with his eighteen chief 
attendants as well as fourteen others. The Sun also conferred divine 
knowledge on Rudra, gave the name of Avimukta-ksetra to the place 
where Rudra practised austerities for attaining the Sun’s favour, and 
assured Rudra that those people, who would bow down to Rudra and 
the Sun at that place having the measurement of a krosa, would 
become sinless. 

Besides these stories, there are also others which are no less inter- 
esting and important than those already mentioned. For instance, in 
chaps. 42-43 the story of the establishment of the Sun’s image in 
the Sun’s penance-forest on the shore of the salt-ocean is given as 
follows : — 

‘After Samba had brought the Yaiakas and had a temple construct- 
ed for the Sun’, the gods, sages, Siddhas, men and others heard of 
‘Mitravana’ (Mitra’s forest) and at once came to this ‘penance- forest’ 
(tapovana) which was situated on the shore of the salt-ocean and was 
made by Visvakarman. Being thanked by Narada for enabling him 
to see the Sun’s ‘penance-forest’ (tapovana) which was furnished with 
an eternal image of this god. Samba approached the Sun and was 
advised by the latter not to be proud of his glorious deed. Moreover, 
the Sun narrated the story that in ancient times some sages performed 
austerities there for many centuries, became the creators of this place 
through the Sun’s favour, and thereby attained great fame for a 
Manvantara. Now, once the sages, Siddhas, Gandharvas and others, 
who lived in the Sun’s penance-forest (tapovana, also called Surya- 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


47 


kanana) situated on the shore of the salt-ocean and worshipped him 
in various ways, stood in wait for his rise, eulogising him all the while. 
At dawn they were surprised to see that the Sun made the ocean, the 
sky and the earth red by means of his rays and appeared simultaneously 
in the sky and in the ocean. There was yet another form of the Sun 
which remained in water. Manus recovered it by entering the ocean, 
placed it in the ‘tapovana’, and cited hymns in its praise. On Manus’ 
enquiry as to who constructed it and how it came to that place the 
image replied that after being constructed by Visvakarman and 
worshipped by the gods for the good of the world, it was placed on 
the Kalpavrksa in the Himalayas, whence it passed successively through 
the rivers Candrabhaga, Vaipasa, Satadrava, Yamuna, Jahnavl (also 
called BhagIrathI) and Modagahga®* until it reached the salt-ocean. 
The image also asked Manus to establish itself. Consequently, 
Vaivasvata Manu had a temple built for it, and the gods eulogised 
it, named it as Mundita and Mundira after being initiated by it to 
Sun-worship, and established the Sun in three (?) different places.** 

In chap. 45 the story of the origin of shoes and umbrellas is 
narrated thus : — 

Once Jamadagni began to shoot arrows playfully, and his wife 
Renuka was engaged in collecting them. When, at mid day, 
the earth became extremely hot due to the burning rays of the Sun, 
Renuka delayed in fetching the arrows thrown by Jamadagni. Under- 
standing Renuka’s difficulties Jamadagni became so angry with the 
Sun chat the latter appeared before the former in the form of a 
Brahmin and appeased him by handing over a pair of shoes and 
an umbrella for Renuka’s use. 

32 The reading ‘modagan^-mahanadau’ in Samba-p. 43 . 32b (bhagirathito 
vijneya modaganga-mahanadau) is obviously wrong. It should be ‘modaganga 
mahanadL' Cf. the adjective ‘vijneya’ and also the line ‘tasmad vai modagan^yah 
pravista lavanodadhim’ (Samba-p. 43 . 33*’) 

gahga the Sun’s image did not pass into any other river before entermg Je sea. 

It is needless to repeat that the present edition of the Samba-p. is full of mis- 
tslccs 

33 CEsthapayitvaravirtibhaktyatrihsthanesu surottamah.-Samba-p. 43 - 

36b. 



48 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


In addition to the above-mentioned stories, the following topics 
have been introduced into this Purina for the effective glorification of 
the Sun : — 

The Sun’s creation of Prajapatis and various kinds of creatures 
in the form and capacity of Brahma, and his division of himself into 
twelve parts and birth from Aditi as twelve Adityas, viz., Indra, 
Dhatr, Parjanya, Pusan, Tvastr, Aryaman, Bhaga, Vivasvat, Visnu, Amsu, 
Varuna and Mitra, of whom Indra ruled over the gods, Dhatr became 
a Prajapati and created beings, Parjanya remained in clouds, Pusan 
resided in food and nourished the created beings, Tvastt remained in 
trees, plants and herbs, Aryaman resided in the bodies of animals for 
facilitating the movement of air, Bhaga remained in the earth as well 
as in bodies, Vivasvat dwelt in fire and helped digestion, Visnu, the 
ninth form of Citrabhanu,** became the slayer of the enemies of gods, 
Amsuman resided in air and gladdened the creatures, Varuna resided 
in water contained in the sea and enlivened the whole world which 
depends on water, and Mitra, the twelfth from of the Sun (Bhanu), 
resided on the bank of the Candrasarit for the good of the world, 
performed austerities there by living on air, and favoured his devotees 
with boons, this original place of Mitra’s residence being known as 
Mitravana, which was later on developed into a town by Samba 
(pascat sambena nirmitam). — (Chap. 4). The origin of the visible 
Sun, with its shooting rays, from the Egg brought forth by Aditi; 
the dimension of the Sun; the names and functions of its rays in 
general; the names and functions of its seven principal rays and their 
connection with the stars and planets, which arc said to have originated 
from the Sun; and the way in which the Sun fills the universe with 
its rays. — (Chap, 7). The Sun as the original source and the main 
stay of the universe; the absolute necessity of the Sun for the measure- 
ment of time, the performance of Vedic sacrifices, and the growth of 
the vegetable world; and the different auspicious colours of the Sun 
during the different seasons. — (Chap. 8). The twelve common names 

34 The text reads ‘Mitrabhanu’ (Samba-p. 4. i6a). But this reading is 
erroneous. Cf. Satnba-p. 9. 2 and Bhavisya-p. I. 7^. i8a and 78. 55a (correspond- 
ing to Samba-p. 4. i6a and 9. 2 respectively), in which ‘Citrabbanu’ is given 
as a name for the Sun. 



THE SAURA UPAPURaNAS 


49 


of the Sun (viz., Aditya, Savitr, Surya, Mihira, Arka, Prabhakara, 
Martanda, Bhaskara, Bhaiiu, Citrabhanu, Divakara and Ravi), the names 
of the twelve Adityas (viz., Visnu, Dhatr, Bhaga, Pusan, Mitra, Indra, 
Varvina, Aryainan,** Vivasvat, Arnsumat, Tvaso: and Parjanya), the 
the different months in which these twelve Adityas shine, and the 
numbers of their rays. — (Chap. 9). The evolution of the universe 
according to the principles of the Samkhya system, and the appearance 
of the Supreme Being (Isvaram parani) as a luminary (called Savitr) 
at the prayer of Brahma, Visnu, Mahesvara and others who were all 
confused by darkness.’ — (Chap. 14). The origin of Vyoman (which is 
called ‘sarva-devamaya’, ‘sarva-bhutamaya’ and ‘sarva-srutimaya’ and 
whose worship is said to be equivalent to the worship of all gods) 
from the space of the Cosmic Egg and of the four-peaked bderu, 
which, like the pericarp of a lotus, formed the centre of the earth, 
round which the Sun moved in his chariot, and which was resorted 
to by the thirty-three sacrificing gods (viz,, eleven Rudras, twelve 
Adityas, eight Vasus, and two Asvins, whose names also are given), the 
names of the fourteen Manus, tlie fourteen Indras and the Visvedevas 


living during the reigns of these Manus, the seven Marucs(from whom 
forty-nine Maruts arose), the three Fires (whose sons and grandsons 
were forty in number), the different kinds of years, the nine planets 
(with the mention of their nature, their origin, their relative position, 
their dimensions, and their distance from the earth), the seven 


35 Samba-p. 9. 3b wrongly reads ‘varuno yamah’ for ‘varuiio ’ryama. In 

its corresponding line the Bhavisya-p. (I. 78. 56a) has the latter reading. See 
also Samba-p, 9. 5b and 9® name •Aryaman, 

36 The names of the nine planets are the following:— Aditya. Soma, 

Lohitanga. Budha, Brhaspati. Snkra, Sanaiscara, Rahu and Dhumaketo. Of 
these. Aditya and Soma are called mandala-graha. Rahu is called chaya-graha. and 
the rest tara-graha. Soma is chief of the naksatras (naksatradhipati). and the Sun is 
graha-raja. Among the planets the Sun occupies the lowest position (sarvesam tu 
grahanam vai hy adhastac carace ravih— id. and above it t e ot er p an ts 

and the different mandalas are situated, one above the other, in t ie o owing 
order:— Soma, (naksatra-mandala). Budha, Bhargava. Angaraka. Brh^pa i, 
Sanaiicara, (rsi-mandala). and (Ohruva); Rahu moves mostly m the A itya- 
mandala but sometimes traverses the path of Soma (aditya-mlaye rahuh kadaat 
5oma-mirgagah-i8. 51b): and Ketu always remains in the Surya-mandala. The 

7 



50 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


lokas (viz., bhah, bhuvah, svah, mahah etc., which arc said to be 
contained in Vyonian), and the eight classes of demi-gods. — (Chap, 

1 8. ). Geography of the earth (its seven dvipas, the seven oceans, the 
varsa mountains, etc.), the names of the fourteen lokas, the measure- 
ment of the mountain Mcru (which is said to be golden 
and to be situated at the centre of the earth), and the names*^ 
and description of its four peaks. — (Chap. 19). The towns surround- 
ing the Meru** ; the speed with which the Sun goes round the Mcru; 
and the names of the different gods who worshipped the Sun at dif- 
ferent times. — (Chap. 20). Description of the Sun’s one-wheeled 
chariot, of which the different divisions of time were the component 
parts, and which was drawn by the seven metres (viz., Gayatrt, 
Tristubh, Jagad, Anustubh, Pahkti, Brhatl and Dsnij) in the forms of 
seven horses and was attended by the gods, Adityas, sages, Gandhar- 
vas, Apsarases, snakes, Raksasas etc. ; the names of those gods, 
Adityas, and others who, with their followers, attended the Sun’s 
chariot in the different seasons of the year (the spring season consisting 
of Caitra and Vaisakha) ; and the way in which the Sun nourished 

dimension (vistara) of the Sun is 9000 yojanas, and the measurement of its 
mandala is thrice its dimension; the dimension (vistara) of the Moon is twice 
that of the Sun, and its mandala is thrice its dimension; the dimension of 
Bhargava (i.e. Sukra) is one sixteenth of that of the Moon, the dimension of 
Brhaspati is less by one fourth than that of Bhirgava; the dimension of Kiija (i.e. 
Mahgala) is less by one fourth than that of Brhaspati ; and the dimension of 
Budha is less by one fourth than that of Kuja. The rksas (stars) have generally 
the same dimension as that of Budha, and there is no star having a dimension 
less than half a yojana. Rahu is equal in dimension to the Sun, but the expanse 
of Ketu is not fixed (aniyatah). — Samba-p. i8. qiff. 

It should be noted here that Samba-p., chap. 18 has many verses in common 
with Devi-p., chaps. 46 and 47. 

37 The names of the four peaks of the Meru are the following; — Saumanasa 
(which h golden), )yotiska (which has the colour of rubies), Citra (which abounds 
in all kinds of metals), and Candramasa (which is white and silvery).— Samba-p. 

19. 2 off. 

38 Amaravati (capital of Indra) was situated on the east of the Meru, 
Yamani (the city of Yama) on its south, Sukha (the city of Vanina) on its west, 
and Vibhavati (the city of Soma) on its north. — ^Samba-p. 20. 2ifE. 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 51 

the gods and Pitts with nectar communicated through the moon 
developed by his ray called Susumna, and men and other creatures 
by means of water drawn up with his rays and poured down as rain. 
— (Chap. 21). Consumption of fifteen digits of the moon by the 
gods and Pitp during the dark half of the month; the moon's entrance, 
with its sixteenth digit, into the Sun in the morning, into trees and 
planets at mid-day, and into water in the evening during the new- 
moon day, and its nourishment by the Sun during the bright half of 
the month; the names of two kinds of PaurnamasI and Amavasya ; 
and the names of the gods who consume fourteen digits of the moon 
during the dark half of the month. — (Chap. 22), Description of 
solar eclipse, in which the Sun is not really eaten up by Kahu (who is 
described as ‘tamomaya’), but the fact is that when on a new-moon 
day (amavasya) Rahu approaches the Sun for having his share of 
nectar from the moon which enters the Sun on that day, he covers 
the Sun as well as the moon which intervenes' between the Sun and 
Rahu description of lunar eclipse, during which Rahu approaches 
the moon on the full-moon day (purnima) with the same purpose and 
covers it with the shadow of the earth. — (Chap. 23). Description 
of the Magas as those who used to meditate on the syllable ‘if , and 
of the Yajakas as those who worshipped the Sun by burning incense, 
offering garlands and various other articles, and muttering mantras, 
the aim of the Magas and the Yajakas being the atuinment of final 
emancipation (moksa) through service (karma-yoga) to the Sun who 
resides in the phenomenal Sun and is both ‘sakala* and 'niskala’.— 
(Chap. 27). Acquirement of jnSna through the practice of yoga 
(which consists of pranayama, dbSrana, pratyabara and dhyana); attain- 
ment of Surya-mandala (solar region) through yoga by those who are 
given to Traividya-siddhanta as well as by those who are versed in 
Surya-siddhanta (also called Aditya-siddhaiita).— (Chap. 28). Charac- 
teristics of the Sun’s images.** Construction of Sun-temples, in 

39 Cf 'atai chadayate rahur abbravac chaii bhaskarau’ (Samba-p. 23. 33 »). 
and -adho rahuh parah somah somad urdhvaip divakarah’ (Samba-p. 23. 32a), 

40 It has already been noted that in connection with the desctipuon of &e 

characteristics of the Sun^s inuges the Samba-p. 129. 2-33, 5b an y * ^ 

ancient times there was no image (of the Sun); the Sun was w ppeo 



52 


STXJDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


connection with which the following topics have been dealt with: — 
selection and preparation of the site for the temple; placing of the 
Sun’s image with its face turned very often towards the east and in 
rare cases towards the west ; position of the snana-grha and the agni- 
hotra-grha; and position of Sambhu and Matrs, Brahma, Visnu, 
Niksubha, Rajnl, Pihgala^ Dandanayaka, Sri and Mahasveta (i.c. 
Laksmiand Sarasvatl respectively), the Asvins, Rajna and Stosa, Kalmasa 
and Paksin, Jandaka and Mathara, Prapnuyana and Ksutapa,^^ Kuvera 
and Soma, Revanta and Vinayaka, Vyoman, and Dindi.** Drawing 

circle. The Sun, worshipped by his devotees in early days, was circular, just as 

there is the disc (of the Sun) in the sky No rule is (to be observed) in the 

case of those images which are (worshipped) in (private) houses; the 

examination of an image is to be made in case it is placed in a temple.” 

41 Though Samba-p. 29. 20a reads ‘prapnuyannuksutayau’, the names ate 
Prapnuyana and Ksutapa. — See footnote 31 above. 

42 The text of Samba-p. 29. i3b-24b (on the position of the Sun’s atten- 
dants) is as follows: — 

nicyatn prahmukham arkasya kadacit pascimamukham/ 
stbapaniyatn grhe samyak prahmukhe sthana-kalpana// 
bhavanSd daksine parive raveh snana-grham smrtam/ 
agnihotra-grham katyain raver uttaratah subham/ / 
udanmukham bhavec ebambhor matrrnam ca grhottamam/ 
brahma pascimatah stbapyo visnur iittaratas tatha// 
niksubha daksine parsve rave rajni tu vamatah/ 
pihgalo daksine bhanor vamato dandanayakah / / 
iri-mahasvetayoh sthanam purastad amsumalinah/ 
tatas ca asvinau dvari puja-karma-grhad bahih// 
dvitiyayam tu kaksayam rajha-stosau vyavasthitau/ 
trtiyayam tu kaksayam stbitau kalmasa-paksinau// 
jandako ma^arah stbapyo daksinam difam asthitau/ 
prapnuyan-nuksutayau tu pascimam disam asthitau// 
udicyam sthapaniyas tu kuverah soma eva ca/ 
uttarenaiva tabhyam tu revantah savinayakah/ / 
yad raver vidyatc sthanain caturdiksu tu tatra va/ 
arghaya mandale dve vai karye savyapasavyatah / / 
dadyad udaya-velayam argham suryaya daksine/ 
uttarc mandale dadyad argham astam gate ravau / / 
caturasram catuh-srngam vyoma deva-grhagratah/ 
pratima-pada-sutrena karyam madhyasya mandalam// 
dindih sthapyah puras tasmad adityabhimukhas tatha//, 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


53 

o[ tlircc circles (mandala) for the offer of materials of worship at Suti' 
rise, at mid-day and at Sun-set. — (Chap. 2^). Seven kinds of images 
(so far as their materials are concerned), viz., kancam (made of gold), 
rajatr (made of silver), tamrl (made of copper), parthivi (earthen), 
sailaja (made of stone), vatksi (wooden) and alekhya (painted) ; direc- 
tions about the construction of wooden images (viz., selection of trees 
for the construction of images; time and method of worship of the 
trees selected; method of cutting down the trees; effects of the fall 
of the trees in particular directions; heights and measurements of the 
different limbs of the images ; dresses of the images, viar,, avyahga, 
fada-bandha etc. ; and so on). — (Chaps. ^0-31). Method of conse- 
cration (of the Sun’s image), which is free from Tantric elements and 
in which Vedic and Puranic mantras only are to be used. — -.(Chap. 32). 
Directions about the making of flags and flag-staffs for different deities 
(viz., Visnu, Isvara i.e. Siva, Brahma, Ravi, Jaladhipa i.e. Varuna, 
Dhanada, Karttikeya, Hcramba i. e. Ganesa, Devaraja, Yama and 

The important variations in readings in these lines as occurring in the 
Bhavisya-p. (I. 130, 47b-36 and 59'6oa) are the following: — 

‘sammulchatn’ (he ‘prahmukham’ in line i); 'sthapaniyam grbam samyak 
pranmukhasthanakalpaiiat’ (for line 2); ‘nimbas tu’ (for ‘niksubha’ in line 7); 
‘tatah sthapyasvinoh sthanam purvadevagrhad bahih’ (for line 10); ‘rajna- 
srausau* (for ‘rajnastosau' in line ii); ‘jandakamacarau (v. 1. janukamacarau) 
sthapyau daksinam disam asthitau’ (for line 13); 'kuvero loka-pujitah (for 
‘kuverah soma eva ca' in line 15); ‘yatra va vidyate sthanam diksu satva guha- 
dayah’ (for line 17); ‘pratimayas tu sutrena karyani madhye ’sya mandalam 
(for line 22); line 14 (prapnuyannuksutayau tu etc.) does not occur in the 
Bhavisya-p. 

It is to be noted that in Samba-p., chap. i6, wherein the position of the 
attendants of the Sun has been given, there is mention neither of Sri and 
Mahasveta nor of Soma, and the position of the Asvins and Revanta is different. 
Mahasveta is, however, mentioned in Samba-p. 3 ^- 3 * sud-yS. 39 and Soma is 
included in chap. 36 (verse 4 ib) among the; attendant deities of the Sun. 

According to Visnudh. III. 67 the names and position of tiie -attendants of 
the Sun are as follows ;—Dandin (i.e. Danda-nayaka), Dhaima in the form of- 
a lion, and the banner (dhvaja)— on the left of-the Sun; Pihgala— on the right; 
the Sun’s four sons (viz., Revanta. Yama and the two Manus) as well as his 
four wives (viz., Rajni, Niksubha, Ch 5 y 3 and Suvarcasa) — on both sides. The 
Sun, who is the king of planets, may also be surrounded by other planets. 



54 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Durga), the tops of these flags being furnished with the figures (which 
may either be made of gold, silver or gems, or be painted ) of the 
animals which serve as the carriers of the respective deities ; method 
of furnishing temples with flags. — (Chap. 33). Method of perform- 
ing the annual worship (samvatsarl puja) and the annual car-festival 
(ratha-yatra)*’ of the Sun with the use of Vcdic and Puranic mantras 
(there being no Tantric element) ; performance of the rite for the 
pacification of planets (graha-santi) in case the car was damaged while 
being drawn. — (Chap. 34). Mental performance of the car-festival 
by the devotees, who are to have their heads always shaved. — (Chap. 
35). Offer of incense by raising the vesel, first to the atmospheric Sun 
and then to his image and his attendants and other atmospheric deities 
(viz., Rajnl, Niksubha, Dandanayaka, Pingala, Rajna Stosa,^®Kal- 
masa, Garutmat, the quarter-deities, Dindi,** Revanta,*^ Indra, Yama, 

43 The car-festival was performed in the following way : — A car was 
constructed with gold, silver or hard wood, and fitted with good and well- 
decorated (artificial) horses. The image of the Sun was placed in it and duly 
worshipped with the performance of sacrifice to the Sun. The car was then 
drawn by men or bulls. Ac the end of the festival Brahmins were gratified with 
various kinds of food, and fanti-homa was performed. 

TheSamba-p. (34. 14-173) says that the car of the Sun, which was originally 
made by Brahma with the different divisions of a year as its component parts, 
and in imitation of which Visvakarman constructed cars for other gods, was 
introduced in the world of mortals by Iksvaku to whom it was given by Vaivas- 
vata Manu. 

44-45 Samba-p. 36, 3 ga these two names are wrongly given as Rajan 
and Tosa (tato rajne ca tosaya kalmasaya garutmatc) In other places of the 
Samba-p. the names Rajna and Stosa arc found. Bbav. I. 143. 40a, which 
corresponds to Samba-p. 36.39a, gives the names as Rajna and Srausa (tatha 
rajnaya srausaya tathesaya garutmate). 

46-47 These two names have been given as Dandin and Raivanta in 
Samba-p, 36, 40a (dandine ca tato dadyad raivantanucaraya ca); but in other 
places of this Purana the names Dindi and Revanta (or Raivata) occur. Bhav. 
I, 143 51a. which corresponds to Samba-p. 36.40a, reads ‘dindinc tu tato 
dadyaddbemantaya yaduttama. The reading 'hemantaya’ is obviously a mistake 
for 'revantaya.' 

In the Visnudharmottara ( 111 . 67. 5) it is Dandanayaka who is named as 
Dandin, 



55 


THE SAURA UPAPURaNA<: 

Jaiesa i.e. Varuna, Kuvcra.Soma, and others), after summoning the Sun 
by failing on knees, offering flowers to him on a copper vessel by 
muttering the Aditya-brdaya mdntra, and worshipping the Sun with 
the citation of Vedic and Puranic mantras. — (Chap. 36). Method of 
burning incense (during which a Arc is to be kindled, the Sun is to be 
summoned with a Puranic mantra, homa is to be performed with the 
citation of Vedic m^intras, and so on); names of the sacrificial and 
non-sacrificial trees, the proper time for homa, and the persons eligible 
for performing homa. — (Chap. 37). Results of various kinds of 
service rendered to the Sun (viz., worship, offer of various articles to 
the deity, gifts to be made to Brahmins and others, salutation, fasting, 
etc.); characteristics of Surya-bhaktas (‘bhakti’ and ‘sraddha’ being 
dcAned as 'nianaso bhavaoa bhaktir iccha sraddha ca kathyatc ); the 
six mediums of worship, viz., fire, water, air, holy place, image, 
and pedestal for the image of a deity (there being no mention of 
yantra and mandala^.** — (Chap. 38). Method of initiation (which 
requires the selection and preparation of the ground, selection 
of spiritual preceptors and disciples, offer of argha to the Sun with 
the mahamantra, drawing of a mandala with the figure of a 
twclve-petallcd lotus in it, performance of homa and of tattva-nyisa 
and mantra-nyasa, worship of the quarter-guardians, to some of whom 
fish, meat etc. arc offered, and so on, the mantras used in connection 
with initiation having Tantric symbolism). — (Chaps. 39 and 41). 
The import of letters used as symbols in mantras (which have 
Tantric symbolism). - (Chap. 40). Sadacara^* for the Sun-worshippers. 
—(Chap. 44). Methods and results of observing the seven different 
SaptamI Tithis, viz., Vijaya-saptami, Kamika Saptami etc., as well as 

48 Samba-p. 38. 45 — 

agtiau toye cantarikse ^ucau bhucayain tathaiva ca/ 

prarimayain tatha pindyam dadyad arghain prayatoatah/ / 

49 In the section on sadacara the following lines ate noteworthy ; — 

(a) par^smin dandane na icebet/kruddho ’pi na hanyar any.tra 

bharya-putra-dasa-dasi-sisya-bhrattbhyah/ 

(b) pratar tttthaya pitaram acaryam abbivadayet/ 

(c) vrddho ’gatir avasanno mitrani iuka-sirikab/ 
paravatah punyakrtam gehe syus tailapayikah/ / 



56 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


the twelve Sukla Saptamis. — (Chap. 46). Method of Sun-worship 
with the performance of nyasas and mudras and the citation of 
mantras which have Tantric symbolism; method of performance of 
different kinds of mudras; dissertation on the formation and import 
of bijas used in mantras (with classification of all the letters of the 
alphabet); performance of abhicara; rites to be performed at the time 
of sarnnyasa; method of practising yoga\ and so on. — (Chaps. ^7-83). 
Results of actions (karma-vipaka); gifts to be made to the reader, 
(pathaka) of the Saiiiba-p. for the pleasure of the Sun. — (Chap. 84). f 

Besides the above-mentioned topics the Samba-p. contains a number 
of hymns (stava) in praise of the Sun.*® It also contains the etymolo- 
gical meanings of the following: — 

(1) The epithets Aditya, Aja, Mahadeva, Isvara, Brahma, Bhava, 
Prajapati, Purusa, Svayainbhu, Hiranyagarbha and Narayana as applied 
to the Sun (chap. 7, verses 16-21), 

(2) the Sun s twelve common names®' (except Mihira and Ravi), 
the names of the twelve Adityas,** and the names Sakra, Brahma, 
Mahadeva, Rudra and Kala as applied to the Sun for his different 
functions (chap. 9, verses 1 5ff.), 

(3) names Rajnl and Niksubha for the Sun’s two wives 
(chap. 1 1 , verses 54-57), and 

(4) names Rajna, Stosa, Jandakara and Mathara for four 
of the Sun s attendants (chap. 16, verses g-io and 14-15). 

The above contents of the present Samba-p. show that the Purana 
is pre-eminently a work of the Sauras whose sectarian mantra is 
‘khakholkaya namah’. Herein the Sun is called the highest deity 
and the Supreme Brahma. He is both the individual and the supreme 
soul and is both one and many. While residing as ksetrajna in tlie 
material body this Supreme Being, who is both personal and imper- 

50 Samba-p. 12. I3£E.; 13. 3flE. (eulogy of Visvakarman) ; 15. yfE.; 17. iff. 
(the ‘great hymn’ pronounced by Rudra in the form of Dindi); 25. 5-8 (the 
stava-raja consisting of the twenty-one principal names of the Sun, viz., 

Vikartana, Brahma, Sriman etc.). 

51 These are Aditya, Savitr, Surya, Mihira etc., as enumerated above. 

52 These names (Visnu, Dhatt, Bhaga, Pusan etc.) have been mentioned 
above. 



THE SAURA UPAPURANA-S 


57 


sonal, remains formless and is noc concaminated by accions or 
influenced by the objects of senses. When transcending the three 
gunas he is called Purusa. It is he who is worshipped in different 
forms by gods and by men in the different stages of their life, and 
who pervades the universe and is its protector and regulator.®? 

The present Samba-p., with its varied contents, is certainly not 
a unified work. Its chapters can be divided into two mam 
groups, viz., 

I. Chaps. 1-38, 44-46 and 84; and 

II. Chaps. 39-43 and 47-83. 

That the chapters of these two groups were composed by different 
hands in different climes and ages, can be established by numerous 
evidences, the most important of which are noted below. 

(i) All the chapters of the first group, except chaps. 17, 22-33 
and 37, are found to occur, partly or wholly, in the Bhavisya-p., as 
the following list will show. (It is to be noted that not even a single 
verse of any of the chapters of the second group is found in the 
Bhavisya-p.). 

Simba-p. Bhavisya-p. 

Chap. 2 (except verse 21b) =1. 66, verses 42-46, 49-632. 

,, 3 (except verses 10-12, — I- 7*’ 3’ 6-i4s» 73' 

26-27,306, 316-322, verses i, zb-ioa, 14-242, 25-412, 

52b, 56) 43M5' 49-50- 

^ =1. 74, verses 1-4, 7-24. 26a, 

286-29. 

„ 5 (except verses 1-92, = I. 67, verses 3-62, yb-io, 126-15, 

2 1 a, 26a, 306-39) 256-322. 

., 6 (except verse 1 2b) = 1. 75' ' * 3^- 7®' 3* 

16-17; 1.76, verses 1-53, 6b-oa, 

iob'15. 

.. 7 (except verses 37. 62b.7i) = I. 7 ^- *6b-2oa: I. 77. 1-21; 

I. 78. 1-243, 256-412. 

,. 8 (except verse 136,208 =1. 54. 

second half of verse 13a) pada of verse 14). 

53 See Samba-p., chaps. 5. 7, 9- M' ‘’“• 

8 



58 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Samba-p. 

Chap. 8 (except verses iib-13) = 
,, 8, verses i-^a, 5, 68-7 = 

„ 9(except verses 113,15-43) = 

» 10 = 

„ 1 1 (except verses 2-123, = 

39, 488-50, 70) 

„ II, verse 51a = 

„ 12 (except verses 3, 20a) = 

„ 13 (except verses 98-1 1) = 

„ 14 (except verses 17b, 21) = 

,, 15 (except verses i6, 26) = 


„ 1 6 (except verses 14-16, — 

198-203, 33) 

„ 18 (except verses 28-8, = 

20a, 32) 

„ 19 (except verses 2-3, 15a) = 

„ 20 (except verses 1-4, 78-8,= 

15-16) 

„ 21 (except verses 48,293,= 

388-39, 40b, 428,52- 

53> 58) 

„ 24 (except verses 17b, = 

348-363) 

25 

,, 26 (except verses 15, 22b- = 

23, 50a) 

„ 27 (except verses 5, 19a) = 

„ 28 = 

„ 29 (except verses 1-7, 20a) = 


Bhavtsya-p. 

I. 78. 438-538. 

I. 16 1. 2-5 and 68-7. 

1.78.538-66,67-69,71-73,75-843. 

1. 79. 1-223, 

1. 79. 23, 24-58, 63a, 64-793, 
ySb-Sia, 828-833. 

I. 124. 32a. 

I. 121. 1-13, 158-193, 208-28. 

I. 122 (except verses 88-9). 

I. 123. 1-19,218-22,238-34. 

I. 123.36-403,413,423,438-443, 

45-463, 53-563, 468-493, 51a, 
568-57, 58-663. 

I. 124. i-io, i3->53, 1624a, 
258-28, 31. 34-38, 40. 

I. 125. 2, 4, 7-253, 268-383, 
39-633, 648-71. 

I. 126. 1,3-63, 7-93, iob-28. 

53- 35M4’ 45^-5'“- 

I, 52. 8-23, 248-253, 28-453, 

46-493; 8 53* 10-133, 21-353. 

I. 127. 3-9, 108-273, 28-293, 30- 
36a. 
i. 128. 

1. 129. 1-2, 4, 6a, 78-173; 

I. 139. 1-93, lob (first hal£), 70a 
(second halt), 708-81, 83-97* 

I. 140. 20-23; I. 144. 98-163, 
17-24, 258-26. 

I. 145. 2-7, 88-21, 228-24, 

25, 27. 

I. 130. 42-56, 39-603, 63b. 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


59 


Samba-p. 

Chap. 3o(cxcept verses 28b-29 = 

and 31b) 

.. 31 

,, 32 (except verses 13, 36b, = 

39a, 43-44. 49-503, 
and 62) 

.. 33 


„ 34 (except verses 1-3, 

lob, 72) 


,, 35 (except verses ib, 2b) = 

,, 36 (except verses i, 4b, = 

lob-iia, 30, 4ob-44) 

„ 38 (except verses 1-33, = 

4b-i6a, 2ia, 24-263, 
33-353. 36b-39, 40b- 
46a, 47b-48a, 50, 52b. 
55b-56) 

„ 46 (except verses 1-33. 4b-5a,= 

9b, 22b-23a, 25b-26a, 
27b-28a, 38-39) 

,> 84, verses i-ia, 3 = 

Wc shall sec hereinafter that 
chapters from the Samba-p. 


Bhavisya-p. 

I. 131. la, 2-33, iob-i3a, 5-ioa, 
19-20, 23-26, 276-30, 36-41, 
46-47. 

I. 132. 1-24. 

I. 133. la ; I. 135. 6b-8, 96-16, 
206-273, 51-523; I. 136. 2-73, 
96-113, 256-263,376-523,67- 
73 * 756-79®. 82; I. 137. 1-2. 

1. 138. la, 2-4, 2ib-22a, 34a, 
35-363,37-383, 533,406, 47, 
39a, 41b, 64-693, 70a, 71a, 
72a, 73a, 76. 

1. 55. 236-25, 286-293, 30b, 
316-32, 366-373, 39a, 48b- 
50a, 51-543, 556-653,666-75; 

I. 56. 76-293, 30-31,47-513; 

I. 57. 27b, 31a; I. 58. la, 2, 
i8-2oa, 

I. 58. 22b, 23-29, 306-313, 

326-373. 38-45. 

I. 143. 56-13, 146-413, 46- 

59a. 

1. 8a. 2, 9-11, 14, 16-18; 1.81. 
2-3, 156-163; I. 82. 3a, 6a; I. 
93. 1. 3-53, 7, 9a, 156-163, 
26a, 28, 30, 32a, 42a, 64, 
66 . 

I. 208. 6, 4-5, 7-i6a, 17-182, 
21-233, 243,236,273, 28-35; 

I. 209. 1-53, 66 - 123 , 136-143, 
156-163. 

I. 120. la, 26-33, 4. 
the Bhavisya-p. borrowed these 



60 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


(2) The chapters of the first group are concerned with ‘Mitravana’ 
which is said in a good number of verses to have been situated on 
(or very close to) the bank of the ‘great river’ (mahanadi) Candra- 
bhaga®*, a tributary of the river Sindhu in the Punjab, and in which 
Samba established a Sun-temple and the city called Sambapura 
(modern Multan).®® 

The expression ‘sindhor uttata-kularah’, occurring in Samba-p. 
2/^. 5-6®* which are the same as Bhav. I. 127. 6-y, must not be 
taken to indicate that Mitravana, mentioned in the chapters of the 
first group, was situated on the northern shore of the sea and was, 
therefore, identical with Mitravana in Orissa; because, in the chapters 
of the first group there is no second mention of Mitravana as being 
situated on the sea-coast. Moreover, in Samba-p. 26. iob-12®^ 
(which arc the same as Bhav. I. 12^. 13^15) it is said that the 
image of the Sun, which was constructed by Visvakarman with the 
Kalpa-vrksa, was taken by him to the Himalayas and sent down the 
river Candrabhaga, so that it might reach Samba who was living in 
Mitravana. Here it is clear that the Candrabhaga rises in the 
Himalayas and is thus the same as the Candrabhaga which is a 
tributary of the river Sindhu. So, Mitravana, which is said to have 


54 Samba-p. 3, 2 ( = Bhav. I. 72. 6); 4. i-za (=Bhiv. 1 . 74. i-2a); 4 . 20 
and 23 (=:Bhav. I. 74. 22 and 24 respectively; in verse 24 the Bhavisya-p. 
wrongly reads ‘mitrapadam’ for ‘niitravanam’); 24.5-6 f = Bhav. I. 127. 6-7); 
24.31 (s=Bhav. 1 . 127. 316-322); 26. 2b and 4b ( = Bhav. I. 129. 2b and 7b); 
26. 46a (=Bhav, I. 139. 90b); 26. 50 (=Bhav. I. 139. 94b). 

55 See the references in the immediately preceding foot-note. 

56 For the text of these verses in the Samba-p. as well as in the Bhavhya-p. 
sec foot-note 20 above. 

57 pritya te sainpratam caiva sa maya karicam punah// 
teneyatn kalpa-vrksat tu nirmita ptatima mama/ 
krtva himavatah prs^e punya-siddba-nhevite// 
tvadarthain candrabhagayam tatas tenavatarita/ 
bbavatas taranarthain hi jatam sthanam idain mama// 

The Bhavisya-p. reads ‘krtva tesarn prapanco ’yam sa maya karitah punah’ for 
the first line; ‘visvakarmana’ for ‘pratima mama' in the second line; ‘pura’ for 
‘punya*” in the third line; ‘pratarita’ for ‘avatarita’ in the fourth line; ‘tatah’ 
for ‘jatam’ in the fifth line. 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


6i 


been situated on this Candrabhaga, must be the same as the Mitravana 
of the Punjab. 

But in chaps, (of the second group), the place of Sun- 

worship is, in all cases, said to have been situated on the shore of 
the salt-ocean (lavanodadhi),** and never on or near the bank of the 
river Candrabhaga. 

(3) In the chapters of the first group the place at which ‘Mitra’ 
and Samba practised austerities and the latter established a Sun.tcmple 
and a Sun-image as well as a city called Sambapura, is called 
Mitravana. But in chaps. 42-^3 (of the second group) the place of 
Sun-worship is called the ‘tapovana’ (penance-forest) of the Sun 
(called Savitr, Bhaskara, Surya, Bhanu, Divakara etc. but never Mitra) 
in more places than one;*® it is also called Surya-kanana, Ravi-ksctra 
and Surya-ksetra;** and it is only once (viz., in Samba-p. 42. 2) that 
this place is called ‘Mitravana’. So, the word ‘Mitravana’, as 
occurring in Samba-p. 42. 2, is to be taken, like ‘Surya-kanana’, in 
its literal sense to mean the ‘(penance-) forest of Mitra’, rather than 
a name. 

(4) The chapters of the first group must have been written in 
Northern India (and most probably in its western part)**. But chaps. 
42-43, which deal with the Sun’s penance-forest (called tapovana, 
and also Surya-kanana, Ravi-ksctra and Surya-ksetra) situated on the 

58 For the contents o£ these two chapters see above. 

59 Samba-p. 42.7 and 17; 43.*, 33 and 45. Cf. also Samba-p 40.9-14. 

60 Samba-p. 42. 7, 9, 12 and 26; 43. i. 

61 Samba-p. 43. 6; 43- 46; and 43. 5 ° respectively. 

62 The following holy places and rivers have been mentioned in chaps. 32 
(verses i-a) and 34 (verses --j) in connection with the holy water with which 
the Sun’s image is to be bathed during its consecration and annual worship : — 

Puskara, Naimisa, Kutuksetra, Prthudaka, Gahga, Sarasvati, Sindhu, Candra- 
bhaga'. Narmada, p’ayosni. Yamuna. Tamra, Ksipra and Vetravati It is to be noted 
that all these holy places and rivers (except Payosni) belong to Northern India, 
especially to its western part, and that in the chapters of the first group no holy 
place or river (except Tapati) of Southern India has been mentioned. It should 
be mentioned here that both Payosni and Tapati (of which the latter is said to 
have risen from the Vindhyapada and has been identified with the Sun's 
daughter of the same name) belong » the northernmost part of Southern India. 



I 


62 STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

shore of the salt-ocean, arc certainly concerned with a place very close 
to, or even identical with, Konarka in Orissa, because Konarka, which 
was situated on the sea-shore very close to the river Candrabhaga 
(a small branch of the river PracI), is called Surya-ksetra, Ravi-ksetra 
and Mitravana*® in the Brahma-p., Ravi-ksetra and Maitrcya Vana in 
the Kapila-samhita,** and Surya-ksetra in the Siva-p.*® 

(5) In the chapters of the first group, it is Samba who is said to 
have established at Mitravana a Sun-temple and a Sun-image as well 
as a city called Sambapura, and the image, which Samba established 
at Mitravana, is said to have been constructed by Visvakarman, 
taken to the Himalayas, and sent down the river Candrabhaga for the 
sake of Samba. But in chaps. 42-^3 the history of the Sun’s image, 
which was placed at the Sun’s penance-forest on the shore of the 
Salt-ocean, is given as follows. An image of the Sun was constructed 
by Visvakarman and worshipped by the gods. It was then placed on 
the Kalpa-vrksa in the Himalayas, whence it came down to the salt- 
ocean successively through the rivers Candrabhaga, Vaipasa (i.e. 
Vipasa), Satadrava (i.e. Satadru), Yamuna, Jahnavl (also called 
BhagIrathI) and Modaganga. Now, once the residents of the Surya- 
kinana assembled on the sea-shore in order to see the Sun-rise and 
found to their great surprise that the rising Sun, who reddened the sky, 
the ocean and the earth by means of his rays, appeared in two forms — 
one remaining in the sky and the other in the ocean. In water they 
found another form of the Sun, which Manus (and not Samba) 
recovered by entering the ocean and established in a temple which 
was built there for it by Vaivasvata Manu (and not by Samba). 

(6) In verses g-io of chap. ^2 (of the second group) the Sun’s 
penance- forest (tapovana), situated on the shore of the salt-ocean, is 
said to have been made by Visvakarman; but in the chapters of the 
first group there is no such statement. 


63 Brahma-p. 28. 10 and 17. Brahma-p. 30. 41 and ^18, in which the name 
Mitravana occurs, haye been taken, along with other verses, from the Samba-p. 

64 See Mano Mohan Ganguly, Orissa and Her Remains, p, 439. Visvakosa 
(a Bengali encyclopaedia, ed. Nagendra Nath Vasu), IV, pp. 545-548. 

65 Sec Mano Mohan Ganguly, Orissa and Her Remains, p. 439. 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


63 

(7) In verses 16-36 of chap. (of the second group) an attempt 
has been made to give a garb of greater antiquity to the Sun’s penance- 
forest by saying that before Samba had gone to this place, some sages 
of old performed austerities there for many centuries in order to please 
the Sun and became the creators (srastarah) of this place through the 
Sun’s favour. But in the chapters of the first group there is no men- 
tion of any sages living at Mitravana before Samba’s arrival there. 

(8) In chaps. ^2 and 43 there are a few instances** of such bad 
versification as is not to be found in any of the chapters of the first 
group. 

(9) In the chapters of the first group the Vedas have been held 
in the highest esteem. The hymns, recited by the gods and others in 
praise of the Sun, are called ‘vedokta’ or ‘veda-vedanga-sarnmita’;*' the 
three Vedas are said to attend upon the Sun;** the agni-hotra-grha 
(the house for the offer of oblations to the fire) is an unavoidable part 
of the Sun-temple;*® and so on. Among these chapters there are a 
few (viz., chaps. 30, 32 and 34-37) which deal with the method of 
Sun-worship, but in none of them there is any trace of Tantric influ* 
ence. In these chapters the Vcdic boma forms an important part of 
the worship; the mantras to be used are either Vedic or Puranic or 
both;^® and the mediums of worship (viz., fire, water, air, holy place, 
image, and pedestal for the image of a deity) do not include the 
Tantric yantra or mandala.^^ On the other hand, Tantric influence is 
very prominent in almost all the chapters of the second group. 
Mantras with Tantric symbolism are employed at every step; methods 
of drawing mandalas and performing various kinds of mudras are given; 
the necessity of performing nyasas and mudras in worship is emphasis- 
ed; the word ‘tantra’ has been used to mean not only ‘procedure’ but 


66 

SSmba-p. 

42. 34-35i 43- 

2a. 

67 

Ibid., 12. 

8; 12. 13; 24. 7 

; and so Ofl. 

68 

Ibid., 6. ) 

‘5- 


69 

Ibid.. 29. 

»5- 

especially verse 25; 34. 30-34 and 43-49; 37. 

70 

Ibid., 30. 

18; 32. laff.. 


19b (puranoktena mantrena); and so on. 
71 Ibid., 38. 45. 



64 STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

also Tantric works;^® mechods of performing abhicara rites have been 
given; and so on. 

(10) That the present Samba-p. ended with the chapters of the 
first group is shown by the facts that in Samba-p. 39.1 Brhadbala 
says to Vasistha, “O venerable Brahmin, you have made me hear, both 
synthetically and analytically, this imperishable and highly blissful 
‘Purina’ ”, and that in Samba-p. 39, 5 the portion of this Purina 
beginning with chap. 39 is called the Uttara (bhiga) and is said to 
have been spoken out by Bhiskara.” 

(11) The names of the twelve Adityas (viz., Aruna, Surya, Amsu- 
milin, Dhitr, Indra, Ravi, Gabhasti, Yama, Svarna-retas, Tvastr, Mitra 
and Visnu), as given in Simba-p. 51. 66-67 and 162-170, do not all 
agree with those contained in Simba-p. 4.6 and 9.3!?. (In Simba-p. 
4. 6 the names of the twelve Adityas are given as follows: — Indra, 
Dhitr, Parjanya, Pusan, Tvastr, Aryaman, Bhaga, Vivasvat, Visnu, 
Atnsu, Varuna and Mitra. The list, as contained in Simba-p. 
9.3ff., agrees with chat in Simba-p. 4. 6 in respect of the names but 
not of their order). 

(12) Chap. 51 has borrowed many verses from chaps. 7 and9.- 

(13) i\mong the chapters of the first group there arc several 
cross-references^-® to the topics dealt with in these chapters, but there 

72 Ibid., 41. i; 51. 195; 55,99 and loi; 57. 15; 61. 50; 68. 9; 74. 10; 
and so on. 

73 Ibid., 39. 5a puranasyottaram rajan yad ukcam bhaskarena tu, 

74 A list of these common verses is given below : — 


Samba-p. 


Samba-p. 

Samba-p. 

Samba-p. 

51. 126-129 

== 

7. 6-9. 

51. i87-i9ia = 

7 - 54 - 55 . ^ ^ 

51. 139 

= 

7. i9b-2oa. 


58b-59a, 62-63. 

51. 140a 

— cf. 

7. 17b. 

51. 163 = 

9. 19. 

51. 141a 

= 

7. 16b. 

51. i64b-i65a = 

9. 31. 

51. 141b 

= 

7 - 17a. 

51. i65b-i66a 1= 

9. 25. 

51. 142a 

= 

7. i8a. 

51. 168a = 

9. 38b. 




5 *. * 7 ° = 

9 - 39 . 


75 Viz.. Samba-p. 5. 3a refers to 4. 5-7 ; 7. 1-4 refer to chaps. 7-16 and 
18-20; 7. 36 refers to 7. 12; 10, 4 refers to 6.20; 34. 3a refers to chaps. 

34- 4b refers to chap. 32; 34. 14 refers to chap. 2 1; 35.2b refers to 
chaps. 25 ®rid 29, 35. 3b refers to 10. 4£6,; 38. 2 refers to chaps. 29-31 and 
34'37i 45* I® refers to chap, 44. 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


65 


is not a single verse which refers co the topics dealt with in any of the 
chapters of the second group. On the other hand, in verse 14 df 
chap. 42 (of the second group) there is a reference to the contents 
of chap. 3. Hence the chapters of the second group must have been 
added later than those of the first group. 

(14) The chapters of the first group, unlike those of the second, 
contain several instances of grammatical solecism, viz., the toots 
‘pracch’, ‘vas’ (in the sense of residing) and ‘jvaT (in the sense of 
burning) have been used in the their Atmanepadlya forms. • 

From the above disagreements between the chapters of the two 
groups it is clear that all these chapters could not be the works of the 
same hand nor could they belong to the same clime or age. Among 
the chapters of the first group, again, there are some which must have 
been added later. We shall now try to find them out. 

Though in the concluding verse (iti muni-rsabhah sutaya visnot 
vidhim upadisya ca narado jagama/ctc.) of chap. 32 Narada is said to 
have left Samba after giving him necessary instructions on the consecra- 
tion of images of the Sun, chap. 33 opens as follows. 


‘narada uvaca — ■ , 

atahparam pravaksyami dhvajaropanam uttamam/ett. 

This disagreement between the statements about Narada m these 
two chapters raises doubt in our mind about the genuineness o c p 

33. This doubt is considerably strengthened by Vasistba’s statement 
in Samba-p. 34. x-2 that ‘on the expiry of a complete y'" 
Samba’s consecration of the image of the thousand-rayed (Sun). Sam a 
again approached Narada and asked him how he was to perfmm the 
annual worship (samvatsarl puja) of the Sun . orcovet, am p 

34. 3 > (ya*ok«„a viah»e„, 

contents of chaps. 29-32, and Samba p. 34* 4 \P 
prariman, anapayea Wahab) Uu,. 

33 bemg ignorca toully. ” ,, J.,, inuMJ 

But as this chapter occurs in the Bhtvisya-p.. 

,6 Si,a,.-p. a. 6 Cpacchaa..- 


9 



66 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


into the Samba- f. earlier than the time of incorporation of the chapters 
of the Samba-p. into the Bhavisya. 

Chaps, ly, 22-23 and 44-45 do not occur in the Bhavisya-p., nor 
are they referred to hy any of the remaining chapters of the Samba-p. 
Samba-p. 7. 1-4 refer to chaps. 7-16 and 18-20, ignoring chap. 17. 
So, chaps, ly, 22-23 and 44-45 must be taken as later additions. 

The second group is made up of a few units which might not have 
been written at the same time. Chaps, 39-41 form such a unit. We 
have already noted that according to verses i and 5 of chap. 39, chaps. 
39lf. form a distinct part, called Uttara (-bhaga), which is not a con- 
tinuation of, but is quite different from, chaps. 1-38. Towards the 
end of chaps. 40 and 41, the section on diksa (in chaps. 39-41) is 
called the ‘Puranokta Sastra’ which everybody is advised to read.^^ 
Hence chaps. 39-41 can safely be taken to be a distinct unit. 

As regards chaps. 42-43, we have already said much on their 
distinct character and their connection with Mitravana of Orissa. 

Chaps. 53-83 form a distinct section called Jnanottara, the name 
Jnanottara being mentioned in the colophons of many of these chap- 
ters. This section, which is really a Tantra, as it is called in many 
of its verses, is not peculiar with the printed edition only but is found 
in all the Mss of the Samba-p. hitherto discovered. Moreover, the 
chapters of this section arc often called Patala (just as in the Tantric 
works) and numbered afresh. For instance, the colophon of chap. 
53 runs as follows: — iti sambapurane puja-vidhi-nirupane prathamain 
patalatn nama tripaheasattamo’dhyayah. 

Among the chaps. 53-83, there are a few, viz. chaps. 53-55 
(except verses 98-117 of chap. 55), which arc originally Saura, but 
the rest prominently exhibit Saiva influence. In these remaining 

77 Samba-p. 4o. 41a — 

aprameyam idam iastram purwam purva-coditam. 

Samba-p. 41. 1 — 

nanyac chastram samuddismm bhaoob puja-nivedane/ 
puranoktam imam rajan sarva-vedopabrnihitam / / 

• • adhyetavyam idam iastram * • *11. 

Samba-p. 41, 7 — 

puranoktam idam iastram * * * % 



the SAURA UPAPURaNAJ ^ 

;f..t ,' .■i:r.t;s-'s::r; - r;- : 

oka easdy. chap. 69 says that the devotee should have, among other 
thmgs. the fol owmg qualifications, viz., he should worship L spiri- 
taal preceptor hke Stva himself, follow the path of Stva. and always 
meditate on the deity/* In Samba-p. 71. i Samkara is called the be« 
bya and the highest deity; Samba-p. 77. x proposes to describe the 
means by which a devotee may attain the likeness of Siva and his tie 
ot bondage (pas'a) may be severed;^* in Samba-p. 80.10 it is said that 
the Yogins do not revert to rebirths after attaining the imperishable 
and. the highest deity, namely Siva;*? chap. 82 explains whjt is 
meant by bhiva-lihga. emphasises the necessity of its worship with 
flowers in the forms of eight mental attitudes (bbava. viz.. 4bimsi, 
tnd,iya.nigraha, dhni, ksama, huca. akrodha, hn and satyd) for the 
pleasure of Siva, and says: “One. who always worships the imperishable 
Siva with these flowers, is able to sec this Supreme Being by breaking 
open the door of ignorance ;** the tic of bongage. which subjects all 
creatures to rebirths, is in many places called pasa;** the names of 
Siva occur in many of the mantras-,*’^ and so on. So, it is highly 


78 Samba-p. 6g. iff, — 

tattvanusarena pathah kramaso ’thanuvarnyatc/ iiva-lokaip yathi yena 

pravised grhavadgrhi/ / gana-mandala-tattvajnah / 

sivavad guru-pfijakah// iiva-marganusari ca fj 

dhyayatns ca sivam atmastham // samtyajya / 

matani viparitani dh^ayen nityam sad^vam/ / 

79 Samba-p. 77. i — 

siva-tulyatvam asya syat paia-cchedas tu yena vai/_ 
tarn ato varnayisyami samskuam kramaiab patam// 
bhittva murdhni kapalam tu visa^ avyayam iivatam/ 
yam prapya na nivarteta yoginah paramam iivam/ / 

81 Samba-p. 82. 8b'9a — 


ebhir yas tu sada puspatr arcayec ebivam avyayam/ 
udghatya tu tamodvuam jivam paiyen niianjanam/ /. 

82 Samba-p. 77. i and 6; 83. 12, 18 and 19; and so on. 

83 Samba-p. 55. 98.- 61. 18. 



68 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


probable that these chapters with 5 aiva influence were taken from 
some work of the ^aivas and adapted to the need of the Tantrik 
Sauras with certain modifications. That these chapters originally 
belonged to some other work, is shown by the fact that the introduc- 
tion of Bhaskara as speaking to the inquisitive Brahma in Samba-p. 
55. ^SfE. and of Mahesvara as speaking to Brahma in chaps. 82-83 
is made suddenly without any previous notice of the interlocutors. 

The remaining chaps. 47-52 of this group must be taken to be 
another unit. These chapters seem to have been writen at the 
same time. 

From the above analysis it is evident that the present Samba-p. 
consists of different units mostly belonging to different climes and 
ages. We shall now try to determine the dates of composition of 
these units. But the problem of date of these units is intimately 
connected with the problems of mutual relation between the Samba-p., 
Bhavisya-p., Brahma-p. and Skanda-p. (Prabhasa-khanda, i). We shall 
first set ourselves to the solution of these problems. 

It has already been shown that a large number of chapters is found 
common to the Samba-p. and the Bhavisya-p. That as regards these 
common chapters the Bhavisya-p. is the borrower, can be established 
by the following evidences. 

(i) Regarding the Samba-p. the Matsya-p. (53. 61) says: — 
yatra sambam puraskrtya bhavisyc’pi kathanakam/^ 
procyate tat punar loke sambam etan munivratah/ /** 


84 This verse, which agrees also with 5 kanda-p. yil. i. 2. 82 (v. 1 . 
‘bhavisyati’ for ‘bhavisye ’pi’; ‘eva’ for ‘etat’), is found ascribed to the Matsya-p. 
(or Matsya) in Krtya-kalpataru, I, p. 30 (v, 1 . ‘yat m’ for ‘yatra’ and 
‘bhavisyati’ for ‘bhavisye ’pi’), Caturvarga-cintamani, I, p. 533 (v. I. ‘bhavisyati’ 
for ‘bhavisye ’pi’; ‘eva’ for ‘etat’) and II. i, p. 22 (v. 1 . ‘bhavisyati’ ftr 
‘bhavbye ’pi’; ‘eva’ for ‘etat’; ‘iuci-vratah’ for ‘muni-vratah’), Krtya-ratnakara, 
p, 32 (v. 1. ‘yat tu’ for ‘yatra’; ‘tat procyate’ for ‘procyate tat’; and ‘eva’ for 
‘etat’), Jiva Gosvatnin’s commentary (called Krama-samdarbha) on Bhagavata-p. 
XII. 7. 17-22 (v, 1 . ‘yac ca’ for ‘yatra’; ‘eva’ for ‘etat’; ‘muni-vrataih’ for ‘muni- 
vrat^), Nityacara-pradipa, I, p. 18 (v. 1 . ‘eva’ for ‘etat’; ‘muni-vrataih’ for 
‘muni-vratah’), and Viramitrodaya, Paribhasa-prakasa. p. 15 (v. L “yat tu' for 
‘yatra’; ‘eva’ for ‘etat’). 



THE SAURA UPAPURaNAS 69 

‘O sages, (the section, occurring) in die Bhavisya also, wherein there 
is a small talc concerning Samba, is, again, called Samba (-purana) 
in society’. The words *api’** and ‘punah’ in this verse, as well as the 
word ‘prthak’ in the verse ‘as^dasabhyas tu prthak puranam etc’.** 
show that though at the time of composition of these verses the 
Samba-p. was found to exist separately and was also found incorporated 
in the Bhavisya-p., the author of these verses was quite conscious of 
the fact that the Samba-p. was really an independent Purinic work. 

(2) In Variha-p., chap. 177, in which the story of Samba’s 
penance*' for the Sun’s favour in order to get rid of leprosy caused by 

85 The reading ‘api’ is found not only in the Venkat. ed. (53. 61) and 
Jivananda Vidyasagara’s ed. (53. 61) of the Matsya-p. but also in Krtya-ratna- 
kr.ra, p. 32, Jiva Gosvamin’s commentary on Bhagavata-p. XII. 7. 17-22, 
Nityacara-pradioa, I, p. 18 and Viramitrodaya, Paribhasa-prakasa, p. i 5 . (See the 
immediately preceding foot-note). The reading ‘bhavisyati’ (for ‘bhavisye ’pi*), 
as found in the AnSS ed. of the Matsya-p., in Skanda-p. Vll. i. 2. 82, and in 
Caturvarga-cintamani, I, p. 533 and 11 . i, p. 22, is metrically defective. 

86 asudasabhyas tu prthak puranam yat pradtfyate/ 

vijanidhvam dvija-^esthas tad etcbhyo vinirgatam// (Mat. 53. 63). 

For the diflEerent readings of this verse in different works see Chap, I, foot- 
notes 37 and 38. 

87 In Vataha-p., chap. 177, the story of Samba has been given, with certain 
innovations, as follows : — 

Once Narada saw Krsna at Ovaraka and told him that all his 16000 wives 
were enamoured of ^mba for his physical beauty and that this fact used to be 
disenssed by the gods in Brahma-loka. In order to be convinced of the truth of 
Nvada's allegacion Krsna called Samba before his wives and saw with his own 
eyes the mental agitation his wives had at the sight of Samba. Krma was 
ashamed of his wives’ conduct, and decried female nature as being unscrupu- 
loosly Instfol. With the intention of making Samba an object of Krma s curse, 
Narada said chat this guilt was certainly not one-sided but was equally shared 
by Samba who used to encourage Krsna’s wives in their oesire for sexual enjoy- 
ment, and that even the residents Satya-loka were of opinion that Krma s 
wives were corrupted by Samba. Narada even advised Krma to forsake Samba. 
Consequently, Krsna cutsed Samba to be deformed; and in a moment Samba 
became an ugly leper. As a remedy Narada advised Samba to go to Udayacala 
and worship the rising Sun there in the forenoon. He also sssoted Samba that 
there would be a ‘Bhavbyat-purfea’ on the basis of Shnba s words (cf. bhavisyat- 
puranam iti ca uva vadad bhavisyati) and that this Pnr^ wwild always he read 



70 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


Krsna’s curse has been narrated brieEiy with the mention of the 
‘Bhavisyat'purana’ as the source. Samba is said to have ‘made the 
famous Bhavisyat-purana new’. This shows that originally the Bhavi- 
sya-p. did not contain any story of Samba, and that the chapters on 
Samba were added to the Bhavisya-p. later. 

(3) According to Naradiya-p. I. 100, the Bhavisya-p. consisted 
of five Parvans, viz., Brahma, Vaisnava, Saiva, Saura and Pratisarga, 
and of only 14000 slokas. In connection with a description of the 
contents of these Parvans, the Naradlya-p. says that the Brahma Parvan, 
which dealt with creation etc., sacraments, and the Tithi-kalpas up to 
the Saptaml Tithi, and which represented all the sastras, related to 
the Aghora-kalpa, contained mainly the praise of Brahma,®* and was 
‘aditya-carita-praya’ and ‘sarvakhyina-samanvita’. The non-mcntion 
of the famous story of Samba among the contents of the Brahma 
Parvan, the mention of a short extent of 14000 slokas for the entire 
Bhavisya-p., and the statement that the Brahma Parvan abounded in 
the praise of Brahma and related to the occurrence of the Aghora- 
kalpa, tend to show that the Brahma Parvan, described by the Nara- 
dlya-p., was much shorter than the present one (in which there is no 
mention of the Aghora-kalpa and which has retained some of the 
contents of its earlier prototype),** and that it lacked the story of 
Samba. 

by Narada himself before Brahma in Brahma-loka and be declared by Sumantu 
to Manu in the world of mortals. But as the disabled Samba intimated his 
inability to go to Udayacala, Narada asked him to go to Mathura (which was 
evidently nearer to Ovaraka than Udayacala) and worship the Sun there after 
taking his bath in the Yamuna, so that Samba might derive the benefits of 
worshipping the Sun in the morning on the Udayacala, at mid-day, and in the 
evening. Samba did so and was cured of his disease. He asked the Sun about 
the Purana declared by the latter (cf. ravim papraccha dharmatma puranam 
surya-bhasitam), made the famous ‘Bhavisyat-purana’ new (cf. bhavisyat-puranam 
id khyatam krtva punar navam^, and established three images of the Sun, — one 
on the Udayacala, another named Kalapriya, on the south of the Yamuna, aqd 
the third, named Mulasthana, on the Astamanacala. Samba also established 
another image of the Sun, named Sambapura, at Mathura. 

88 Cf. Naradiya-p. I. too. iia — 

esu pancasu parvasu brahmano mahimadhikah. 

89 See Hazra, Puranic Records, pp. 167-171. 


THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


7 ' 


That the Bhavisya-p. was originally much shorter than the present 
one and that it grew in bulk with the addition oE various stories in 
later times, are shown by the present Bhavisya itself, in which Sumantu 
says to king Satanika that all the Puranas originally contained 1 2000 
slokas each but later on increased in bulk by incorporating various 
stories, and that in course of time the Bhavisya-p. came to have half 
a lac of slokas.*® 

(4) In the library of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, there is a 
Ms®^ of the Bhavisya-p. which consists of five Parvans, viz., Brahma, 
Vaisnava, Saiva, Tvastra (i.e. Saura) and Pratisarga. The extent of 
this Ms is much shorter than that of the printed Bhavisya, and it lacks 
the story of Samba. 

The evidences, adduced above, arc certainly not very strong when 
taken individually. So, they arc to be considered with the following 
internal ovidcnccs. 

(5) In Bhav. I. 93, in which many of the verses of Samba-p., 
chap. 38 are found, there is mention of both the Bhavisya-p. and the 
Samba-p.** among the objects to be offered to the Sun. 

(6) The story of Satnjna has been given in two places of the 
Brahma Parvan of the Bhavisya-p., viz., in chaps. 47 and 79. Of 
these, chap. 79 has the great majority of its verses in common with 
Samba-p., chaps, to-ii, and narrates the story of Sainjna in the same 
way as the latter.** But in Bhav. I. 47 the story of Sainjna has been 
given very differently in the following way. 

90 Cf. Bhav. I. I. io4b-io7a — 

sarvwy eva puranani sainjneyani nararsabha// 
dvadasaiva sabasrani proktaniha tnanisibbih/ 
punar vrddhim gacaniha akhyanair vividbair nrpa/ / 
yatha skandain tatha cedatn bhavisyain kurunandana/ 
skandam lata-sahasram tu lokanam jnatam eva hi// 
bhavisyam etad rsinam lak^dham samkhyaya krtam// 

91 No. 4500 . — See Shastri, ASB Cat., V, pp. 424-428, No. 3738. It should 
be mentioned here that this Ms gives a text which is quite different from that 
of the printed Bhavisya. 

92 Bhav. I. 93. 71 — 

bhavisyam samba-samjnam va dattva suryaya pustakam/ 
rajasuyafvamedhabhyam phalam prapnod manavah// 

93 For the stoiy of Sainjna as given in Simba-p., chaps. lo-tt, see above. 



72 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


While the Sun (called Martanda) was yet in the Cosmic Egg 
(andastha), Dalcsa gave him his incomparably beautiful daughter 
named Arupa** as wife, and Yama and Yamuna were born to her. 
Now, the Sun was beautiful but so bright that, being dazzled by his 
brilliance, Arupa was unable to see any of his limbs ; even her 
beautiful golden complexion was turned black by the Sun’s rays. So, 
being dejected in mind, Arupa determined to place her own chaya 
(shadow) there and go to the Northern Kuru country for practising 
penance. Consequently, she left Chaya to occupy her own place, 
with a request not to divulge the matter to the Sun, went to the 
Northern Kuru country, and lived there with deer for many years in 
the form of a marc. The Sun took Chaya to be his wife and begot 
on her ‘two children named Sani and Tapatl.’“® Chaya was very 
partial to her own children and did not look upon Yama and Yamuna 
with much affection. Now, once Yamuna and Tapatl quarrelled with 
each other and were turned into rivers (by their mutual curse); and 
Yama was beaten by Chaya so severely that ‘he stood before her by 
raising his foot’. Chaya was enraged at Yama’s behaviour and 
cursed him saying, “Thou, fool, hast raised thy foot towards me! So, 
the gruesome work of killing the lives of creatures will undoubtedly 
be thine as long as there will be the sun and the moon. If thou 
placest this foot on the ground, worms will consume it, polluted 
as it is by my curse”. When Yama and Chaya were thus quarrelling, 
the Sun came there. Yama intimated to the Sun Chaya’s unequal 
treatment towards them, and added that she was merely the chaya 
(shadow) of his mother and not his mother herself. Yama also 
informed the Sun of the unhappy incident concerning Yamuna and 
Tapati. Hearing all this, the Sun said that the worms would not 

94 1 ** Bhav. 1 . 47 the name of Daksa’s daughter is given as Samjha only 
once, viz., in verse 48b, but even in that line the reading ‘sarnjnaySh’ is found 
replaced by the reading 'savarnayah’ in some Mss, 

95 Though here (in Bhav. I. 47. iza) only two children, namely Sani and 
Tapati, are said to have been born of Chaya by Mvtanda, in Bhav. I. 47. 48a 
Chaya is said to have three children, viz., Tapati, &ini and Savarni (tapati 
sani^ ca savarni^ chayapatyani vai viduh). So, verse 48 of Bhav. L 47 must be 
spurious. 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


73 


enter the earth after taking Hesh and blood from Yama’s foot placed 
on the surface of the earth, that the water of the Yamuna would be 
as holy as that of the Ganges, into which the Yamuna would 
ultimately flow, that the Tapatl would be equal to the Narmada in 
respect of sanctity and would flow on the south of the Vindhyas, that 
Yama would become the Lokapala, and that Chaya would thcnccfor* 
ward remain in her own body. The Sun then went to Daksa and 
asked him the reason of his daughter’s departure. Daksa, who 
understood the whole matter, told the Sun that being unable to see 
the Sun’s figure his daughter went to the Northern Kuru country. 
He also proposed that he might make the Sun s figure discernible, 
only if the latter agreed to stand the pain. The Sun consenting, 
Daksa thought of Taksan (the divine architect), who immediately 
came there and, with the Sun’s consent to bear the pain, began to 
pare out his limbs from head to foot by means of his instruments. 
When the rays of his different limbs were thus being pared, the Sun 
fainted at every moment. So, being afraid of the Sun s curse, Taksan 
left the parts of his feet from the heels to the toes unpared and 
removed the pain by applying on his body a paste made of Karavira 
flowers and red sandal. The Sun went to the Northern Kuru country, 
took the form of a horse, and had physical union with his wife. The 
two Asvins and Revanta were born of this union. After meeting his 
wife the Sun rcassumed his divine form. 

The above story differs from that in Bhav. I. 79 on many import- 
ant points; viz., there is mention neither of Vaivasvata Manu nor of 
Srutasravas (who was destined to become Savarni Manu) among the 
sons of the Sun; the name of the Sun's wife is given as Arupa; 
Arupa is said to have gone direct to the Northern Kuru country with- 
out stopping at her father’s house; Yamuna and Tapatl arc said to have 
been turned into rivers by their mutual curse; and so on. So, it is 
evident that these two divergent stories could never have been written 
by the same band. 

(7) The Bhavisya-p. begins to have verses in common with the 
Samba-p. from I. 52 (dealing with the following topics: —the descrip 
tion of the Sun’s one-wheeled chariot, and the method and results of 
salutiog the Sun). Bhav. I. 52 is intimately connected with, and 

10 



74 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


is a cotinuation of, Bhav. I. 51 which deals with the solar vow called 
Mahisaptatnl requiring the worship of the Sun, the gift of a chariot, 
and the performance of a procession after mounting the Sun s image in 
a car (ratha-yatra). It is the mention of Ratha-yatra in Bhav. I. 51. 
J3b that introduces the topics of Bhav. I. 52£E. Moreover, Vasudeva, 
who speaks to Samba in Bhav. I. 48-51 and who is said to have 
vanished from Samba’s presence in Bhav. 1 . 52. 1-2, is introduced by 
Sumantu at the very beginning of Bhav. 1 . 48. As Bhav. I. 48-49, 
which deal with the method of Sun-worship in Saptaml-vrata, are 
imbued with Tantric elements, and as Samba-p., chaps. 1-15* 
(verses 1-24), 18-21, 24-38 and 46, being remarkably free from 
Tantric elements, must have been written at a time when the cult of 
the Sun was still immune from Tantricism, it is sure that the Bliav- 
isya-p. incorporated the verses of the Samba-p. at a time when the 
method of Sun-worship was being influenced by Tantricism. 

(8) The same verses of the Samba-p. occur in three different 
places of the Bhavisya-p., viz., 

Samba-p. Bhavisya.p. 

chap. 8 (except verse 13b) = I. 54. 2-14; 

chap. 8, verses i-iia = I. 78. 438-533; 

chap. 8, verses 1-43, 5 andbb-y = 1. 161. 2-5 and 68-7. 

(9) Samba-p., chap. 9 gives the etymological meanings (dhatv- 
artha-nigama) of the Sun’s different names in verses 15-43 and then 
says : — 

apy ekam vetti yo nama dhatvarthanigamai raveh/ 
sa rogair varjitah sarvaih sadyah papat pramucyate / J (verse 57). 
Bhav. I. 78 (which has a large number of verses in common with 
Samba-p., chap. 9) contains the verses ‘apy ekam vetti yo nama’ etc. 
but lacks the verses on the etymological meanings of the Sun’s differ- 
ent names. 

(10) In verse 23 of Bhav. I. 79 Narada proposes to speak of the 
offspring of the Sun and says that the Sun begot three children on 
Samjni, but in verses 2^S. he goes on narrating the story of Samjni 
abruptly from her residence in her father’s house for one thousand 
years before she started for the Northern Kuru country. It is m be 



THE SAURA UPAPUKANAS 


75 


noted that although the whole of Samba-p., chap. lo, and the large 
majority of the verses of Samba-p., chap. 1 1, arc found to occur in 
Bhav. I. 79, the Bhavisya-p. remarkably lacks Samba-p, ii. 2-i2a 
which state why Sarnjna determined to go to her father’s house 
without informing the Sun and how she created Chaya for the purpose 
and left her in charge of her husband and children. 

(11) In Bhav. I. 53, in which Brahma speaks to Rudra and 
which has the large majority of its verses in common with Samba-p., 
chaps. 20-21, verse 50b reads ‘visnur bhavan ahain rudrah pujayama 
(v.l. ‘pujayanti’ and ‘pnjayamah’) nisa-ksaye’ in place of ‘brahma 
visnus ca rtidras ca pujayanti nisa-ksaye’ of verse 23b of Samba-p. 
20 (in which Narada speaks to Samba on the names of the towns 
surrounding the Mcru, the speed with which the Sun goes round the 
Meru, and the names of the different gods who worship the Sun at 
different times). 

(12) Samba-p. 35. 2b-3a (yasya yas ca niyogah syad devasya 
kathito maya/sa tasminn eva manasa sthapanlyo rathe budhaih//) 
refers to Samba-p., chap. 29 (dealing with the characteristics of the 
Sun’s image, the construction of Sun-temples, and the position of the 
image of the Sun as well as of those of the Sun s attendant deities 
in these temples). But Bhav. I. 58, which contains almost all the 
verses of Samba-p., chap. 35, omits the lines 'yasya yas ca niyogah 
syat’ etc. but retains the line ‘sa tasminn eva manasa sthapanlyo rathe 
budhaih’** which is meaningless without the first line (yasya yas ca 
niyogah syat etc.). The cause of this omission is that in the 
Bhavisya-p. there is no cliapter (preceding chap. 58) to which the line 
‘yasya yas ca niyogah syat’ may refer and that the verses of Samba-p. 
29, which deal with the position of the Sun s image and of those of 
his attendant deities in the Sun-temple, have been inserted in the 
Bhavisya-p. as late as in chap. 1 30. 

(13) Samba-p. 35. 3b (dyaur mahl deva-murtisthc yatha-purvam 
prakirtite) refers to Samba-p. 10. ^ff. (in which the Sun’s two wives 
Rajni and Niksubha have been identified with Dyauh and Prthm 
respectively), but this line, as retained in Bhav. I. 58. 24b (dyaur 


96 Sec Bhav. 1. 58. 24a. 



76 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


mahl ca dvimurcisthe yathapurvam pratisthite), has no preceding 
chapter to refer to, and the verses of Samba-p. lo, to which it might 
refer, have been inserted as late as in Bhav. I. 

(14) Though in Bhav. I. 58 Brahma speaks to Rudra, line 32b 
(which corresponds to Samba-p. 35. loa) runs as follows: — yathokta- 
karanad rudra sada santir bhaven nrpa. The use of the word ‘nrpa’ 
in the Vocative Case in this line is unwarranted and proves that the 
Bhavisya-p. is the borrower, because in the corresponding chapter 
(35) of the Samba-p. Vasistha speaks to king Brhadbala. 

(15) The Bhavisya-p. has plagiarised a large number of verses 
from Varahamihira’s Brhat-samhita,*^ viz.. 


Bhav. 

I. 

54. 1 

5-16 

= 

Brh3t-S3mhita 3. 21-22. 

>> 

I. 

:3o. 

8-373 

= 

,, 56. 1-283 and 298-30. 

>» 

I. 

131. 

4 

= 

59. I. 

>) 

I. 

131. 

14-18 

— cf. 

” 59 - 5 - 7 - 

*> 

I. 

131. 

3 »b -35 

= 

59. 8-n. 

» » 

1. 

131. 

428-45 

= 

„ 59. 12-13. 

1 

I. 

132. 

26-32 

= 

., 58. 48, 47b, 50-52 






and 41-42. 

> ♦ 

I. 

* 33 - 

I b -2 

— cf. 

,, 60. 1 - 23 . 


1. 

^ 33 - 

33 

= 

,, 60. 2b. 

>» 

I. 

^ 33 - 

38-83 

— cf. 

,, 60. 3-63. 


I. 

‘ 37 - 

4-63 

= 

„ 60, 14-19 and 223 . 


97 The Bhavisya-p , is taken to be the borrower for the following reasons : — 
(1) In Bhav. I. I. 7 Vyasa is said to have narrated briefly in the present 
Bhavisya the contents of the Smrti and other works written by the sages such 
as Parafara, So, the present Bhavisya-p. calls itself a compilation rather than an 
original work. As a matter of fact, Bhav. I. aff, frequently refer to Manu and 
have numerous verses derived from the Manu-smrti. Apararka and Kulluka- 
bham even say that the Bhavisya-p. expounds the passages of the Manu-smrti 
(see Apararka ’s com. on the Yaj., pp. 1071 and 1076, and Kulluka-bham’s com. 
on Manu-smrti XI. 73, 74, 76 and lox), 

(2) The peculiar metre, which Varahamihira uses in many of the chapters 
of his Brhat-samhita, is found only in some of those verses of the Bhavisya-p. 
which arc common with the Brhat-samhita, There are two verses (viz., Bhav. 
I. 137. 3 and ob-ya) which, though writmn in this peculiar metre, do not occur 
in the Brhat-samhita. Of these, the former (i.e. verse 3) is introductory and 
the latter is concluding to verses 4-6a (=Brhat-sainhita 60. 14-.19 and aza). 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


77 


But in the Samba-p. there is not even a single line which has its 
parallel in the Brhat-sarnhita, although almost all the verses of chaps. 
8 and 29-31 of the Samba-p. are- found to occur in the above-mentioned 
chapters of the Bhavisya-p., viz., 

Samba-p. Bhavisya-p. 

Chap. 8 (except verse 13b) = 1 . 54. 2-14; 

,, 25 (except verses 1-7, 20a) =1. 130.42-36, 39-602, 63b; 

„ 30 (except verses 28b-29, 3ib)=I. 131. la, 2-32, iob-i3a, 

5-ioa, 19-20, 23-26, 27b- 
30, 36-41,46-47; 

31 =1. 132. 1-24; 

„ 32, verse la =1. 133. la. 

On the other hand, Bhav. I. 24-28, though dealing with the 
physical characteristics of men and women (stri-purusa-samudrika- 
laksana), betray no influence of the Brhat-sarnhita (which deals with 


(3) A great scholar and astronomer like Varahamihira cannot be expected 
to have plagiarised verses from the Bhavisya-p., especially when we consider that 
although in Brhat-sarnhita 1. 2 Varahamihira says that he has treated in an easy 
style the same subject-matter as was revealed by the former seers, he refers very 
often, by name, to the authors of those works from which he has taken verses, 
and that the extant Puranas, which are often called compilations (sanihita), ate 
found to have incorporated verses or even complete chapters from standard 
Sanskrit works on different subjects. 

Hence it is sure that the Bhavisya-p. borrowed the verses from the Brhat- 
sarnhita. 

Regarding the mutual relation between the Bhavisya-p. and the Brhat-sam- 
hita, Nagendra Nath Vasu says that the Brhat-sarnhita (60. 19) quotes the verse 
‘visnor bhagavatan magams ca savituh etc.’ from the Bhavisya-p. (see Vasu, 
Archaeological Survey of Mayurabhanja, Vol. I, p. v, foot-note i). It is evident 
that Vasu jumped into his conclusion on the basis of only the above-mentioned 
verse (vimor bhagavatan), and that he was quite unconscious of the numerous 
coincidences between the Brhat-sarnhita and the Bhavisya-p. So, his view can 
safely be rejected. 

Vasu ’s view has been repeated by ). N. Farquhar in his Outline of the 

Religious Literature of India (p. 153), but the latter says “ the sloka may 

have been in common use; we cannot be sure that it is quoted from the Purina 
by Varaha Mihira”, (See Outline, p. 153, foot-note 2). 


78 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


the same topics in chaps. 68-70). So, it is evident that the chapters 
of the Bhavisya-p., which deal with the story of Samba, were originally 
taken from the Samba-p. and improved with verses from the Brhat- 
samhita and then added to the Bhavisya-p. 

(16) In Bhav. I. 66 Sumantu, being asked by Satanika to 
speak on the glory of the Sun, narrates the interlocution between the 
sage Sahkha and a Brahmin; and in this interlocution Sankha says: 

“imam artham vasisthena prstah sambo yatha pura/ 
sa covaca vasischaya tad aham katbayami te//” 

This seems to be a reference to tbe Simba-p. in which Vasistha 
narrates the story of Samba to king Brhadbala. 

(17) In Bhav. I. 78. 58-60 ( = Samba-p. 9. 5b-8a) the names of 
the twelve Adityas, shining respectively in the twelve months from 
Caitra, are as follows : — 

Vishu, Aryaman, Vivasvar, Ainsumat, Parjanya, Varuna, Indra, 
Dhatr, Mitra, Pusan, Bhaga and Tvastr. 

But in Bhav. I. 65. 266-29 the twelve Adityas, shining respecti- 
vely in the twelve months from Caitra, are the following : — 

Dhatr, Aryaman, Mitra, Varuna, Indra, Vivasvat, Parjanya, Pusan, 
Isu, Bhaga, Tvastr, and Visnu. 

(18) In Bhav. I. 139. i-9a (which are the same as Samba-p. 
26. i6-22a and 2^-25) we are told chat after regaining his former 
physical beauty Samba approached Narada and asked him which 
Brahmins were fit for worshipping the Sun’s image established by 
himself. Narada said that no twice-born of any worth could be 
prevailed upon to worship the image and accept its property, because 
by such acceptance they would be regarded as apankteya Devalaka 
Brahmins. So, Narada advised Samba to take recourse to the Sun 
who alone was able to give him necessary information in this matter. 
Next, in Bhav. I. 139, verses 96-69 (none of which, except the first 
half of lob, is found in the Samba-p.) we see that Narada also gave 
an alternative suggestion to Samba saying: “Or, Oh tiger in the 
family of Yadu, go to Gauramukha, the priest of Ugrasena, and ask 
him. He will fulfil your desire””. Consequently, Samba approached 


9S Bhav. I. 139. 9b-toa, 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


79 


Gauramukha and requested him to accept the huge temple (vipulam 
grham) as well as the property that was donated by Samba to the 
Sun’s image established there by himself. But Gauramukha declined 
saying that he could not lower himself to the status of apanktcya 
Devalaka Brahmins by accepting the property of the image. Next, 
being asked by Samba as to whether he saw or heard of any Brahmin 
to whom these things might be given, Gauramukha spoke of the 
‘Magas’, whom he described as descendants of Jarasabda (or Jarasastra, 
according to some Mss)’*. About the origin of this Jarasabda, 
Gauramukha narrated the following story. 

Due to a curse of the Sun, his wife Niksubha was born in a 
human form as the daughter of the sage Rjisvan*** (more often called 
Rjihva, and once Sujlhva) of the Mihira gotra. Rjisvan named her 
Haralrla (or Havani according to some Mss),**® and the latter ‘was to 
sport with Fire according to her father s command (pitur niyogat 
sa kanya viharej jatavedasam — Bhav. I. 139- Accordingly, 

the Fite was kindled (samiddbah)*®* by her. Now, once the Sun 
chanced to see Flarallla and was attracted by her youthful beauty. 
Finding no other means of enjoying her person, he entered fire , 

99 Nagendra Nath Vasu. Castes and Sects of Bengal, IV. p. 30. The 
Bodleian Ms reads ‘jalagamvu.’ — Sec Aufrecht, Bod. Cat., p. 33a. 

99a The Rg-veda names one RjisVan (almost undoubtedly a king) in a 
number of verses, two of which (viz., Rg-veda IV. «6. 13 and V. 29. ii) call 
him a ‘Vaidathina’ (a son or descendant of Vidathin) and one (viz.. Rg-veda 
X. 99. n), an ‘ Aus'ija’ (a son or descendant of Ufija) . As there is no possibility 
of Vaidathina Rjisvan and Ausija Rjis'van of the Rg-veda being different persons, 
it seems that Rjifvan was the son or descendant of Vidathin belonging to the 
family of Usija. (See Pargiter, Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, p. 161). 
In Rg-veda VI. 20.7 Rjifvan has been called ‘a donor of (sacrificialijj^. 

100 Sec Aufrecht,’Bod, Cat., p. 32b. Nagcndra Nath Vasu, Castes and Sects 
of Bengal, IV, p. 30. 

101 This shows that Haralda (or Havani) was betrothed by her father to the 
Fire god. who alone was thus cnutled to enjoy her person. 

102 The word ‘samiddhah’ may also mean ‘excited amorously’. 

103 In the verses 

anayavahrco yo vain pavako deva- pujitan/^^ 
vanam avisya tanvahgim bbajeyam loka-pujitam/ / 
iti samcintya devesah sahasramfur divaspati^/ 
vivefa pavakam vira tat-putraf cabhavat tada/ / 



80 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


and Harallla also transgressed the kindled Fire and met the Sun. 
Seeing that Harallla ttansgressed himself, the Fire, which was 
kindled by Harallla, became enraged. He assumed his own form 
and said under the inspiration of the Sun (nodito bhaskarena tu), 
“As you have superseded me by violating the Vedic injunctions, the 
son, who will be born to you, will be famous under the name of 
Jarasabda (or Jarasastra, according to some Mss) and will be the 
perpetuator of his family and the multiplier of fame (vamsa-kirci- 
vivardhanah)*®'*. (His descendants) will be called Magas, because of 
(his) origin from fire; they will also be known as dvijatis (twice-born) 
for (his) origin from Soma, and as Bhojakas for (his) origin from 
Aditya. All these will be called divine”. Saying this the Sun (who 
resided in the Fire) vanished.*"® The sage Rjisvan knew, through 
meditation, about Haralila’s pregnancy. He deemed himself lowered^"" 
and cursed Harallla saying: “Oh extremely fortunate (girl), as, due 
to the fault of yourself who have become passionate, the foetus has 
been generated in you under the cover of fire, it will become dis- 
honourable (apujya)”. Being aggrieved, Harallla prayed to the Sun 
for raising her child to an honourable position. The Sun took the 

(Bhav. I. ijg. 39 " 4 ®) word ‘vanam’ must be a wrong reading for ‘enam’. 
Aufrecht’s Ms reads ‘etam’ for ‘vanam’. — See Bod. Cat., p. 33a. 

lo.^ In the printed edition, Bhav. I. 139- 43b ff. read as follows: — 
vedoktam vidhim utsrjya yathaham lahghitas tvaya/ 
tasman mactah samutpanno na ca putro bliavisyati/ / 
jarasabda iti khyaco vainsa-kkti-vivardhanah/ 
agni-jatya magah prokcah soma-jatya dvijatayah/ / 
etc. etc. 

But with these readings the above lines do not give any clear meaning, and the 
third line remains unconnected. So, we are to accept the text of the second 
line as given in Aufrecht’s Ms., viz., tasmat sa tu samutpannas tava putro 
bhavisyati. — See Bod. Cat., p. 33a. 

105 The printed ed. reads : — 

tam evam uktva bhagavan adityo ’ntaradhiyata 
(Bhav. I. 1 3 g. 46a). But Aufrecht’s Ms reads : — 

tam evam uktva bhagavan adityo ’ntardadhe ’gniman 
(see Bod, Cat , p. 33a). The latter reading seems to be better. 

106 Cf. patitah syan mahateja rjihvah sumahamatih. 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


81 


form of fire and said that though he did not like to make Rjisvan’s 
words futile, he would make her disreputable son worthy of respect 
and versed in the Vedas, that her son would have as his descendants 
such teachers of the Vedas as Vasistha and others who would sing 
the Sun’s praise, worship the Sun and fire with devotion, observe the 
solar vows, have matted hair and beards, carry a purnaka in their 
right hand and a ‘varsma’^®' in their left, cover their face with a veil 
called ‘patidana’*®®, and, being purified by these and other practices, 
attain the Sun’s proximity, and that even those who would 
worship the Sun without observing any rule or using any mantra out 
of ignorance or displeasure, would delight in the presence of the Sun. 
The Sun then vanished. 

Thus, Gauramukha said, ‘the Bhojakas came into being’. Gaura- 
mukha advised Samba to give the town as well as the gifts to these 
Bhojakas. At the request of Samba to tell him where these great 
sons of the Sun called Bhojakas lived, Gauramukha intimated his 
ignorance in this matter and advised him to take recourse to the Sun. 

Then in Bhav. I. 139. 70-81 and 83-97 same as 

Samba-p. 26. 26-49 approached the 

Sun, bowed down to him, and asked him : “Who will perform your 
worship?” Being thus questioned by Samba, the Sun spoke of the 
Magas, Magagas, Ganagas (or Manasas) and Mandagas of Saka-dvipa, 
who, he said, were produced by Visvakarman from his rays,*®* to 
whom he imparted the four Vedas, and who were given to his 
worship. At the Sun’s advice Samba went to Saka-dvipa and brought 
eighteen families (astadasa kulani) of Magas to Mitravana. 

A careful comparison between tbe above contents of the three 
parts of Bhav. 1 . 139 shows that the third part is a direct continuation 
of the first, and that the second part (viz., Bhav. 1 139. 9b-69), which 
is not found in the Samba-p., differs on many points from the first 
and the third. For instance. Samba’s question ‘kas tc pujam karisyati’ 

107 The printed ed. wrongly reads ‘varma’. — Bhav. I. 139. 60a. 

The ‘var^^^a’ (or Barsom, — Avestan ‘baresma’) is a bundle of twigs held by 
Magian priests during Sun-worship. 

108 This veil is called ‘paitidana’ in the Avesta. 

109 tejasas te madiyasya nirmita viivakarmana. — Bhav. I. 139. 76b. 

11 



82 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


to the Sun in Bhav. I. 139. 70b follows from the conversation 
between Samba and Narada in Bhav. I. 139. 1-92 but does not agree 
with Bhav. I. 139. 69 in which Gauramukha says : 

“nahain jane mahabaho vasante yatra vai magah/ 
ravis taj janate vTra tasmat tarn saranam vraja/ 
and in Bhav. I. 135. 76b the Magas, Magagas etc. are said to have 
been produced by Visvakarman from the Sun’s rays, whereas in 
Bhav. I. 139. ^h- 6 ^ a different origin of the Magas is given. 

Just like the Bhavisya-p., the present Brahma-p. also has a large 
number of verses in common with the Samba-p., viz., 

Brahma-p. Samba-p. 

29 (except verses 1-2, = Chap. 38 (except verses 1-2, 

6b-7a, 9b and 23b 


Chap. 


30, verses 2b-2i = 

30, verses 22-23a, 24-^23, = 

44 

30, verses 45, 60a, 62-65,= 

75a, 76-86, 88-92 

31, verses 1-143 = 

31, verses 146-27 = 

31, verses 296-38 = 

32, verses 50-54, 556-673.= 

68a, 69-73, 75a (partly), 
76-79 and 81 

32, verses 89a, 90-92, = 

936-94, 956-105. 
io6-i 08 


34a and 53b); 

2, verses 2a and 3-21; 

4, verses 3-18 and 

20-24; 

5, verses 1-20,216-233, 

24-30, 316-39; 

8, verses 1-13; 

9, verses 1-133 and 14; 
25, verses 36-12; 

11, verses ib-2a, 36-53, 
9-1 1, i2b-i6a, i9'3it 
32a(partly), 346-38,41; 

12, verses 5a, 9a, 11-20, 

2 2-26 ; 1 1 .verses 42- 
43; 12, verse 27; 


14, verses i, 4-172, 

18-243 and 26-34. 


,, 33, verses 1-223 and = ,, 

23-31 

That the above verses of the Brahma-p. originally belonged to 
some other source is shown by the fact that though in Brahma-p., 
chap. 28 Brahma begins, at the request of the sages, to describe the 
place (ksetra) of Konaditya or Konarka situated in Utkala (or 
Odradesa) on the northern shore of the salt-ocean^^°, in chaps. 29-33 


no Brahma-p. 28, verses 1-2 (... daksinodadhi-sainsthitah/ odradesa iti 

khyatah // samudrad uttaram tavat ), n (lavanasyodadhes tire ), 

19-20, 56 and 64 (konarkasyodadhes tire ). 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


83 


he is found to describe Mitravana situated on the bank of the 
Candrasarit mostly in the same verses as found in the Samba-p. and 
the Bhavisya-p., no mention being made by him of Konaditya (or 
Konarka), of Utkala (or Odradesa), or of the ocean in these chapters. 
A comparison between the above-mentioned chapters of the Brahma-p., 
on the one hand, and those chapters of the Samba and tbe Bhavisya-p. 
which have verses in common with the Brahma-p., on the other, 
shows definitely that the Brahma-p. borrowed these common verses 
from the Samba-p. For instance, many verses are found common to 
Brahma-p. ag, Samba-p. 38 and Bhav. I. 80-82 and 93-, and a textual 
comparison between these chapters shows that Brahma-p. 29 agrees 
much more with Samba-p. 38 than with Bhav. I. 80-82 and 93.^^- 

HI The nature of agreement will be evident from the following table. 


Brahma-p. 


Samba-p. 


Bhavisya-p. 

29. 1-2 

= 

— 

= 

— 

— 

= 

38. 1-2 

= 

— 

— 

= 

— 

= 

I. 80. I. 

29. 3a 

= 

38. 3a 

= 

— 

29. 3b-4a 

= 

38. 3b-4a 

= 

I. 80. 2. 

— 

= 

— 

= 

1. 80. 3-8. 

29. 4b-6a 

= 

38. 4b-6a 

= 

— 

29. bb-ya 

= 

— 

= 

— 

29. yb-ga 

= 

38. 6b-8a 

= 

— 

29. 9 b 

= 

— 

= 

— 

29. 10-12 

= 

38. 8b-i la 

= 

— 

29. 13a 

= 

38. 12a 

= 

-— 

29. 13b 

= 

38. 12b 

= 

— 

29. 14a 

= 

38. iib 

= 

— 

29. i4b-i7 

= 

38. 13-163 

= 

— 

29. 18-20 

= 

38. ibb-iga 

= 

I. 80. g-11. 

— 

■ zz . 

— 

= 

I. 80. 12-13. 

29. 21 

— 

38. i9b'2oa 

= 

I. 80. 14. 



■=i 

— 

= 

I. 80. 15. 

29. 22a 

= 

38. 20b 

= 

I. 80. i6a. 

29. 23-25b 


38. 2lb-23 

= 

I. 80. 1 6b- 1 8. 

29. 25b 

= 

— 

= 

— 

_ 

= 

— 

= 

1. 80. 19. 

29. 26 

= 

— 

= 

I. 80. 20. 


“ 

— 

= 

I. 80. 21-36. 



84 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Similarly, the text of Brahma-p., chap. 30 follows much more that of 
Simba-p. 2 and than of Bhav. I. 66, 74 and 67. The arrange- 
ments of those chapters of the Brahma, Samba and Bhavisya-p. in 
which the common verses occur, also point to the Samba-p. as the 
source of the Brahma. 


Brahma-p. 

Samba-p. 

Bhavisya-p. 

29. ay-aga 

= 38. 24-263 = 

— 

— 

= — = 

I. 81. I. 

29. 29b-3 la 

= 38. 26b-28a = 

I. 81. 2-3 and I5b-i63. 

— 

= — = 

I. 81, 4-153. 

— 

= — = 

I. 81. igb-iS. 

— 

= — = 

I. 81. 1-2, 

29. 31b 

= 38. 28b = 

I. 82. 3a. 

— 

= — = 

I, 82. 36-5. 

29. 32a 

= 38. 29a = 

I. 82. 6a. 

29. 32b-35 

= 38. 29b-32 = 

— 

etc. 

etc. 

etc. 

The text of the Brahma- 

p. follows that of the Samba-p 

1. not only in the number 

of verses but also in their readings. For instance. 

Samba-p. 

Bhavisya-p. 

Brahma-p. 

38.3b-deva-puja-phalain 

I, 8o.2a-surya-puja-phalarn 

29.3b-deva-puja-phalam. 

38.4a-pranip^te namas- 

I. 8o.2b-pranipate phalam 

29,4a'Same as in the 

karc tatha caiva 

yac ca gita-vadye 

Samba-p. 

pradaksine 

ca yat phalam 


38.i6b-pujaya ca 

I. So.ga-pujaya ca naro 

ag.iSa-pujayapi vivas- 

vivasvatah 

raveh 

vatah 

38.i7b-bhumyain namas- 

- I. So.ioa-bhumau namas- 

ag.iga-same as in the 

karatn karoti yah 

kara-paro raveh 

Samba-p. 

38. iga-sapta-dvipa 

I. 80.1 ib-sapta-dvipa 

29.2ob-same as in the 

vasundhara 

bhaven mahi 

Samba-p. 

etc. 

etc. 

etc. 

For those few cases in 

which particular verses or re; 

adings of the Brahma-p. 

are found in the Bhavisy^ 

i-p. and not in the Samba, 

the changes undergone 

by the Samba.p. are to be held responsible. 

1 12 The corresponding chapters in these three Puranas are the following: — 

Brahma-p. 

Samba-p. 

Bhavisya-p. 

Chap. 29 

Chap. 38 

I. 80-82 and 93. 

» 30 

Chaps. 2, 4 and 5 

I. 66, 74 and 67. 

.• 3 ‘ 

„ 8, 9 and 25 

1. 54 (or 78 or 161), 

78 and 128. 

.. 32 

„ II and 12 

I. 79 and 121. 

.. 33 

Chap. 14 

I. 123. 


Note that most of the chapters of the Samba-p., which correspond to Brahma- 
p., chaps. 29-33, follow their preceding ones in regular succession. 


THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


85 


The Skanda-p. (Prabhasa khanda) also has a large number of 
verses in common with the Samba-p., Bhavisya-p. and Brahma-p. The 
corresponding chapters of these four Puranas in which the common 
verses occur arc the following ; — 


Skanda-p. VII 
(Prabhasa-kh.).i, 

Samba-p. 

Bhavisya-p. 

Brahma-p. 

Chaps. 11-12 

Chaps. 10- 1 3 and 

15 

I. 79 and 
121-123 

Chap. 32. 

Chaps. loo-ioi 

Chaps. 4 (slightly), 

3 and 9 

I. 72-73 and 
78 

Chap. 31. 

Chaps. 128 and 

Chap. 25 

I. 128 

Chap. 3 1 . 


A comparison between the texts of these corresponding chapters 
shows that the text of the Skanda-p. is based mainly on that of the 
Bhavisya but is sometimes supplemented by that of the Brahma-p.^ 
as the following table will indicate. 


Skanda-p. VII 
(Prabhisa-kh.).i, 

Samba-p. 

Bhavisya-p. 

Brahma-p. 

1 1. 62-75 

= 10. 46-17 = 

I. 79. 46-87 

= — 

1 1. 76 

= — = 

— 

= ^ 

1 1. 77-802 

= 10. 18-20 = 

I. 79. i8-2ia 

= — 

— 

= 10. 21 = 

I. 79. 2 1 b-22a 

= — 

1 1 . 8ob-85a 

= — = 

— 

= — 

— 

= — = 

1. 79. 22b 

= — 

— 

= 1 1. la = 

I. 79. 23a 

= — 

— 

= 1 1 . lb = 

1. 79. 23b 

= 32- 50a. 

— 

= 1 1. 2a = 

— 

=ss 32. 50b. 

— 

= II. 26-33 = 

— 

= — 

— 

= II. 36-4 = 

— 

= 32. 51-523. 

1 1. 85b 

= 1 1. 5a = 

— 

= 32. 52b. 

1 1 . 86-89 

= — = 

— 

= — 

— 

ass 1 1 , 56-8 = 

— 

=: — 

1 1 . 90-91 

= II. 9-10 s= 

— 

= 32.53.54. 

1 1. 92 

a= as 

— 

= 

II. 93a 

= = 

— 

= 32. 55a. 

II. 936-943 

= 11.11 = 

— 

= 32.556-563. 



86 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Skanda-p.VIl 

Samba-p. 

Bhavisya-p. 

Brahma-p. 

(Prabhasa-kh.).i 

i> 



— 

= 1 1. 12a = 

— 

= — 

1 1. 94 b- 95 a 

= — = 

— 

= — 

II. 95b 

= 1 1. 12b = 

I. 79. 24a 

= 32. 56b. 

1 1. 95c- 1 00 

= — = 

— 

= — 

Cf.II. lOI 102 

= II. 13-143 = 

I. 79. 246-25 

= 32. 57. 

1 1. 103a 

= — = 

— 

= 32. 58a. 

II. 103b 

= — = 

— 

_ — 

1 1 . 1 04a 

= — = 

— 

= 32. 38b. 

0 

O' 

= — = 

— 

= — 

— 

= II. 14b = 

I. 79. 26a 

= — 

— 

= 1 1 . 15a = 

I. 79. 26b 

= 32 59a. 

II. 103a 

= z= 

— 

= 32. 59b. 

— 

= 1 1 . 13b = 

I. 72. 27a 

= — 

1 1 . 1 03b 

= 1 1. i6a = 

I. 79. 27b 

= 32. 60a. 

1 1 . 1 06a 

= 1 1. 1 6b = 

I. 79. 28a 

=. — 

— 

= 11.17-18 = 

I. 79. 286-303 

= — 

II. io 6 b-i 09 a 

= s 

— 

=& — 

1 1. io9b-i loa 

=11.19 = 

I. 79. 306-313 

= 32. 6ob-6ia. 

1 1 . I lob-i 12a 

= z= 

— 

= — 

1 1. 1 1 2b- 1 13 

= II. 20-2 la = 

I. 79. 316-32 

= 32. 616-626. 

II. 1 1^ 

= — = 

— 

= — 

II. 1 13 

= 1 1. 2ib = 

1. 79. 33a 

= 32. 62c. 

II. 1 1 6a 

= II. 22a z= 

I. 79. 33b 

= — 

II. 1 1 6b 

= — = 

— 

= 

1 1 . 1 17-1 18 

= 11. 2 2b-24a = 

79 - 34-35 

= 32. 63-64. 

II. 1 19 

= — = 

— 

= 

1 1. 120-1 22a 

= 11. 24b-26b = 

I. 79. 36-383 

= 32. 65-673. 

1 1. 1 22b 

= — = 

— 

= 32. 67b. 

II. 123 

= — = 

— 

= — 

I I . I 2.^3 

= I 1 . 2 6c = 

I. 79. 38b 

= 32. 68j. 

1 1. 124b 

= — = 

— 

= 32. 68b. 

II. 123-129 

= II. 27-31 = 

I. 79. 39-43 

= 32. 69-73. 

II. 130 

= — = 

— 

= 32. 74. 

13- '31 

= — = 

— 

= — 


THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


87 


Skanda-p.VII 

(Prabhasa-kh).i 

1 

Samba-p. 

Bhavisya-p. 

Brahma-p. 

II. 133-135 

= 

— = 

— = 

— 



1 1. 32a = 

I. 79. 44a 

32. 75a 
(partly), 

— 

= 

— = 

— = 

32.75b. 

— 

= 

1 1. 32b = 

I. 79. 44b 

— 

Cf.II. 1^2 

= 

11-33 

I. 79. 45 

— 

Cf.i I. 136a 

= 

11.34a 

I. 79. 46a = 

— 

Cf.II. 136b 


11.34b 

I. 79. 46b = 

32. 76a. 

1 1. 137a 

= 

11.35 

I. 79. 46c = 

32. 76b. 

ir. i37b-i38a 

= 

— = 

— = 

— 

1 1. I38b-i40 

= 

11.36-38 = 

I. 79. 47-49 = 

32. 77-79. 

Cf. I i.i^ia 

= 

1 1. 39a = 

— = 

32. 80b. 

— 

= 

1 1 . 39b = 

— = 

— 

1 1. 141b 

= 

— = 

— = 

32. 80a. 

— 

= 

1 1 . 40 = 

I. 79. 50 

— 

1 1. 142 

= 

1 1. 41 = 

I. 79. 51 

32. 81. 

ii. 1433-148 

= 

— = 

— = 

00 

10 

OQ 

00 

— 

= 

1 1 . 42-483 = 

I. 79. 52-57 = 

— 

— 

= 

1 1. 48b-5o = 

— = 

— 

— 

= 

— = 

I. 79. 58-61 = 

— 

— 

= 

11.51a = 

I. 79. 62a = 


— 

= 

— = 

I. 79. 62b = 

— 

— 

= 

1 1. 5ib-53a = 

I. 79. 63-653 = 

— 

12. 1-2 

= 

II. 53 b -55 = 

I. 79. 656-67 = 

— 

— 

= 

1 1 . 56a = 

— = 

— 

12. 3-43 

= 

II. 36 b -57 = 

I. 79. 68-693 = 

— 

— 

z= 

11.58-65 = 

I. 79. 696-75 = 

— 

— 

= 

— = 

I. 79. 76 

— 

— 

= 

1 1. 66-673 = 

I. 79. 77-782 = 

— 

— 

= 

— = 

I. 79. 78b = 

— 

— 

= 

1 1. 67b = 

— = 

— 

— 

= 

1 1 . 68 = 

I. 79. 79 

— 

— 

= 

— = 

I. 79. 80 = 

— 

— 

= 

1 1 . 69 = 

I. 79. 81 = 

— 



8S 


STiUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Skanda-p.VII 

(Prabhasa-kh.).i; 

Samba-p. 

Bhavisya-p. 


Brahnia-p. 

— 

= — 

= I. 79. 82 

= 

— 

— 

= 11.70 

= — 

= 

— 

— 

= 12. 1-2. 

= I. 121. 1-2 

= 

— 

— 

= >2. 3 

= — 


— 

— 

= »2. 4 

= I. 121.3 

= 

— 

1 1. 149a 

= 12. 5a 

= 1. 121. 4a 

= 

32. 89a. 

II. 149b 

= — 

= — 

= 

32. 89b. 

— 

= 1 2. 5b-8 

= I. 121. 4b 7 

= 

— 

II. 149c 

= 12. 9a 

= I. 121. 8a 

= 

32. 90a. 

— 

= 12. 9b-io 

= I. 12 I. 8b 9 

= 

— 

II. 1 50-1 5 1 

= 12. 11-133 

= I. 121. 10- 1 2a 

= 

32. 9ob-9 

II. 152-163 

= — 

= — 

= 

— 

— 

= — 

= — 


32. 93a. 

etc. 

etc. 

etc. 


etc. 

II. 197 

= — 

= I. 123. 77 

= 

— 

II. 198-199 

= — 

= 01.1.123.78-79 

= 

— 

I I. 20ob-20I 

_ — 

= I. 123. 80-81 

= 

— 

II. 203 

= — 

= I. 123. 82 

=: 

— 

etc. 

etc. 

etc. 


etc. 


Much more striking is the resemblance between Skanda-p. Vll.i. 
loo-ioi and Bhav. I. 72-73 and 78 which agree not only in the 
number of verses but also in their contents. In Skanda-p. Vll.i.ioo 
and Bhav. I.72 the sage Durvasas is said to have cursed Samba to be- 
come a leper, because Samba imitated the uncouth look and movement 
of the sage; but in Samba-p., chap. 3, which corresponds to Skanda-p. 
Vll.i.ioo, there is no such story of Durvasas. 

We arc now in a position to discuss the dates of the different units 
of the present Samba-p. 

This Purina not only mentions the Mahabhirata in verse 1 5 of 
chap. I but also derives the majority of the verses of its chap. 45 
(dealing with the story of the origin of shoes and umbrella) from the 
latter, viz.. 



THE SAURA UPAl’URANAS 


89 


Samba-p. Mahabharata 

Chap. 45, verses 10-25,= (Aousasana-parvan). 95, verses 

27-29, 31a, 32, 34b, 7'*3» *5'*?®* ^9 2ob-28; 

35b-38, and 39 (cf.) 96, verses i-2a, 3a, 4-83, 12, 

13^15, 18-19, 20-21 (cf.). 

It speaks of many ‘Puranas’,“^ and refers most probably to the 
Skanda-p., Brahmanda-p., Vayu-p., Markandeya-p., etc.*** It knows 
the week-days, as it mentions Sunday on several occasions.**® In 
Samba-p. 3. 52-53 Samba is said to have enraged the sage Durvasas 
and become the object of his curse which brought about the destruction 
of the Yadu family through a mace (musala) born of Simba.'** The 
mention of Durvasas as cursing Samba to give birth to a mace is found 
in Bhagavata-p. X. i. laff. In the Mahabharata (XVI. i. r5flE.) and 
the Visnu-p. (V,37.6ff.) the story of the birth of a musala from Samba 
is given, but in both these works Samba is said to have been cursed 
by the sages Visvamitra, Kanva and Narada, but not by Durvasas. So, 
the upper limit of the date of the Samba-p. should not be placed 
earlier than 500 A.D. 

Again, the Samba-p. was mentioned by AlberunI in 1030 A.D.*** , 
Candesvara quotes a verse from Samba-p., chap. 36 in his Krtya-ratna- 

113 Samba-p. 5.9b — vedesu ca puranesu sangopangesu giyate. The word 
'purana’ has also been used in the sense of ‘old narrative’. — See Samba-p. 1.16; 
5.33; and so on. 

114 Samba-p. I. 8b- 1 1 — 

tvayatra kathita suta purana bahu-vistara/ 

sanmukhasya katha cadau punar brahmandam eva ca / / 
vayunapi ca yat proktam tatha savarnikena ca/ 
markandeyena yat proktam yad vaiiampayanena ca/ / 
dadbicina ca yat proktam yac ca sarvena bhasitam/ 
harinapi ca yat proktam rsibhih samudahrtam/ / 
balakhilyais ca yat proktam yac (v.l. ’tac’ in Ind. Off. Ms) 

chrutam carsibhih saha// 

1 15 Samba-p. 36.28; 38.26; 46.3; 51.117; and so on. 

1 16 sambcna punar apy evam durvasah kopito munih/ 
bhavyenarthena catyartham purvanusmaranena vai/ / 
praptav^ sumahacchapam sambo vai manujottamah/ 
taccbapan musalain jatam kulam yenasya patitam// 

117 Sachau, Alberuni’s India, I, p. 130. 

12 



90 STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

kara; Sulapani has a few lines from chap. 46 in his Vratakala-viveka; 
Haiiyudha has three verses from chaps. 24 and 36 in his Brahmana- 
sarvasva; Vallalasena draws upon chaps. 36, 38 and 45 in his Dana- 
sagara; and Vandyaghatiya Sarvananda has, from chap. 9, a few lines (on 
the etymological meanings of the names ‘Brahma,’ ‘Varuna,’ ‘Marcanda’ 
and ‘Mihira’y^® in his commentary called Tika-sarvasva on Amara- 
simha’s Namalihganusasana. Sarvananda quotes from the Samba-p. 
another line**® which, as Sarvananda says, was given in the Samba-p. 
in connection with the description of flags for different deities (dhvaja- 
nirnaya), but which is not found in Samba-p., chap. 33 (dealing with 
the same topic). Besides these, a few more verses of the ‘Samba-p.’ 
are found quoted in Mitra Misra’s Viramitrodaya (Paribhasa-prakasa, 
p. 24), Ananta-bhatta’s Vidhana-parijata, II, p. 519, Gadadhara’s 
Kalasata (pp. 125-126), Raghunandana’s Smrti-tattva (I, p. 417), 
Hemadri’s Caturvarga-cintamani (III. ii, p. 644), and Jimutavahana’s 
Kaiaviveka (pp. 417 and 49 ^)» none of these verses is found in the 
present Samba-p. We have already seen that the text of Skanda-p. VII. 
i, chaps. 11-12, loo-ioi, 128 and 240*®® is based on Bhavisya-p. 
I, chaps. 72-73, 78-79, 1 21-123 and 128 and Brahma-p., chaps. 31- 
32, that the Brahma-p. (chaps. 29-33) borrowed a large number of 
verses from the Samba-p., and that the Bhavisya-p. has plagiarised a 

n 8 The line, which Sarvananda quotes from the Samba-p. on the etymo- 
logical meaning of the name ‘mihira’, is ‘miheti secane dhatur mehanan mihirah 
smrtah’. But this line is not found in the present Samba-p. That this line 
once did occur in chap. 9 of the present Samba-p. is shown definitely by the 
fact that though towards the beginning of this chapter the Samba-p. first gives 
the 24 names of the Sun and then proposes, in verse 15, to give the etymologi- 
cal meanings (dhatvartha-nigama) of these names, it actually gives the etymo- 
logical meanings of 23 names, and makes no mention of the name ‘mihira’, 

1 19 Tika-sarvasva, p. 2C — 

tad uktam sambapurane dhvaja-nirnaye — 
talas talakrtih karyo makaro ipakarakrtih. 

This line (talas talakrtih) has its parallel in verse 38b of Bhav, I, 138 which 
corresponds to Samba-p., chap. 33. 

120 For the comparatively late date of many of the chapters of the present 
Prabhasa-khanda, see foot-note 35 under Saura-p. in Vol. II of the present 
work. See also Hazra, Puranic Records, p. 163. 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


91 


large section, including complete chapters, of the Samba-p. Now, 
Brahma-p. 2^-3^ (on Konarka in Orissa) are to be dated between 950 
and 1200 and the Bhavisya-p. must have borrowed the chap- 

ters of the Simba-p. not later than 950 A.D., because Varaha-p., chap. 
177*** mentions the story of Samba as occurring in the ‘Bhavisyat- 
purana,’ and among the verses quoted by Jimutavahana, Vallalasena 
and Hemadri from the Bhavisya-p. there are some which are common 
to the Bhavisya and the Samba-p.**® Hence the date of the Samba-p. 
cannot be placed later than 800 A.D. 

Thus the Samba-f. is to be dated between 500 and Soo AJ). As 
this Purina is mentioned in all the lists of eighteen Upapuranas as well 
as in Matsya-p. 53 and Skanda-p. VII. i. 2, it seems to have been 
composed towards the beginning of this period. J. N. Farquhar also 
supposes, without adducing much evidence, that the present Simba-p. 
was written between 550 and 900 A.D.*** 

The above date of the Simba-p. is cettainly not the date of all 
its chapters. We have already seen that the chapters of the present 
Simba-p. are to be divided into two main groups, viz., 

(1) chaps. 1-38, 44-46, and 84, and 

(2) chaps. 39-43 and 47-83, 


121 See Hazra, Puranic Records, pp. 153-4 * 5 ^' 

122 For the probable date of Varaha-p., chap. 177, see Hazra, Puranic 
Records, pp. 105-106. 

123 Bhav. I. 81. 2-3 and I5b-i6a, quoted in Jimutavahana’s Kalaviveka, 
p. 415, are the same as Samba-p. 38. 26b-28a; Bhav. 1 . 81. 2, quoted in Kala- 
viveka. p. 492 and Hemadri’s Caturvarga-cintamani, I, p. 63, and II. i, p. 663, 
is the same as Samba-p. 31. 26b-27a; Bhav. I. 93. 42a. quoted in Vallalasena’s 
Danasagara, p. 681 is the same as Samba-p. 38. 55a; Bhav. I. 81. 3, 
quoted in Caturvarga-cintamani, II. i, p. 663, is the same as Samba-p. 38. 
27b-28a; Bhav. I. 208. 4-162, 17-182, 21-222 and 3ob-34a, quoted in Catur- 
varga-cintamani, II. i, pp. 687-690, are the same as Samba-p. 46, verses 3b-4a, 
5b-6, 7-93, io-2oa and 28b-32; Bhav. I. 209. 1-52, 6b-iza and 138-143, quoted 
in Caturvarga-cintamani, II. i, pp. 724-725, are the same as Samba-p. 46, verses 
338-37 and 40-46; Bhav. I, chaps. 55-57 and 58 (verses 1-33), quoted in Catur- 
varga-cintamani. II. ii, pp. 424-440, are very much the same as Simba-p.. 
chaps. 34 and 351 and so on. 

124 Farquhar, Outline of the Religious Literature of India, p. 205, 


92 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


and that the chapters of the second group were added to the Samba-p. 
at a later date. We have also noted that among the chapters of the 
first group, there are a few interpolated ones, viz., chaps. 17, 22.23, 
33 and and that none of these interpolated chapters, except 

chap. 33, occurs in the Bhavisya-p. So, chap. 33, though spurious, 
must have been added to the Samba-p. before the Bhavisya-p. borrowed 
chapters from the Samba-p. Thus it is to be dated between 700 and 
^50 A. D. The remaining interpolated chapters, viz., ly, 22-23 
and which do not occur in the Bhavisya-p., must have been 

inserted after 530 A. D. This late dare of insertion of these last- 
mentioned chapters must not be taken to indicate that all the verses of 
these chapters were composed at a later date. We have already seen 
that chap. 45 (dealing with the origin of shoes and umbrella) is com- 
posed of verses mostly taken from Mahabharata XIII. 95 and 96. 
Chap. 44 also (which deals with manners and customs laid down in 
aphorisms and which records two metrical gathas**®, one of which 
is said to have been sung by Yania) must have been based on an 
earlier work. As, of these two chapters the latter is drawn 

upon by Vallaiasena, and as chap. 45 refers to, and is introduced by, 
chap. 44, it is sure that chaps. 44 and 45 were insetted at the same 
time and that this insertion was made before 1050 A. D, It should 
be mentioned here that none of the early Nibandlia-writers quotes 
even a single line from chap. 44, although it deals with manners and 
customs (acara). 

The chapters of the second group do not occur in the Bhavisya-p. 
Unlike the chapters of the first group, they are full of Tantric ele- 
ments. So, they must have been added to the Samba-p. after Vallala- 
sena s time; otherwise, Vallaiasena would never quote verses from the 


125 atra gatha yamena gita — 

ayur asya nikrntati praja nasya bhavet tatha/ 
ya ucchistoh prapathati svadhyayam cadhigacchati / / 

and 

atra gatha — 

akrosaka-samo loke suhrd anyo na vidyatc/ 
yas tu duskrtam adaya sukrtenSbbiiamsati/ / 


THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


93 


Samba-p., so deep his hatred towards Tantricistn was.^^* These 
chapters with Tantric elements seem to have been added before 1 5O0 
A. D., because Gadadhara quotes from the Samba-p. a line**' in 
which a worshipper is directed to perform nyasa according to the 
prescribed manner before worshipping the deity, and Mitra Miira 
quotes a verse**® in which people, who have deviated from the path 
of the Vedas, are advised to take recourse to Tantras in order chat 
they may gradually return to the path of the Vedas. Likewise, 
Ananta-bhatta quotes from the same Purina another verse which says, 
“For the sake of those who deviated from the Veda the lord of Kamala 
spoke out the Paiicaratra (Tantra), the Bhagavata (Tantra) and the 
Tantra named Vaikhanasa,”**® 

The results of the above analysis, so far as chronology is concerned, 
arc as follows ; — 

Group 1 — 

(1) Chaps. I (except verses 17- — Composed between 500 and 800 
25 which give the contents of A. D, (Most probably cowards 
the spurious chapters), 2-15, 16, the beginning of tliis period). 
18-21,24-32, 34-38,46208 84. 

(2) Chaps. 17 and 22-23 — Added later tlian 950 A. D, 

(3) Chap. 33 — Added between 700 and 950 

A. D. 

(4) Chaps. 44-45 — Inserted into the Samba-p. between 

950 and 1050 A.D. 

Group II — 

(i) Chaps. 39-43 311847-83 — AJ<led between 1250 and 1500 

A. D. 

126 For the names of the Puranas and Upapuranas which Vallalasena rejec- 
ted wholly or partly as unauthoritative for their Tantric elements sec Dana- 
sagara, p. 7 (verses 59 and 63-67). 

127 Kalasara, p. 126 — evain nyasa-vidhim krtva tatah pujam saniacaret. 

128 sruti-bhrastah fruti-prokta-prayascitte bhayam gatah/ 
kramena sruti-siddhyartham manusyas cantram asrayet/ / 

(Viramitrodaya, Paribhasa-prakasa. p. 23). 

129 pancaratram bhagavatatn tantram vaikh^iasabhidbam/ 
veda-bhrastan samuddijya kamala-patir uktavan/ / 

Vidh£na-p»ijata, il. p. 519. .. 



94 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


(The second group is made up of a few units, viz., 

(a) chaps. ^5-41 — on initiation to Sun-worship ; 

(b) chaps. 42-4^ — on the Sun’s penance-forest on 

the shore of the salt ocean ; 

(c) chaps. 47-52 — on japa-yajna-vidhi, mudra-laksana, 

puja-vidhana, etc. ; 

(d) chaps. 53-55 (verses 1*97) — which are originally Saura : 

(e) chaps. 55 (verses 98 ff.^S^ — which exhibit Saiva influence and 

seem to have belonged original- 
ly to some other work). 

The original chapters, which are now found in the present Samba- 
p., were not all that constituted this Purana originally. That several 
chapters have been lost, or rather eliminated, from this Purana, will 
be clear from the following evidences. 

After narrating how Samba dishonoured Narada and became the 
object of Krsna’s curse Vasistha says in Samba-p. 3. 52-53 — 

“sambena punar apy evam durvasah kopito munih/ 
bhavyenarthena catyartham purvanusmaranena vai/ / 
praptavan sumahacchapam sambo vai manujottamah/^ 
tacchapan musalam jatam kulam yenasya patitam/ /” 

“{Being nrged) by destiny and by the recollection of the frevious 
{event) Samba enraged very much the sage Diirvasas again in the 
same way. Samba, the best of men, received a severe curse, (and) 
due to that curse there was born a mace which destroyed his family”. 
The words ‘punar api’ and ‘purvanusmaranena’ in the former verse 
show that the story of Samba’s creation of Narada ’s displeasure and 
his incurring the curse of Krsna was preceded by the story of Samba’s 
incurring the displeasure of Durvasas and becoming the object of the 
latter’s curse. But in the present Samba-p. there is no such story 
about Durvasas. That this story once occurred in the Samba-p- is 
shown by the Bhavisya-p. (I. 72. 14-20) which states that once Dur- 
vasas came to Dvaravatl in course of his wanderings. At the sight 
of the tawny eyes, extremely emaciated body, and ugly look of the 
sage. Samba, who was proud of his physical beauty, ridiculed him by 
imitating his uncouth look and movement. Durvasas was enraged at 
Samba’s behaviour and cursed him to became a leper before long. 



the SAURA UPAPURaMAS 


95 


This Purana then narrates, like the Samba-p., the story of Narada’s 
arrival at Dvaravati in order to sec Vasudeva, Samba’s negligence to- 
wards the sage, and Krsna’s curse on Samba, and concludes with the 
verse — 

sambena punar apy eva durvasah kopito munih/ 
tac'chapan musalatn jatam kulam yenasya ghatitam// 

(Bhav. I 73. 44). 

These stories of Durvasas and Narada arc also found in Skanda-p. 
VII. i. 100 (verses 12-17) and 101 (verses 1-43) which arc the same 
as Bhav. I. 72 (verses 14-20) and 73 (verses 1-433). 

In Bhav. I. 140.23a Samba asks Vyasa to tell him who the 
Magas and the Bhojakas were and how they became the worshippers 
of the Sun(katham pujakara hy etc kitn magah kirn ca bhojakah). 
Consequently, in Bhav. I. 140. 2^S. Vyasa speaks on the Magas and 
the Bhojakas ‘in the same way as he was told about these by Vasistha' 
(cf. yathakhyatatn vasisthena tatha tc vacmi krtsnasah — Bhav. I. i 4 o. 
30b) and says at the end of Bhav. I. 144 — 

“makara-dhyana-yogac ca maga hy etc prakirtitah/ / 
dhupa-malyair yatas capi upaharais tathaiva ca/ 
bhojayanti sahasratnsuin tena tc bhojakah smrtah//” 

But in Samba-p., chap. 27 (in which Vasistha speaks to king 
Brhadbala, and of which verses 1-4 agree with Bhav. I. 140. 20-23, 
and verses 6-18 and 15^23 agree with Bhav. I. 144* * 7'^4 

and 25b-26) there is no account of the Bhojakas; and the word 
‘bhojaka’ has been replaced, obviously for the sake of this elimination, 
by the word ‘yajaka’ in Samba-p. 27. qa (‘katham pujakara hy etc 
kim magah kira ca yajakah’ which corresponds to Bhav. I. 143 ’ ^ 3 ® 
mentioned above) and 22b-23 (makara-dhyana-yogac ca maga‘ 5 ® hy 
etc prakirtitah// dhupa-m^yair japais capi hy upaharais tathaiva ca/ 
ye yajanti sahasrainsum tena tc yajakah smrtah/ /). Nay, in other 
verses also of the Samba-p. the word ‘yajaka’ has been substituted for 
the word ‘bhojaka’.*®^ That the word ‘yajaka’, now found in the 

130 The printed text wrongly reads ‘maya’ for ‘magah’. 

131 Sec Samba-p. 30. 22b— brahmanebhyas tato dattva yajakebbyai ca 

daksinam (=Bhav. I. * 3 *' 3^®^“”" ...dattva bhojakebhyai ca ), 



96 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


Samba-p., was a later substitute for the original word ‘bhojaka’ and 
that an account of the Bhojakas once occurred after Samba-p. 27. 4a, 
are proved not only by the above comparison of the texts of the 
Samba and the Bhavisya-p. but also by the fact that the word ‘bhojaka’ 
has been retained in Samba-p. 27. 3.*’^ In Samba-p. 36. 36a 
(= Bhav. I. 143. 37**) also, the word ‘bhojaka’ is found to occur. 
As the Bhojakas have not been mentioned in any of the verses preced- 
ing Samba-p. 37. 3a, Brhadbala’s anxiety to know about the Bhojakas 
(cf. kirn tu cintayatah suryam cintayitva tu bhojakan) in Samba-fi. 27. 
3ff. indicates that there were verses on the Bhojakas preceding 
Samba-p. 27. 3. 

It will be interesting here to note why and by whom the accounts 
of the Bhojakas were eliminated from the Samba-p, and the word 
‘bhojaka’ was substituted by the word ‘yajaka’ in it. 

The indiscriminate use of the names ‘Maga’ and ‘Bhojaka’ for the 
Sun-worshippers in the Samba-p. shows that this Purana makes no 
serious distinction between the Magas and the Bhojakas. According 
to this Purana, a Sun-worshipper was called Maga, because he 
meditated on the syllabic ‘If’**’; he was also called Bhojaka, because 
he worshipped the Sun with incense, garlands and other offerings^®*. 
In Bhav. I. 140 (verses 20-23) and 144 also, which correspond to 
Samba-p. 27, the Magas and the Bhojakas are not at all distinguished. 

32. 35b — havisyain bhojayitva tu brahmanan yajakams catha ( = Bhav. I. 136. 
44a — havisyabhojakamams tu br^manan bhojakams tatha); 32. 47a — viprebhyo 
yajakebhyas ca tato dadyac ca daksinam (=sBhav. I. 136. 67b — viprebhyo bhoja- 
kebhya£ ca ). 

132 kim tu cintayatah suryam cintayitva subhojakan/ 
jn^am prati tatha caisam hrdaye mama samlayah/ / 
kathatn pujakara hy ete kim magab kim ca yajakah/ 

etc. etc. etc. 

The verse “kim tu cintayatah’ is the same as Bhav. I. 140. 22. The Bhavisya-p. 
reads *tu bhojakan’ for ‘subhojakan’ of the Samba-p. 

133 The syllable ‘ar’ was regarded as a symbol for the Sun.— See Bhav. 
1.144.25a — makaro bhagavan devo bhaskarah parikirtitah. This line does 
not occur in the Samba-p. 

134 See Samba-p. ay.aab-aj (=Bhav. I. 144. 25b-26; the Bhavisya-p. 
reads ‘magah’ for ‘maya’, and ‘bhojakah’ for 'yajakah' of the Samba-p.), 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


97 


It is even said in the Bhavisya-p. that none becomes entitled to attain 
final emancipation without acquiring the qualifications of a Bhojaka**®. 
But in Bhav. I. 139. qb-fig (which are not found in the Samba-p.), 
the Magas and the Bhojakas are described as the descendants of 
Jarasabda (or Jarasastra) who was cursed to be regarded as ‘apujya’ 
(not deserving honour) by the Fire sustained by Haralila (or Havani), 
daughter of the sage Rjisvan; and in Bhav. I. i;jo, verses 1-19 and 
24-50 and chap. 141 (which also do not occur in the Samba-p.) the 
Bhojakas are said to have descended from those ten of the eighteen 
Sun-worshipping Magas who were married to the girls of the 
Ksatriyan Bhoja family by Samba^*®. From these stories of the 
Bhavisya-p„ which are mostly imaginary but not without any basis 
on historical facts, and from the other accounts of the Magas and the 
Bhojakas as occurring in the common portions of the Bhavisya and 
the Samba-p. we make the following deductions: 

(i) The Sun-worshipping Magas, who came to India in early 
times, were, in course of time, divided into two groups known as 
Magas and Bhojakas. 

(ii) In spite of their ritualistic, and sometimes ideological, 
differences, which appear to have been partly responsible for their 
separation, the Bhojakas were at first regarded as holy Brahmins**- 
as much as, or even more chan, the Magas. 

(iii) Due to their objectionable activities and matrimonial 
relations, as known from Bhav. I. 140 (except verses 20-23), 141 and 
146 (which do not occur in the Samba-p.), the Bhojakas came to 
lose their position of respect with the progress of time and turned 
Devalaka Brahmins (temple-priests) attached to Sun-temples. They 
were hated so much that other Brahmins looked upon them as ‘apaok- 

135 Bhav. 1 . 144. 7a — 

nagatvS bhojakatvam hi moksam apnoti kaicana. 

Sec also Bhav. I. 171-172 in which Bhojakas have been praised, so much so that 
they have been identified with the Sun himself (tat suryo bhojakah so ’tra 
bhojakah surya eva hi. — Bhav. I, 172. 51a). 

136 See especially Bhav. I. 140 (verses 7-19) and 141 (verses 4-10). 

137 Cf. Bhav. I. 141. 9a — 

bhojakams t 3 n ganan prahur brahmanan divya-samjnitan. 


13 



98 


STJLTDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


teya’ (unfit for sitting in the same row with them at meals) and did 
not take food prepared or served by them^®*. In his Bhasya on 
Manu-smrti 2 . 6 Medhatithi names the Bhojakas as extra-Vedic people 
having no connection with the Vedas*®*. 

(iv) Besides the Sun-worshipping Magas and Bhojakas mentioned 
above, there came to India in later times other Magas who were the 
Fire-worshipping followers of Zoroaster and must have left Iran as a 
result of the spread of Islam after the sixth century A. D. 

(v) The Sun-worshipping Magas did not look upon these Fire- 
worshipping followers of Zoroaster with respect. They recognised 
these new Magas as Brahmins of low status like the Bhojakas, and, 
in order to win them over to Sun-worship, invented the story of the 
birth of Jarasabda (or Jarasastra, i.e. Zoroaster), from whom both the 
Fire-worshipping Magas and the Sun-worshipping Bhojakas are said 
to have descended. The motive underlying this peculiar story is 
evidently to impress upon the Fire-worshipping Magas that their 
religious leader Zoroaster was really the son of the Sun and worshipped 
the Sun-god in the form of Fire, that they could attain final liberation 
from bondage not by Fire-worship but by worshipping the Sun 
through Fire as a medium, and that they were free to retain, to a 
great extent, their own peculiar practices, viz., use of 'patidana’, 
holding of ‘purnaka’ and ‘varsma’, having matted hair and beards, 
offering of Soma during worship, and so on. 

(vi) A section of the Fire-worshipping Magas must have been 
absorbed by the Bhojakas, and this seems to be the cause why both 
the Fire-worshipping Magas and the Sun-worshipping Bhojakas have 
been said to be the descendants of Jarasabda (or Jarasastra). 

138 Bhav, I. 146. 1-3 — 

satanika uvaca — 

ya ete bhojakah prokta devadevasya pujakah/ 

nannam bhojyam athaites^ brahmanais ca kad^cana / / 

abhojyatvam katham yata bhojakas tad vadasva me/ / 

139 See Medhatithi’s Bhasya on Manu-smrti 2. 6 — na hi &kya-bhojaka- 

ksapanakadinatn veda-sanibhavah / evam sarva eva bahya bhojaka- 

pancaratrika-nirgranth-anarthavada-pasupata-prabhrtayah /_ 


THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


99 


From inscriptional evidence we learn that the Bhojakas enjoyed 
a respectable position at least down to the eighth century A.D. 
Narasimhagupta Baladitya and Jivitagupta II, who reigned in Magadha 
in the fifth and eighth centuries A.D. respectively, are said to have 
shown respect to the Bhojaka Brahmins of Magadha and to have made 
donations of land to them.^-® But from the tenth century A.D. the 
descendants of Brahmins from ^aka-dvlpa called their ancestors ‘Magas’ 
or ‘Saka-dvipl’ Brahmins but not ‘Bhojakas’ at least in Magadha and 
Bengal. This fact is evidenced not only by a number of inscriptions 
(such as the Govindapura stone inscription'^^ which mentions the 
Mana kings of Magadha), but also by the Kulaji-granthas and other 
works.'®* It is clearly for this lowered position of the Bhojakas that 
the word ‘bhojaka’ has been replaced with the word ‘yajaka’ in the 
Samba-p., and this replacement seems to have been made by the people 
of Orissa who added chaps. 42-43 to the Samba-p. in order to glorify 
the Sun’s place on the sea-coast there. 

Scholars arc inclined to regard the Samba-p. as ‘a Saura document 
connected with Orissa’.^®? But this view is untenable. We have 
already seen that the present Samba-p. is originally a work connected 
• with Mitravana in the Punjab and that it is only the interpolated 
chaps. 42-43 which deal with the Sun’s penance-forest in Orissa. 

The present Samba-p. must have been written in Northern India, 
and most probably in its western part. With the exception of the 
rivers Tapatl and Payosnl, all the holy places and rivers, mentioned 
in this Purina, belong to Northern India, especially to its western 
part.*®® 

140 Fleet, Corpus Inscripdonum Indicaium, 111 (Gupta Inscriptions), p. 2iy. 

141 For this inscription see Na^ndra Nath JVasu, Castes and Sects of 
Bengal, IV, pp. 59-64- 

142 For the names of many of these works as well as for the relevant extracts 
from them, sec Nagendra Nath Vasu, Castes and Sects of Bengal, IV, pp. 66ff. 

143 Farquhar, Outline of the Religious Literature of India, p. 205. Nagendra 
Nath Vasu, Archaeological Survey of Mayurahhanja, Vol. I, p, xii ; and 
Vifvakosa (a Bengali encyclopaedia), Vol. IV, pp. 545-548. Mano Mohan 
Ganguly, Orissa and Her Remains, pp, 439 ff. 

144 See foot-note 62 above. 



100 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


According to the Saura-satnhita of the Skanda-p. the Samba-p. 
was also called ‘Susuksma’T*® A ‘Bhaskara-purana’ is mentioned in 
Skanda-p. V. iii (Reva-khanda). 199. 4-5 as dealing with the story of 
the birth of the two Nasatyas (nose-born, i.e. the Asvins) in connection 
with the praise of Martanda.*^* This * Bhaskara-purana’ may be the 
same as the present Samba-p., because the latter also calls itself 
‘bhaskarasya puranam’ in verse ij of chap, i and contains the story 
of the birth of the Asvins in chaps. lo-ii. In his Malamasa-tattva 
Raghunandana gives from the ‘Kaurma’ (i.e. Kurma-p.) a list of 
Upapuranas including the Samba-p. and a Purina ‘named Bhaskara’ 
(bhiskarahvayam).^^^ So, this Bhaskara-p. of the Malamasa-tattva 
must be different from the Samba-p. Both Raghunandana and Kaslrama 
Vacaspati, the commentator on the Malamasa-tattva, identify this 
Bhaskara-p. with the Aditya-p.*^® 

D. R. Bhandarkar mentions a Surya-purana as known to the 
Brahmins called Sevaks, who live round about Jodhpur.**® But as we 


145 Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat., yi, p, 1382 — 

tatah sambapuranakhyatn susuksmam iti ceritam. 

146 yudhisthira uvaca — 

adicyasya sutau tata nasatyau yena hetuna/ 
samjatau srotum icchami nirnayam paramam dvija// 
markandeya uvaca — 

p'urane bhaskare tata etad vistarato maya/ 
samirutam devadevasya martandasya mahatinanah/ / 

147 Smrti-tattva, I, pp. 792-3. 

148 Smrti-tattva, I, pp. 792-3 — 
kaurme — 

‘anyany upapuranani munibhih kathitany api/’ 
tint ca narasimha-nandy-aditya-kalika-piiranadmi, yatha — 

‘adyam sanatkumiroktam narasimbam tatah param/’ etc. 

See also Malamasa-tattva (Candicarana Smrdbhusana’s edition with Kasirama 
Vacaspatt’s com.), pp. 212-3 — hhiskarahvayam aditya-puranam. 

149 ‘Roundabout Jodhpur there is a class of Brahmanas known as Sevaks. 
most of whom are religious dependants of the Osval Sravaks. They call them- 
selves Sakadvlpa Brahmanas and know that their story is told in the Namagran- 
tha of the Surya-purana and also in the Bhavisya-purana’. — Ep. Ind., IX, p. 279. 


THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


101 


are quite ignorant of the contents of this Parana, wc do not know 
whether it is the same as the Samba-p. or not. 

The whole of the present Samba-p. is not metrical. There are 
portions which are written in prose (viz., in chaps. 39, 41, 52, and so 
on). Chap. 44 is written in a sutra form. 

We have already seen that the Samba-p. has borrowed verses from 
the Anusasana-parvan of the Mahabharata. It has also derived verses 
from the Bhagavad-gita**" and the Upanisads. 

Though, as we have already seen, the present Samba-p. in its 
original form was connected with Mitravana of the Punjab, it must 
have known the other two most prominent places of Sun-worship, 
vizv Kalapriya and Sutlra. This is evidenced by the verse 
“satnnidhyam mama purvahne udite rajyatc janah/ 
kalatyaye ca madhyahne sayahne catra nityasah/ (Samba-p. 
26.14) which is a changed form of the original verse 

“samnidhyam mama purvahne sutlre draksyate janah/ 
kalapriye ca madhyahne ’parahne catra nityasah/ j" 

retained in Bhav. I. 129. 1 6b- 17a. That Sutlra was the same as 
Mundira mentioned in the Bhavisya-p., Skanda-p. etc. and was situated 
in Orissa, and that Kalapriya was situated on the bank of the Yamuna, 
will be evident from the following discussion. 

According to Bhav. I. 72. 4-6 the three places of Sun-worship in 
Jambu-dvipa are Mundira, Kalapriya and Mitravana, and it is only 
at Sambapura (in Mitravana) that the Sun resides permanently.'* 

150 See, for instance, Samba-p. 5 - *0 ' 4 - ‘7 ( = Bhagavad-gita 13. 13). 

151 schanani trini devasya dvipe ’smin bhaskarasya tu/ 
purvam indravanam (v.l. *mitraba)am and *mitravanani 

for ‘indravanam’) nama tatha mundiram ucyate/ / 
kalapriyarp fv. 1. kolapriyam) trtiyam tu trisu lokesu visrutam/ 
tathanyad api te vacmt yat pura brahmanoditara/ / 
candrabhaga-tatt namna purarn yat samba-samjnitam/ 
dvipe ’smin ch5svatam sthanam yatra suryasya nityata/ / 

Though the reading ‘indravanam’ occurs in the body of the text of our 
printed edition as well as in the Ms of the Bhavisya-p. described by Aufrecht in 
his Bod. Cat. (p. 31, foot-note 6), the reading ‘mitravanam’ is undoubtedly the 



102 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Buc in Bhav. I. 129. i 6 h-i'jz the Sun, speaking of Mitravana, 
says : 

“samnidhyam mama purvahne sutire draksyate janah/, 

kalapriye ca madhyahne ’parahne catra nityasah/ /.” 

“People will ever see my proximity at Sutlra in the forenoon, at 
Kalapriya at mid-day, and here in the afternoon”. Thus in Bhav. I. 
129. i6b-i7a the names of the three places of the Sun are given as 
Sutira, Kalapriya and Mitravana. In Bhav. I. 189. 23-26 Pundira- 
svamin,**® Kalapriya and Mulasthana have been mentioned among the 
places which are said to be resorted to by gods and Siddhas; and in 
Bhav. I, 55. 27 Sundirasvamin,*®* Kalapriya and Mitravana are found 
mentioned among the holy places from which water should be collected 
for bathing the Sun^s image in its annual worship. In Varaha-p. 177, 
in which the story of Samba’s penance for the Sun’s favour in order 
to get rid of leprosy caused by Krsna’s curse*®* has been narrated 
briefly with the mention of the ‘Bhavisyat-purana’ as the source, Samba 
is said to have established three images of the Sun — one on the Udaya- 
cala, another, named Kalapriya, on the south of the Yamuna, and the 


correct one ; because the name ‘Mitravana’ has been mentioned in a large num- 
ber of verses in the Bhavisya-p., whereas there is no second mention of ‘Indra- 
vana’ anywhere in the whole Purana, Moreover, Skanda-p. VII. i. 100. 2b-3a, 
which reproduces the verse ‘sthanani trini devasya’ of the Bhavisya-p., reads 
‘mitravanam’ and not ‘indravanatn’; and in the Samba-p., the name of the place 
is given as Mitravana in all cases. 

Aufrecht’s Ms of the Bhavisya-p. reads ‘mundaram’ for ‘mundiram’. But 
the evidences of the Skanda-p. (VII. i. 100. 3a and 139. iia) and the Samba-p. 
(43. 41 and 53) show that the reading ‘mundiram’ is the correct one. 

For the name ‘Kalapriya’ see Aufrecht’s Ms of the Bhavisya-p., Varaha-p. 
177. 52, Skanda-p. VII. i. 139. iib, and Bhav. I. 129. 17a. 

1 52- 1 53 ‘Pundirasvami’ and ‘Sundirasvami’ are obviously mistakes for ‘Mun- 
dirasvami’. Cf. Skanda-p. VIII. i. 139. 1 1 (mundira-svaminain pratar gahga- 

sagara-sahgame), Bhav. I. 72. 4 ( mundiram ucyatc), and Samba-p, 43. 4*b 

and 53b (mundiram). 

154 For the story of Samba as given in Yataha-p., chap. 177, sec foot-note 
87 above. 


THE SAURA UPArURANAS 


103 


third, named Mulasthana, on the AstamanacalaT**® So, from the 
Varaha-p. we get the names of the three places of Sun-worship as 
Udayacala, Kalapriya and MulasthanaT*® According to Skanda-p. 
VII. i. 139. ii-i2a the Sun resided in the morning at Gahga-sagara- 
sahgama as Mundrrasvamin; at mid-day he resorted to the bank of 
the Yamuna as Kalapriya; and in the evening he remained on the 
bank of the Candrabhaga as Mulasthana.*®- In Skanda-p. VI. 76 also 
the names of the three places and forms of Bhaskara have been given 
as Mundira, Kalapriya and Mulasthana, and it has been said that the 
Sun presents himself at Mundira after the expiry of the night, at 
Kalapriya at mid-day, and at Mulasthana at the approach of the night, 
that Mundira is situated ‘in the eastern part of the earth’, Kalapriya 
in Its middle, and Mulasthana (in its western part) beyond Kalapriya, 
and that, while residing at Mundira and Kalapriya, the Sun is also 
known as Mundirasvamin and Kalanatha (or Kalavallabha) respec- 
tively.*®* So, occording to the Skanda-p. the names of the three places 
of the Sun are Mundira, Kalapriya and Mulasthana. 

155 Verses 5ib-53 — 

sambah surya-pratistham ca karayamua tattvavit/ 
udayacale ca samsrito yamunayas ca daksine / / 
madhye kalapriyam devam madhyahne sthapya cottamam/ 
mulasthanatn tatah palcad astamanacale ravim/ / 
sthapya trimurtim sambas tu / / 

156 The use of the names Kalapriya and Mulasthana for the images of the 
Sun situated on the south of the Yamuna and on the Astamanacala respectively, 
need not confuse us. These names for the images must have been derived from 
the names of the places at which these images were situated. Similar instances 
of the use of place-names for those of the images are found in Varaha-p. 177. 
54-56 (in which Sambapura is mentioned as the name of an image of the Sun at 
Mathura), and Samba-p. 43. 39-41 (in which ‘Mundira’ is said to be a name of 
the Sun’s image established by Manus in the Sun’s penance-forest on the shore 
of the salt-ocean). 

157 mundirasvaminam pratar ganga-sagara-sahgame/ 
kalapriyam tu madhyahne yamuna-tiram ^ritam/ / 
mulasthanam castamane candrabhaga-tate sthitam// 

158 See Sk VI. 76. 1-3, 5, 22. 44-45. 59-60. 71. Of these, verses 3 and 5 
run as follows : — 

tatra samkramate suryo mundire rajani ksaye/ 
kalaptiye ca madhy^ne mulasthane ksapagame / / 



104 


studies in the upapuranas 


As regards the position of these places, the Bhavisya and the 
Skanda-p. say that the Sun is close to Sutira (or Mundira according 
to the Skanda-p.) in the forenoon, to Kalapriya at mid-day, and to 
Mitravana (or Mulasthana according to the Skanda-p.) in the after- 
noon.^*® The Varaha-p. also contains clear references to the belief 
that the greatest benefit was derived by worshipping the rising Sun on 
the Udayacala, the mid-day Sun at Kalapriya, and the setting Sun at 
Mulasthana.^*® Hence it is evident that Mundira, Sutira and 
Udayacala were situated in the eastern part of India, Kalapriya in the 
middle, and Mitravana and Mulasthana in its western part. Now, 
Mulasthana (literally meaning ‘original place’), which is said in the 
Skanda-p. (VII. i. 139. 12a) to have been situated on the bank of 
the Candrabhaga and in the Padma-p. to have been the abode of 
Samba and which is mentioned in Bhav. I. 189. 24-23 along with 
Pundirasvamin and Kalapriya, must be the same as Mitravana (in the 
Punjab)*** which is said to be the adya-sthana (original place) of the 

mundirah purva-dig-bhage dharitrySh sruyate kila/ 
madhye kalapriyo devo muiasthanam tad-antare/ / 

159 See Bhav. I. 129. iBb-iya cited above, and Skanda-p. VII. i. 139. 11- 
12a and VI. 76. 3 and 5 cited in the two immediately preceding foot-notes (157 
and 158). 

160 Cf. Varaha-p. 177. 36-383 — 
yathodayacale devam Madhya labhate phalam/ 
mathuray^ tatha gatva satsurye labhate phalam/ / 
madhyahne ca tatha devam phalapriyam akalmasam/ 
mathurayam ca madhyahne madhyamdina-ravau tatha/ 
astamgate tatha devam sadyo rajya-phalam bhavet/ 
mathurayam tatha punyam udayastam raver japam//, 

(Did the third line read ‘madhyahne ca yatha devam kalafriyam akalmasam’?) 

Sec also Varaha-p. 177. 31-32 — 

samba samba mahabaho frnu jambavati-suta / 
udayacale ca purv^ne udyantam tu vibhavasum// 
namaskuru yathanyayam vedopanisadadibhih/, 
tvayoditam ravih sratv^ tusnm yasyati nanyatha/ / 

Cf. also Varaha-p. 177. 52-53 cited in foot-note 155 above. 

161 For the identification of Mitravana with Mulasthana (modern Multan) 
in the Punjab, see Bhandarkar, Vahnavism etc., p. i 54 ; Farquhar, Outline 
of the Religious Literature of India, p. 152 ; N. L. Dc, Geographical Dic- 
tionary of Ancient and Mediaeval India, pp. 133-4 ; and so on. 



THE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


105 


Sun in a number ot places both in the Bhavisya and the Samba-p., 
and Kalapriya was evidently situated on the southern bank of the 
Yamuna, as the Varaha and the Skanda-p. show/** So, the problems, 
which remain to be solved, arc whether Mundira, Sutira and Udaya- 
cala are identical, and where we are to locate the place or places bear- 
ing these names. 

We have already seen that in its two lists of the names of the 
three prominent places of Sun-worship in Jambu-dvlpa the Bhavisya-p. 
mentions ‘Mundira’ in the one (viz., I. yz. but replaces it by ‘Sutira’ 
in the other (viz., I. tag. i6b). So, according to the Bhavisya-p. 
Mundira and Sutira are identical. This identification is supported by 
the Samba-p. (chaps. 42-43) which informs us that the ‘beautiful’ 
(ramya) penance-forest of the Sun (in Orissa) was situated on the ‘shore’ 
(tira) of the salt-ocean (lavanodadhi), that the sight of the rising Sun 
there was deemed highly meritorious, and that the Sun’s image, which 
was established there by Manus, was given a name ‘Mundira’.^*? 
So, Sutira (literally meaning ‘beautiful shore’) must be another 
name for Mundira, which, again, must be very close to, or even 
identical with, Konarka*** situated on the sea-shorc very close to 
the river Candrabhaga (a branch of the river PracI in Orissa). 
In Samba-p., chaps. 42-43 the Sun’s pcnancc-foresr on the sea-shore 


162 Varaha-p, 177.52. Skanda-p. VII. i. 139. ii. 

163 Samba-p. 43. 40-41 — 

taco nama prakurvanti saipprahrsU-taiiuruhah/ 
anena munditah sarve tena mundita ucyatc// 
atha krtaccha-sanijn^ ca nigamajnair udahrtah/ 
mundi pramardanc dhatuh samjnayam ca vidhiyate/ 
prakarsad ardayed yena tena mundira ucyate// 

Also Samba-p. 43. 53 - 543 — 

eka murtir dvidha krtva bhutalesv avatarita/ 
pratyuse caiva niundiram ye pasyanti narah sakrt/ / 
na kadacid bhayam soko rogas tesam prapadyate/ 

164 Though the name ‘Konarka’ docs not occur in the Bhavisya-p., the Sun 
is called ‘kona-valiabha’ in Bhav. 1 . 153. 50. So, it seems that in later times 
Mundira came to be known as Konarka because of its position in the north-east 
corner (kona) with respect to Puri. (See Mano Mohan Ganguly, Orissa and 
Her Remains, p. 437). 

14 



106 


STUDIES IN THE UTAPURaNAS 


(in Orissa) has been called Surya-kanana, Ravi-ksetra and Surya- 
ksecra and once Mitravana;^*® in the Kapila-samhiti Konarka has 
been called Maitreya Vana and Ravi-ksecra;^*® and in Brahma-p., 
chaps. 28-32 the place (ksetra) of Konaditya or Konarka in Uckala 
(or Odradesa) is called ‘suryasya ksetram’ (28, 10), ‘raveh kfetram’ 
(28. 17), ‘savituh ksetram’ (28. 62) and ‘bhaskarasya ksetram’ (29. i), 
Mitravana, situated on the bank of the Candra-sarit, has been 
identified with this holy place of the Sun, and the Sun’s devotees, 
attending this place, are directed to worship the rising Sun there with 
the three-syllabled mantra.^*^ 

By its mention that in the morning the Sun remained at Gahga- 
sagara-sahgama as Mundirasvamin, the Skanda-p. (VII. i, 139. 1 1) 
appears to disprove the above identification of Mundlra with the Sun’s 
penance-forest (called Mitravana) in Orissa, because the word ‘gahga- 
sagara-sangama’ is generally used to mean the place where the 
Bhagirathf falls into the sea. But the Bhavisya-p., which mentions 
Ganga-dvara, Gahga-sagara (i.e. the mouth of the BhagirathI), Kalapriya, 
Mitravana and Sundirasvamin (which must be a mistake for 
Mundirasvamin) in its list of different holy places and rivers to be 
named during the bathing of the Sun’s image in its annual worship,^®* 
shows clearly that Mundirasvamin and Gahga-sagara (the mouth of 
the BhagirathI) do not refer to the same place. So, the word ‘gahga- 
sagara-sahgama’, as occurring in Skanda-p. VII. i. 139. ii, must be 
taken to mean the place where the river Candrabhaga (a branch of the 
river PracI in Orissa) falls into the sea, because in the Puranas all 
rivers which flow into the sea are called ‘Gahga’.*** Or, it may mean 
the mouth of the Surya-gahga, which is mentioned in the Kapila- 
sainhita as one of the holy places and rivers in Arkaksetra. In the 

165 Samba-p. 42. 2. 

166 ASB Ms (No. 311), chap. 6. 

167 udyantain bhaskaratp drsnra sandra-sindura-samnibham/ 
cryaksarena ni mantrena suiyayarghyam nivedayet// 

firahma-p, 28; 32-33. 

168 Bhav. I. 55. 24-3°- 

169 sarv^ punyah sarasvatyah sarva gahgah samudragah. — Markandeya-p. 
57. 30b ; J/ayu-p. 45. 108a (v.l. sarasvaty^); and so on. 


JHE SAURA UPAPURANAS 


107 


Padma-p. (Patala-khanda) there is mention of a Gahga-sagara-sahgama 
near Purusottama-ksetra (modern Puri).^'® 

As regards Udayacala, we are not absolutely sure whether it is the 
same as the Udayagiri in Orissa; because, in his Katha-sarit-sagara 
Somadeva mentions an Udayadri, the abode of Siddhas (siddha- 
ksecra), as situated much farther east from Paundravardhana (most 
probably beyond Kamarupa),*^* and in their description of Kurma- 
samsthana, the Markandeya-p. (chap. 58) and the Brhat-sainhita 
(chap. 14) mention Pragjyotisa, Lauhitya, Udayagiri, Paundra etc. 
as situated in the east. But the Kalika-p., which names the holy 
places, mountains, rivers, lakes and pools in and about Kamarupa, 
including the Raviksetra (Sun’s place)*'® lying between the river 
Sumadana on the west and the Brahma-ksetra on the east and con- 
taining a temple of the Sun, is silent about any Udayacala in or near 
Kamarupa, although it mentions a mountain called Sarndhyacala of 
that locality. So, the Udayacala of the Varaha-p. is most probably 
to be taken to be the same as the Udayagiri in Orissa. 

The great popularity of the story of Samba as the antiquated 
founder of the Sun-temple and the Sun’s image at Mitravana (in the 
Punjab) tempted the people of different parts of India to connect 
their own Sun-temples and Sun-images with Samba as the founder. 
Thus, Skanda-p. VII. i. 100 says that Samba established an image 
of the Sun, named Sambaditya, in Prabhasa-ksetra, and that the place 
at which this image was established was called Sambapura; according 
to Skanda-p. VII. i. 139. 22 the Son was called Samba at Vardhamana 

170 See Padma-p., Palata-khanda, chaps. 19 and 21-22. [In chaps. 17-22 
there is the story of a king named Ratnagriva of Kahci, who, in course of his 
pilgrimagef*wiSit to Purusottama-ksetra and visited Purusottama after bathing at 
Ganga-sagara-sahgama.] See also Sahitya-Parisat-Patrika, XLIII, 1343 B.S., 
pp. 80-8 1 (for information regarding the presence of a Gahga-sagara-sahgama 
near Puri). 

171 Kathasaritsagara, pp. 67-69. The Vidusaka, who went to the Udayadri 
successively through Tamralipta, Karkouka and Paundravardhana in search of 
the Vidyadhari princess named Bhadra, is said to have travelled over 60 yojanas 
of difiScult (durgama) country, crossed the Sitoda, a river that cannot be crossed 
by mortals, and reached the border of the mountain of the rising Sun, 

*72 KLalika-p. 81, 391-53. 



108 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


(vatdhamanc ca sambakhyam); in the Brahma-p. the Sun’s image, 
called Konaditya, at Konarka is said to have been established by 
Samba; and so on. It is for this reason that in Skanda-p. VII. i. loo 
the third important place, except Mitravana and Mundira, of Sun- 
worship in Jambu'dvipa is called Sambapura, the place of Sambaditya, 
in Prabhasa-ksetra, and not Kalapriya. 

The names of Mundira, Kalapriya, and Mitravana (in the Punjab) 
as prominent places of Sun-worship were known to the original author 
of the Samba-p. as well as to the interpolator of chaps. 
but the latter was so anxious for adding to the importance of 
Mitravana in Orissa that he eliminated the lines 

sthanani trini devasya dvlpc ’sniin bhaskarasya tu/ 
purvam mitravanam nama catha mundlram ucyatc/ 
kalapriyam trtlyam tu trisu lokcsu visrutam/ / 
from chap. 3 and distorted those original verses of the Samba-p. 
which contained, or referred to, the names of these prominent places 
of Sun-worship, in order that Mitravana in Orissa might be regarded 
as the only sacred place of the Sun. 

From what has been said above it is clear that the Magian Sun- 
worship spread at least as far as Orissa even before the time of 
composition of the present Samba-p. 

173 Cf. Samba-p. 26. 14 — 

samnidhyatn mama purvahne udite draksyate janah/ 
kalatyaye ca madhyahne sayabne catra nityasah / / 
which is the distorted form of the original verse 'saipnidhyam mama purvahne 
surire draksyate janah etc.' retained in Bhav. I. 129. ihb-iya. 

Cf. also Samba-p. 43. 36b-37a — 

sthapayitva ravim bhaktya trihsthanesu surottainah/ 
nivrttim yanti sukrto devakaryartha-tatparah/ / 

Samba-p. 43. 50b — 

yam yam kriyain samarabhet suryaksetresu manavah/ 
etc. etc. etc 

(Note the plural number in ’suryaksetresu*). 

And Samba-p, 42. 538-563 — 

pratyuse caiva mundiratn ye pasyanti narah sakrt/ 
na kadacid bhayarn soko rogas tesain prapadyate// 
kalahrtkalapricya ca madhyahne ye tv aveksakah/ 
tesam eva sukhodarko hy acirenaiva jayate/ / 
s^ba-krte pure bhmub sayahne yair udikatah/ 
sadyah sampadyate tesain dharmaktoartha-sadhanam// 



CHAPTER III 

THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 

In this chapter wc shall analyse three Upapur_ ap3<=, vi? ,_y*snii- 
dharma, Visnudharmottara and Narasi mha-pu tana. All these works 
come from early dates and enjoy very wide reputation as respectable 
authorities on Dharma. The other Vaisnava Upapuranas, now extant, 
are of comparatively late origin and limited or localised authority. 
Those of these works, which have been available to us, will be dealt 
with in the next chapter. 

The term ‘Vaisnava’, as used here, is comprehensive and includes 
both the Pancaratra and the Bhagavata works. A study of the 
Satapatha-brahmana, the Upanisads, the Pancaratra Samhitas, and the 
Mahabharata indicates that the Pancaratra system originated at a very 
early period, preached the worship of the post-Vedic deity Natayana,^ 
and had non-Vcdic, and probably also anti-Vcdic, ideas ahd practices. 
In the Narayanlya section of the Mahabharata,’ which is the earliest 
document of the Pancaratras, it is said that the seven Citra-sikhandin 
Rsis, namely, Marici, Atri, Ahgiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and 
Vasistha, procaimed jointly, on the mount Meru, an excellent ‘Sastra’ 
which was on a par(samita) with the four Vedas and contained one 
lac of verses,® and that, being meant for the populace and their 
guidance both in activity (pravrtti) and inactivity (nivrtti), this ‘^astra 

1 According to R. G, Bhandarkar, Narayana is ‘the cosmic and philosophic 
god*. — Bhandarkar, Vaunavism etc., p. 35. Sec also S. K. De in Our Heritage, 
Vol. I (1953), pp. 13-23, 

The facts that in the Mahabharata the Pancaratra system is differentiated 
from the .Vedic (Mbh XII. 349. t and 64), that the ^astra, written by the 
seven Citra-sikhandin Rsis on the mount Meru, is said to have been msde con- 
sistent with the four Vedas (Mbh XII. 335. 40). and that this ^astra was meant 
for the populace (Mbh XII. 335. 39 and 29), tend to indicate the popular 
origin of Narayana. Also Mrinal Dasgupta, Early Vi^uism and Narayaniya 
Worship, IHQ, VII, pp. 346-79. 

2 Mbh XII, 335-351. 

3 See Mbh XII. 335. 27-30 and 39. 



110 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


was made consistent with the four Vedas.* Although at present we 
have got no decisive evidence at our disposal to prove the actual com- 
pilation of any ancient Sastra jointly by the seven sages mentioned 
above, the very statement that the scripture was meant for the common 
run of people and made to conform to the four Vedas, is important 
and implies the originally non-Vedic, and probably also anti-Vedic, 
ideas and practices of the early Pancaratras. The Mababharata itself 
differentiates the Pancaratra system from the Vedic, saying: “Know, 
O saintly king, the Samkhya, the Yoga, the Pancaratra, the Vedas 
and the Pasupata as knowledges holding different views.”® It has 
been held by some scholars that the above-mentioned ‘Sastra’ compiled 
by the seven sages was the forerunner of the Pancaratra Sarnhitas.® 
But this view is hardly tenable. The prescriptions of the early 
Sarnhitas of the Pancaratras are not at all favourable to the Varnasrama- 
dharma and the Vedas; on the other hand, the influence of the 
Varnasrama-dharma on the Pancaratra Sarnhitas increases gradually with 
their comparatively late dates. So, it is more reasonable to hold that 
the original non-Vedic as well as anti-Vedic ideas of the Pancaratras 
were permeated through the Sarnhitas, while the seven sages’ spirit of 
reconciling their views with the Vedas found its later expression in the 
epics, Puranas and similar other pro-Vedic sectarian works. 

In spite of its originally indifferent, and probably also irreverent, 
attitude towards the Vedas and the Varnasrama-dharma, the Pancaratra 
system came to be connected even in the later Brahmanic period with 
the sacrifleial religion of the Vedas;^ and in later times it identified 

4 Ibid., XII. 335. 29-40 — 

krtain sata-sahasram hi jlokanatu id am uttamam/ 
loka-tantrasya krtsnasya yasmad dharmah pravartatc/ / 
pravrttau ca nivrttau ca yasmad etad bhavisyati/ 
yajur-rk-saraabhir jusum athacvangicasais tatha/ / 

Also Mbh XII. 335. 29a — loka-dfaarmam anuttamam. 

5 Ibid., XII. 349. 64 — 

samkhyam yogah pancaratram vedah pasupacatn tatha/ 
jnanany etani rajarse viddhi tiana-matani vai// 

Sec also Mbh XII. 349. i. 

6 Farquhar, Outline, p. 98. 

7 Bhandarkar, Vaisnavism etc., pp. jiS., 



Ill 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

Narayana with Visnu and was affiliated to the more popular worship 
of Krsna-Vasudeva through the doctrine of Vyuha.* This modified 
state of the Pancaratra system is found in the extant Pancatatta Sam- 
hitas, on the one hand, and in the Mahabharata and the Putinas, on 
the other. In the last two classes of works, which betray the hands 
of Smarta adherents of the types of Anaptas, Arambhins and Sarnpra- 
vartins mentioned in the Jayakhya-sainhita,* an attempt has been 
made to make the system conform to the Varnasrama-dharma as well 
as to the principles of Simkhya and Vedanta. 

Among the Smarta Pancaritras there must have been different 
groups believing in, and adoring, the different manifestations of 
Narayana (Visnu). It was probably the members of these groups who, 
being inspired by a sense of high regard for the Vedas and the 
Varnasrama-dharma, compiled Puranic works bearing the names of 
the different manifestations such as Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Nara- 
simha, Vamana, etc. 

In comparatively late periods, a large section of people threw 
Narayana into the background, looked upon Krsna-Vasudeva as the 
object of their devotion, and began to add great importance to his 
character as a cowherd. They made him the Supreme Being by 
identifying him with Visnu, often ignored the doctrine of Vyuha, 
and laid great stress on love and emotional bhakti as means of realis- 
ing this Supreme Being. These people and their followers took 
Krsna-Vasudeva to be the Bhagavat and came to be known as Bhaga- 
vatas. In order to propagate their own faith, the Smarta Bhagavatas 
wrote several Puranic works, in all of which juvenile Krsna of Vrnda- 
vana figures prominently. 

It should be mentioned here that as both the Pancaratras and the 
Bhagavatas believed deeply in the doctrine of ahimsa (non-killing), 

8 For clear exposition of this doctrine see F. O. Schrader. Introduction to 
the Pancaratra and the Ahirbudhnya Sainhita, pp. 278. For the older dogma see 
Barnett, Introduction to his English translation of the Bhagavad-gita, pp. 52-55; 
Mrinal Dasgupta in IHQ, VIII, pp. 68-75. 

9 XXII, 34b-37a. See also Hazra, Pui^ic Records, pp. 203-4 (for the 
relevant verses of the J ayakhya-samhita as well as for explanation of the terms 
‘Smarta Pancaratra,’ ‘Sm^ta Saiva,’ etc.). 



112 


srrUDIES IN 3HE UPAPURaNAS 


their ideas became the subject-matter of many of the Puranic works, 
which were meant for saving the Vedic religion especially from the 
onslaught of Buddhism, Jainism and other non-Vedic and anti-Vedic 
religious systems. The identification of Narayana and Krsna-Vasudeva 
with Visnu connected the systems of the Pahearatras and the Bhaga- 
vatas closely with the Vedic ideas and made them favourable for the 
establishment of the Varnasramadharma and the authority of the 
Vedas. It was most probably for this reason that in later times even 
Tantric Saktism had to be infused with Vaisnava ideas. 

The tradition of compilation of a ‘5astra’ by reconciling the 
sectarian views with the Vedic ones, which is said to have been sec 
up by the seven Cicra-sikhandin feis on the mount Meru, does not 
appear to have died out or failed in inspiring people of later ages to 
compose similar works for the popularisation of the Vedic views of life 
and conduct. With the rise and spread of Buddhism, Jainism and 
ocher non-Vedic and anti-Vedic religious faiths, the protagonists of 
the Vedic way of life must have been actively busy in devising ways 
and means for creating a favourable field for the Vedas in popular 
mind. As a matter of fact, during the few centuries preceding and 
following the beginning of the Christian era the Smarca adherents to 
leading sectarian faiths such as Vaisnava, Saiva, .Saura, etc. compiled a 
number of works entitled ‘Visnudharma’, ‘Sivadharma’, ‘Sauradharma’, 
and so on, which were neither Putinas nor Smpis but were ‘Sastras’ 
prescribing religious and other duties to the respective sectaries in 
consonance with the teachings of the Vedas. The early rise of these 
‘5astras’ is evidenced by the Bhavisya-p., in which Sumantu is found 
to explain the term ‘Jaya’ to king Satinika, saying : 

“asradasa-puranani ramasya caritam tatha / 
visnudharmadi-sascrani sivadharmas ca bharaca / / 
karsnam ca paheamo vedo yan inahabharacam smrtam J 
sauras ca dharnia rajendra manavokca mahipate / / 
jaycti naina caitesam pravadanti manlsinah 7/”^® 

lO These verses, which have been quoted in Krcya-kalpataru. 1 , p. 25, 
Caturvarga-cintamani, I, pp. 19-ao, Krtya-ratnakara, p, 30, Nityacara-pradipa. 
I. p. 22 (omitting the fifth line), Stnrti-tatcva, 1, p. 71. Viramitrodaya, Pari- 
bh^a-prakasa, p. 1 7, and so on, are much the same as Bhav. I. q. Syb-Sq. 


iTHE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 


113 


“The eighteen Puranas as well as the biography of Rama; the 
Visnudharma and other Sastras, and the ^ivadharmas, O descendant 
of Bharata; the fifth Veda which is known as the Mahabharata com- 
piled by Krsna (Dvaipayana); and the Saura Dharmas declared by 
Manava, O paramount ruler, the lord of the earth; — the name ‘Jaya’*‘ 
for (all) these the learned declare.” 

In another place of the same Purana king Satanika is found to put 
the following question to Sumantu : 

“bhagavan kena vidhina srotavyam bharatam naraih / 
caritam ramabhadrasya puranani visesatah //^ 
kathara tu vaisnava dharmah sivadharma asesatah J, 
sauranam capi viprendra ucyatam sravane vidhih j 

“In what way, O venerable one, are the Bharata, the biography 
of Ramabhadra, and especially the Puranas, to be heard by men, 
and how, again, the Vaisnava Dharmas and the ^ivadharmas in 
their entirety ? (Kindly) tell (me), O chief of Brahmins, the 
procedure of hearing (the Dharmas) of the Sauras also.” 

It is hardly necessary to say chat in these verses of the Bhavisya-p. 
definite works on the religious duties (Dharma) on Visnu, 5iva, Sutya 
and other deities have been meant, and that these works were entitled 
‘Visnudharma’, Sivadharma’, ‘Sauradharma’ and so on. 

In the extant Visnudharma (chap, i) Saunaka gives a tradition, 
according to which the topics of this work were spoken out by Brahma 
to Bhrgu, Marici and other sages, by Bhrgu to Usanas, by Usanas to 
Saunaka’s grandfather, by the latter to Saunaka’s father, and by 
Saunaka’s father to Saunaka. The present Sivadharmottara,^* which 
claims to be the latter part of the Sivadharma, says in its concluding 

The Bhavisya-p, reads ‘visnudharmadayo dharm^’ (for ‘visnudharmadi- 
fastrani’ in the first half of the second line) and ‘naradoktah’ (for ‘manavokt^’ 
in the second half of the fourth line) and gives the alternative reading ‘frautah’ 
(for ‘saurah’ in the first half of the fourth line). It is needless to say that the 
reading ‘srautah’ (for ‘saurah’) is wrong, Cf. Bhav. I. 216. 37 quoted hereinafter. 

11 It means ‘(the cause of) victory or prosperity.’ 

12 Bhav, I. 216. 36-37. 

13 This Saiva ‘Sastra’, which still exists in Mss, will be examined in another 
Volume of the present work. 

15 



114 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


chapter that originally this work was spoken out by Kumara to the 
sage Agasti in 12000 verses and that the latter spoke out its essence 
briefly in twelve chapters.*^ The Sivadharma^® also states that it 
was originally spoken out by Siva to Parvatl, Sanmukha, Nandikesvara 
and others/® So, there is little scope for doubt that Sastras bearing 
the titles ‘Visnudharma’, ‘Sivadharma’, ‘Sauradharma’, etc. had been 
compiled even before the rise of the extant texts of the same 
titles. 

A new situation arose in the country with the unprecedented spread 
and popularity of Buddhism during the reign of Asoka Maurya. In the 
few centuries following the death of this great emperor Buddhism 
grew up to be the most powerful rival of Hinduism and gave incenti- 
ves to the compilation of the present Visnudharma, in which the 
atheists, especially the Buddhists, have been denounced on many 
occasions. This work was followed at intervals by the compilation of 
the present Visnudharmottara, Sivadharma and Sivadharmottara. The 
Sauradharma (which, as the quotations from it in the Smrti Nibandhas 
show, was spoken out by Vasistha and might consequently be different 
from that declared by Manava or Narada) and the Sauradharniottara 
(drawn upon by the Nibandha-writers) also must have belonged to this 
period; but they appear to have been lost, no Ms of any of them 
having been found as yet. 

We have already seen that in a verse of the Bhavisya-p. the 
Visnudharma has been called a ‘Sastra’. The extant Visnudharma 
also gives itself out to be a ‘Sastra’ in two places and not a ‘Purana’, 


1 4 The relevant verses are the following : 

uktarn dvad.isa-sahasri (?-srain) sivadharmottaram mahat/ 
agastaye munindraya kumarena tnahatmana// 
itiha karma- yogasya jnana-yogasya tattvatah/ 
dharni^harma-gatinatn ca svarupam upavarnitam/ / 
ity etad akhilain buddhva sainksipyagastir abravit/ 
dvadasadhyaya-sainyuktam iti saram vimuktidam// 

sivadharmottaram sastram ... / 

• . ••• ••• •••# 

Sivadharmottara, chap. 12 (ASB Ms No. 3852, fol. 88a). 

1 5 This work abo has not yet been printed. It will be examined later. 

16 See Sivadharma (ASB Ms No. 3852), chap. i. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


115 


‘Upapurana’ or ‘Smrtl’ even once/' Consequently, scholars have 
been divided in their opinion regarding the true character of this work. 
For instance, on the strength of the said verse of the Bhavisya-p. 
Laksmidhara takes the Visnudharma to be a ‘ 5 astra’ and includes it 
among the Smrti works/® and his opinion is followed in very much 
the same words by Candesvara, Narasiinha Vajapeyin^ Mitra Misra 
and others/® Vallalasena calls the Visnudharma a ‘Sastra’ (sastram 
ca visnudharmakhyam), which is taken as diflEerent from the epics, 
Puranas and Smrti Sanahitas/® Hemadri also seems to be of the same 
opinion as Vallalasena, his authorities being the said verse of the 
Bhavisya-p. and another ascribed to the Saura-p.®' On the other 
hand, most of the lists of eighteen Upapuranas include the name of 
the ‘Sivadharma’, thus giving wide recognition to this work as an 
Upapurana in spite of the fact that it frequently calls itself a ‘Sastra’ 
and once a ‘Sivatmaka Dliarmasastra’.®® As regards the Visnudharma, 
it may be said that the Brhaddharma-p.®® names it in its list of 
eighteen Upapuranas and that, as we shall see presently, the 
Visnudharmottara was taken by many to be a Purana or Upapurana. 
In all the catalogues of Sanskrit Mss both the Visnudharma and the 
Visnudharmottara have been classed with the Puranas. Consequently, 
we have thought it desirable to look upon the Visnudharma as an 
Upapuranic work and not as a mere ‘Sastra’. 

17 See Visnudharma, chap, 105, fol. 260a (nasty anyad visnudharmanarn 

sadrsam sastram uttamam) and fol. 260b (iti sastra-mahatmyam ). 

18 Krtya-kalpataru, 1, p. 25. 

19 Krtya-ratnakara, p. 30, Nityacara-pradipa, I, p. 22; Viramitrodaya. 
Paribhasa-prakasa, p, 16; and so on. 

20 Danasagara, pp. 2-3. verses 11-19. 

21 See Caturvarga-cintamani, I, pp. 19-20 (visnudharmani sastrani etc.) 
and pp. 539-40 («vadharmadi-sastrani yah prayacchati punya-dhih/ so ’nanta- 
phalam apnoti sivadharma-prakasanat/ /). 

22 In most of the chapter-colophons of the present Sivadharma the name 
‘Sivadharma-sastra’ occurs. For the name ‘Sivatmaka Dharmasastra’ see the line 
'uktam ca dvadasadhyayam dharma-sastrain sivatmakam’ occurring in chap. 12 
(fol. 39a). 

23 We shall see afterwards that this work was written in Bengal most pro- 
bably in the last half of the thirteenth century A.D. 



116 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


As to the character of the Visnudharmottara a similar confusion 
arose among scholars on account of the facts that this work, as its 
title shows, professes to be the latter pare of the Visnudharma and 
that its claim has been clearly put forth in two of its verses,®^ in 
which the Visnudharma and the Visnudharmottara have been taken to 
form one complete work known by the general title ‘Visnudharma’. 
It is most probably due to this alleged unity of these two works 
that Alberuni considered both of them to be one and made his 
citations from the Visnudharmottara under the name of ‘Visnudharma’, 
that Smrti-writers are often found to ascribe verses of the Visnu- 
dharmottara to the Visnudharma and vice versa,^^ and that in some 
Mss the Visnudharma has been called ‘Visnudharmottara.’^® In his 
Nityacara-pradipa Narasiinha Vajapeyin regards the Visnudharmottara 
as a ‘sastra’ and as a part of the Visnudharma, and supports his view 
by citations from the Bhavisya-p. and the Visnudharmottara. So, 

a 4 Visnudh. I. 74. 35 — 

samsara-ksaya-hetvarthe bhSvopakaranesu ca/ 
sotcara vaisnava dharm^i saram etat prakirtitam// 

yisnudh. I. 143. 16 — 

adhice sottaram yas ca visnudharmam idam subham/ 

25 For instance, the verse ‘ahoratram na bhoktavyam’ is ascribed to the 
Visnudharma in Madana-parijata, p. 538 and to the Visnudharmottara in 
Madhavacarya’s com. on the Parasara-smrti, I. i. p. 437; the line ‘dattva 
karpasikam’, which is the same as Visnudh. III. 313. 4a, has been ascribed to 
the Visnudharma in Dana-kaumudi, p. 46; the verse ‘upositavyam naksatram,’ 
which is the same as Visnudh. I. 60. zbb-zy, has been ascribed to the Visnu- 
dharmottara in Kalaviveka, p. 508, Vratakala-viveka, p. 14, Tithi-viveka, p. 47 , 
and Smrti-candrika, IV, p. 302, but to the Visnudharma in Varsa-kaumudi, 
p. 8; and so on. On the other hand, verses really belonging to the Visnudharma 
have been wrongly ascribed to the Visnudharmottara in Kalanirnapa, pp. 200- 
201, 202, 210 etc., Kalasara, p. 151, and so on. 

It can hardly be denied that such wrong ascription of verses is partly due to 
scribal mistakes. 

26 See foot-note 36 below. 

As a matter of fact, R L. Mitra and J. Eggeling confuse the Visnudharma 
with the Vhnudharmottara, taking these two works to be one. 

27 Nityacara-pradipa, I, p. 22 — 

‘bhavisya-purane — 

astadasa-puranani ramasya caritatn tatha/ 
visnudharmadi-sastrani sivadharmas ca bharata// 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


117 


Narasimha Vajapeyin is clearly not in favour of recognising the 
Visnudharmottara as a Puranic work. Mitra Misra also does not 
include this work among the Puranas, although he takes it to be ‘as 
authoritative as a Purana’^®. According to Alberuni the Visnu- 
dharmottara (named by him as ‘Visnudharma’) is a ‘book’ (and not 
a ‘Purana’) on ‘the religion of God who in this case is understood to 
be Narayana’^® The present Kalika-p. (92.2) calls the Visnu- 
dharmottara a ‘tantra . Except in only one most-probably-spurious 
verse/® nowhere does the Visnudharmottara claim, in the body of its 
text, to be known as a ‘Purana’ or ‘Upapurana’. On the other hand, 
Vallalasena calls the Visnudharma a ‘Sastra’ but seems to look upon the 
Visnudharmottara as an Upapurana/^ the Brhadharma-p. ( 1 . 25. 25) 
regards the Visnudharmottara as distinct from the Visnudharma 
and includes both of these works in its list of Upapuranas; 
the Caturvarga-cintamani once names the Visnudharmottara as ‘Visnu- 
dharmottara-purana’/® in the final colophons of some of the Mss of 


tatra visnudharmottaram visnudliarmasya^bheda iti na prthan nirdistam/ 
visnudharmottare — 

etc ye vaisnava dharma dalabhyena prakirtitali / 
uttaram kathitam tubhyam mayaitat pariprcchate//’ 

The former verse is the same as Bhav. I. 4 . Syb-SSa, but the latter verse 
(ete ye vaisnavah etc.), which is ascribed to the Visnudharmottara, is not found 
in the printed edition. 

28 In connection with Smrti works Mitra Misra says in his Viramitrodaya, 
Paribhasa-prakasa, p. 16 — 

‘evatn vrddha-manvadinam manvadyabhedah fista-prasiddhyadibhir avaganta- 
vyah/yani tu grhya-tatparisistadini tani bhinna-kotiny eva puranavat prama^ani/ 
tatha visnudharmottara-mahabharata-ramayanadiny api/’ 

29 Sachau, Alberuni’s India, I, p. 132, 

30 Visnudh. III. 355. 5 — 

raja’pi vajro dharmatma markandeyena bhasitam/ 
puranam cintayan nityam narayana-parayanab/ 
rajyam ca prasisan nityam praja dharmena palayan// 

This is the final verse of Visnudh. III. It does not occur in any other Ms 
of the Visnudharmottara known to us. 

31 Danasagara, p. 3 (verses I2b-I5a), 

32 Caturvarga-cintamani, III. ii. p. 462. 



118 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


the Visnudharmottara the name ‘Visnudharmottara-purana’ occurs;®® 
the Naradlya-p. (I. 54. i7b-2o) says that the Visnu-p. consists of two 
parts — the Visnu-p. proper (forming the first part — adi-bhiga) and the 
Visnudharmottara; in the final colophons of its Khandas the printed 
Visnudharmottara calls itself the second part (dvitlya-bhaga) of the 
Visnu-mahapurana;®^ in his Vidhana-parijata, I, pp. 245 and 419 
Anantabhatta quotes Visnudh, II. 52. 47-523 and II. 52. iioff. 
respectively with the words ‘catra padma-purane visnudharmottara- 
khande parasuramain prati (p. 419 — aha) puskarah’, in which the 
Visnudharmottara has been taken to be a part of the Padma-p.; in the 
final colophons of some of its Mss the Visnudharmottara has been 
connected with the Garuda-p.;®® and so on. From all these it 
appears that originally the Visnudharmottara was not regarded 
as a Purana. But in course of time its Puranic form and character 
encouraged people to include it among the Puranic works, and the 
result was that some took it to be an Upapurana, while others attached 
it, as a part, to one or other of the Mahapuranas, 

The above discussion explains our attitude towards the Visnu- 
dharnia and the Visnudharmottara. We shall now analyse the 
individual Upapuranas. 

I. THE VISNUDHARMA 

This is an extensive and widely popular work®® awaiting publica- 
tion. It consists of more than 4000 verses distributed in 105 

33 See Benares Sans. College Cat., pp. 308 and 326; and List of Sans., 
|aina and Hindi Mss, p. 22. See also Mitra, Notices, II, p. 16 (No. 550) for a 
Ms of the Dharmaghata-vrata-katha which, in its colophon, claims to belong to 
the ‘Visnudharmottara-purana.’ 

34 These colophons run as follows : — iti sri-visnu-mahapurane dvitiya-bhage 

sri-visnudharmottare 

35 Keith, Ind. Off. Cat., II. i, p, 912. Adyar Library Cat., Part !, p. 150. 
M. Rangach.irya, Madras Cat,, IV, i, pp. 1437-39, No. 21 ii. Burnell, Clasified 
Inde.x. p. 188 (Visnudharmottara — said to be the Uttara-bhaga of the Garuda-p.). 

36 For its Mss see 

(i) Shastri. ASB Cat., V, pp. 764-5 

[No. 4099 (Ms No. 1670). — 

This is a complete \Is written in Nagara scripts. It begins with two verses 



119 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 

chapters in the ASB Ms (No. 1670), which we have chiefly used here. 
It has very little of the principal characteristics of a Purana, and 
although it deals exclusively with the religious rites and duties of the 
Vaisnavas and consequently calls itself a ‘Sastra’ on two occasions and 
not a ‘Purana’ or ‘Upapurana’ even once, it came to be recognised by 
many as a ‘Puranic work, obviously because the later Puranas turned 
into religious books, caring much more for religious matters than for 
accounts of ancient history. 

Beginning, >n most of its Mss, with a verse extolling the sanctity 
of the Bharata (i. e. Mahabharata) and, on rare occasions^ with a 

‘narayanarn namaskrtya naram caiva narottamam, etc.’ and ‘dvaipayanostha-piita- 
•’'(hjsrtam aprameyam, etc.’ (in which the ‘Bharata’ has been praised), and 
its extent has been given by Shastri as 4600 Slokas. 

No. 4*00 (Ms No. 3506). — This Ms also is complete, but it is written in 
Bengali characters. Of its two introductory verses the second runs as follows : 
namo vyasaya gurave vedajnaya maharsayc/ 
parasaryaya santaya namo narayanaya te//] 

(2) Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat., VI, pp. 1308.9, No. 3604. 

[This Nagara Ms has practically the same text as that of the ASB Ms No. 
1670, its first two introductory verses being the same as those of the latter.] 

(3) Weber, Berlin Cat., 338-41, 

[This is a Nagara Ms consisting of 102 chapters and having practically the 
same text as that of the ASB Ms No. 1670 (single chapters of the former being 
at times split up into two in the latter). It begins with the same two verses as 
those of the latter and ends with the words ‘iti srivisnudharmottare sueika 
samapta.’j 

( 4 ) Shastri, Nepal Cat., pp. 29-30 (No. 1002^) and p. 30 (1002^3). 

[Of these two Mss, which are written in Newari scripts, the first is dated 
Samvat 167 (=1047 was copied during the reign of Parama-bhatta- 

raka-maharajadhiraja-patamesvara-srimad-bhaskara-deva ] 

(5) Pandit Devi Prasada, List of Sanskrit Mss Discovered in Oudh during 
the Year 1877 (Allahabad, 1878), pp. 32-33. 

[This is a Nagara Ms consisting of ‘3000 Slokas’ according to Pandit Devi 
Prasada.] 

(6) Mitra, Notices, VII, pp. 65-67, No. 2293. 

[This is a Nagara Ms beginning with the same verses as those of the ASB 
Ms No. 1670 and consisting of 3819 Slokas according to Mitra. It is dated 
Samvat 1910 and called 'Visnudharmottara like the Berlin Ms.] 



120 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


salutation, in a single verse, to Vyasa, son of Parasara, this work des- 
cribes the occasion of the narration of its subject-matter as follows. 

Once Saunaka and other sages came to see king Satanika, son of 
(Janamejaya) Parlksita, after the latter’s coronation had been over. 
Satanika received these sages with due honour and requested them to 
favour him with the best discourses on Narayana (i.e. Krsna), through 
whose grace his ancestors could recover their lost kingdom and the 

life of his grandfather Parlksit was saved from the deadly weapon 

hurled by Drona’s son (Asvatthaman). He described Narayana as 
eternal and boundless and as one who gave birth to Rudra from his 
rage and to Pitamaha from his grace. He then expressed his desire 
for hearing the ways, secret Mantras, service, gifts, vows, fasts or 
Homas, by which Hari might be worshipped for getting over the 

miseries of life. Being highly pleased with ^atanlka's devotion for 

the god the sages praised Saunaka as a rich store-house of all knowledge 
and as a lamp for dispelling all darkness of doubt in the three worlds 
and reqested him to speak to Satanika about Krsna-Narayana. Conse- 
quently, after briefly explaining the process of origin of the universe 
from the Supreme Being, who appeared, for the sake of creation, as 
Pradhana and Purusa by tila and also became Brahma, Visnu and 
Rudra by fancy (chandatah), Saunaka referred to the tradition of inheri- 
tance of all these topics from Brahma®^ and narrated the following 
story : 

Once Brama spoke to Marici and others about tbc highest type of 
Yoga which is capable of leading one to Kaivalya by effecting the 
complete cessation of the functions of the mind (samasta-vrtti-samro- 
dhat kaivalya-pratipadakam). But as success in this kind of Yoga 
requires strenuous efforts extending over many births and as it is often 
found that one fails to control the organs of senses and to get over 
their objects (visaya) even in a hundred lives, Marici and others 
requested the god to speak to them on some easier method of Yoga 
which could be practised with success even by a common man in a 


37 We have already noted that in chap, i of the Visnudharma (fols. 3b-4a) 
these topics have been said to have come down from Brahma to Saunaka successi- 
vely through Bhrgu, Usanas, Saunaka’s grandfather, and ^aunaka’s father. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


121 


short period oE time. Consequently, Brahma spoke on Kriya-yoga 
which consists in the constant propitiation oE Narayana (i. e. Krsna) 
by sacrifice, worship, salutation, service, observance oE vows and Easts, 
gratification oE Brahmins, and other acts. Saunaka said that on the 
basis oE Brahma’s instructions Marici and other sages compiled treatises 
(sastra) on Kriya-yoga Eor the good oE the people. — (Chap. i). 

Next, going to speak on this Kriya-yoga, which liberates people 
Erom bondage, Saunaka narrated the story oE king Ambarisa thus: 

Being desirous oE bringing the duals (dvandva) to an end through 
Visnu’s Eavour, king Ambarisa practised austerities with great devotion. 
Visnu was pleased, but he would not favour the king without putting 
him to test. He appeared before the latter in the form oE Indra, gave 
himself out to be the god oE gods ruling over the Adityas, Vasus, 
Rudras, Nasatyas, Maruts, Prajapatis, Sadhyas, Visvedevas and others, 
and asked the king to choose a boon. But the latter made it clear to 
him that he was not eager for having anything from Indra but was 
trying to please Visnu who ensured prosperity to Indra by killing 
Hiranyaksa, Hiranyakasipu and other demons, by recovering his king- 
dom Erom Bali, and by various other acts, and who was the creator, 
protector and destructor of the universe and the source oE origin of the 
gods forming the triad. At these words oE the king Visnu, in the form 
of Indra, pretended to be enraged and threatened the king with his 
thunder-weapon. Rut the latter pleaded innocent and remained 
unmoved. His unswerving devotion pleased Visnu so much that the 
god revealed himself in his real form, in which he has four hands and 
wears yellow clothes, and spoke briefly to the king on the best system 
of Yoga which is ‘nirbija’ and ends all miseries of life for ever (nirbl- 
jam atyanta-duhkha-satnyoga-bhesajam). But as this type of Yoga 
was too difficult for the king, he requested Visnu to tell him about 
such Yoga as could be practised by people like himself. Consequent- 
ly, Visnu spoke of Kriya-yoga which puts a stop to all sufferings of 
life (klesa) and advised the king to be devoted to him heart and soul, 
to worship him constantly with flowers and other things as well as 
with the offer of highly valuable articles of gold, silver, etc., to think 
of him incessantly, and to see him everywhere and in all beings. 
Next, being requested by the king to speak elaborately on this Kriya- 

16 



122 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


yoga, Visnu (called ‘Kesava’) referred him to his priest (purohita) 
Vasistha, who, he said, would tell him about it through his favour. 
Visnu then disappeared; and the king returned to his capital. ( — 
Chap. 2). There he met Vasistha, intimated to him what Visnu 
had said, and requested him to speak on Kriya-yoga concerning Visnu- 
worship. Vasistha narrated the story of Prahlada thus: 

Once Prahlada, a devotee of Narayana, told his high-priest Sukra, 
the chief of the Bhrgus, that he found in the body of Nrsimha all 
the three worlds as well as the gods, goddesses and Pitrs, and requ- 
ested him to describe the method of worshipping this deity. Sukra 
said that if he really desired to worship ‘Visnu, the lord of gods’, he 
was to become a Bhagavata, because no mortal other than a Bhagavata 
is able to know Visnu rightly, or to eulogise him, or to see him, not 
to speak of merging in him.®* ^ukra then spoke on the characteristics 
and praise of Bhagavatas (who respect the Brahmins and the Veda, 
practise ahiinsa, have their minds absorbed in Visnu in many of their 
births, and are far superior to the performers of Tapas or austerity and 
of costly sacrifices), worship of Visnu in images with the offer of 
flowers, lamps etc., construction of temples for him, andsiging of songs, 
recitation of hymns, and sounding of musical instruments during his 
worship. ( — Chap, 3). Next, alter defining ‘upavasa’ (fasting)*® and 
pointing out its benefits, ^ukra reproduced what Pulastya had said to 
Dalbhya in ancient times on the following topics: 

Devotional service to Visnu*® ( — chap. 4); procedures and praise 


38 na hy abhagavatair visnur jnatuni stotum ca tattvatah/ 
drastum va sakyate martyaih pravestutn kuta eva hi / / 

39 upavrttasya papebho yas tu vaso gunaih saha/ 
upavasah sa vijneyah sarva-bhoga-vivarjitah/ /-Fol. 14a. 

It should be mentioned that the Visnudharma adds great importance to 
fasting in Visnu-worship and prescribes it especially to females. 

40 Viz., worship of the deity with fragrant flowers and other things, especi- 
ally with fast; sweeping, washing, and besmearing of Visnu-temples with earth, 
cow-dung, substances of metallic preparation (? dhatu-vikara), and so on; offer 
of flowers, lamps, pots of sesamum, flags, and other things ; narration of sanctify- 
ing stories; praise of Visnu as the highest god worshipped by Indra, women, 
Vaikhanasas, Parivrajakas, and others. 



(THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


123 


of a number of Vaisnava vows and worships,^* some of which were 
described by way of reporting the dialogues of others;^* Krsna’s speech 
to Arjuna on his own identity with Kala and unity with Arjuna, and 
also on the names of the principal holy places^® in which Krsna is to 
be worshipped under particular names ( — Chaps. 35-36); description of 

41 Viz., Sugati-dvadasi-vrata (in which ‘Krsna’ is to be worshipped and 
meditated upon, and his name to be repeated) — chap. 4; Eka-bhakta-vrata, 
Dvadasa-masika-krsnastami-vrata (in which ‘Krsna’ is to be worshipped), Kula- 
vapti-dvadali-vrata (alias Sukla-dvadasi-vrata, said to have been described to 
Bharata by his matamaha Kanva), Vijaya-dvadasi-vrata, Jayanty-astami-vrata, 
Atijayaikadasi-vrata, and Visnu-snapana-vrata ( — chaps. 6.12 respectively); 
Pusya-rksaikadasi-vrata, Pada-dvaya-vrata, Manoratha-dvadaii-vrata, and Asoka- 
purnamasi-vrata ( — chaps. 17-20 respectively); Naraka-dvidasi-vrata — chap. 24 : 
Tila-dvadafi-vrata — chap. 34; Sukrta-dvadasi-vrata — chap. 37; Asunya-sayana- 
dvitiy 5 -vrata — chap. 41. 

Worship of Visnu and his wife under the names of Janardana and Laksmi, 
^ridhara and Sri, and Kesava and Bhuti in the four months beginning respecti- 
vely with Phalguna, Asadha and Karttika (chap. 5); Masa-rksa-puja (chap. 27). 

42 Pulastya reproduced the dialogues in which 

(i) Yajnavalkya spoke to Maitreyi on Manoratha-saippatti-karaka-vrata 
(chap. 13), Samprapti-dvadasi-vrata (chap. 14), Govinda-dvadasi-vrata (chap, 
15), and Akhanda-dvadasi-vrata (chap. 16); 

(ii) Samkara spoke to Devi on Sobhana-pati-prapti-vrata (chap. 21) and 
Stri-dharma-vrata (chap. 22); 

(iii) VasisAa spoke to Arundhati on Naksatra-purusa-vrata (chap. 29); 

(iv) Maitreyi spoke to Siladhana (a sonless queen of Krtavirya, the 
Haihaya king) on Ananta-vrata (chap. 30). 

43 These are as follows : Puskara, Gaya, Lohadanda, Citrakuta, Prabhasa, 
Yrndavana, Jayanti, Hastinapura, Kardamala, Kasmira (?), Kubjamra, Mathura, 
Kubjaka, Gahgadvara, Saiagtama, Govardhanacala, Pindaraka, Sahkhoddb^a, 
Kuruksetra, Yamuna, Sona, Purva-sagara (kapilain purva-sagare — fol. 68b), Gah- 
ga-sagara-samgama, Devika-nadi, Prayaga, Vadarikasrama, Daksina Samudra, 
Dvaraka, Mahendradri, Arvuda, Asvatirtha, Himacala, Krtasauca, Vipasa, 
Naimisa, Jambumarga, Saindhavaranya, Dandaka, Utpalavartaka, Narmada, 
Raivataka, Nanda, Sindhu-sagara-satngama, Sahyadri, Magadha Vana, Vindhya, 
Odra (odre tu purusottamam — fol. 69a). 

The corresponding chapter in ASB Ms No. 3506 contains in fol. 6ia a few 
more names such as Kusvamadhya (?), Nepala, Mandodapana, Kiskindhyi, 
Kafi, Visakhayupa, Viraja, etc. In this Ms Lohadanda has been named as 
Loladanda, Kasmira as Kahlara (i), and Magadha Vana as Madhava Vana. 



124 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


hells in which sinners are punished for various sins, viz., adultery, 
killing of cows and women, denouncement of Visnu and the Brahmins, 
and so on (chap. 23); description and denouncement of Pasandas, and 
the atonements for seeing or touching them or for speaking with them 
(chap. 25); enunciation of the Apamarjana, which allays the troubles 
caused by malevolent rites (viz., abhicaras and krtyas), poison, evil 
Grahas, all kinds of fever and other diseases, and so on;** method and 
praise of besmearing Visnu-temples with earth, cow-dung etc. and of 
presenting lamps there (chaps. 31-32): glorification of gods. Brahmins, 
Vedas and sacrifices, and denouncement of those who decry them 
(chap. 33); eulogy of Visnu with the mention of his exploits in 
different incarnations (chap. 39); muttering of the different names of 
Visnu (inculding ‘Kamapala’) for security under different circumstances 
(chap. 40); statement of the causes of rebirths and release (chap. 42). 

After listening to the dialogue between Pulastya and Dalbhya 
. Satanika requested 5 aunaka to speak on Dharma as described by Krsna 
to Yudhisthira. Consequently, Saunaka reported the statements made 
by Krsna on the following subjects: the names of the authors of the 
.Dharma-samhitas;*® hells, and gifts of shqes,_jrujks. clothes and other 

( articles to Brahmins for esca ping these (chap. 4 ^): ^glorifica tion of 
Brahmins as well as of service and gifts made to them (chap. 46); 
praise of practice of various rcstraints7~~5tich aT^sil^ce, sacrifice, 
celibacy, nonkilling, living on roots, fruits or leaves, fasting, lying on 

44 In chap. 28 there are the names of a large number of diseases caused by 
any of the three humours of the body, viz., wind (vata), bile (pitta) and phlegm 
(kapha), various kinds of poison, different classes of Grahas such as Preta-grahas, 
Dakini-grahas, Vetala-grahas, Gandharvas, Yaksa-raksasas, Vinayakas, Bala- 
grahas, and so on. 

45 Viz., those of Manu, Vasistha, Parasara, Atreya, Gargya, Sahkha, Likhita, 
Yama, javali, Dvaipayana, Uma-Mahesvara (uma-mahesvaras caiva jati-dharmas 
ca pavanah— fol. 89a), Kasyapa, Bahvayana, Sakuli, Agastya, Mudgala, Sandilya, 
Bhrgu, Ahgiras, Kasyapa, Udd^aka, Sumantu, Paulastya, Vaisampayana, Piiam- 
gama, Indra, Varuna, Kuvera, Apastamba, Gopalaka, Surj'a, Harita, Yajnavalkya, 
the seven sages (saptarsayah), and others. 

For this list see also ASB Ms No. 3506, fol. yba-b. 

The verse containing the names of Um 5 -Mahelvata and Kasyapa does 
occur in ASB Ms No. 3506. 


not 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


125 


the ground, entrance into fire, and so on (chap. 47); ^ descriptio n 
and praise o£ gifts o£ paddy, fuel, virgin girls (for marriage in th e 
Brahma form), gold, cows, footwears etc. to Brahmins, especially to 
otie^idely I^ried ifi the Vedas— bahusruta (chaps. 48, 53 and 
58-60); enumeration of sixteen cases (including those of such Brahmins 
as are priests of villages, husbands of Sudra wives, sellers of the Veda, 
snake-catchers, and hen-pecked husbands) in which gifts, made, be- 
c ome unproductive (chap. 45); results of insulting or respecting a 
Brahmin (chap. 30) ; praise of a Brahmin who regularly repeats the 
Gayatrl (chap. 51); praise of tapas (austerity) and satya (truth), and 
denouncement of anrta (untruth) (chaps. 54 and 55); fasting and 
observance of the Eka-bhaUta-vrata in different months (chap. 56); 
elevation and lowering of caste caused respectively by the due perfor- 
mance of one’s own Dharma and by neglect of it (chap. 57); praise 
of fighting bravely and courting death in the battle-field; principles of 
war (samgrama-prasamsa — chap. 61); praise of avoiding meat and 
practising ahimsa (chap. 62). 


Saunaka then reported 

1. Narayana’s speech to Yudhisthira on the science of govern- 
ment (danda-niti, including the divinity and duties of a king, necessity 
of danda, and punishment for different kinds of crimes — chap. 63), 
praise of devotion to Visnu (chap. 64), and incarnations of Visnu 
including the Buddha (chap. 66); 

2. Bhisma’s statement to Yudhisthira on remembering Visnu 
and muttering his names for allaying the effects of bad dreams 
(chap. 67); 

3. Visnu’s enumeration to LaksmI of the characteristics of those 
who become his favourites (chap. 74); 


46 Such people are those who arc given to knowldge of Atman, avoid himsa, 
culture universal friendship, feel completely satisfied with whatever they possess, 
are truthful, upright and compassionate, look upon others' wives as mothers, 
are completely satisfied with their own wives, always remain engaged in lawful 
work, do not hesitate to give up their life for the sake of Brahmins, and so on. 
As regards females, they are to be devoted to their husbands and should culture 
love and service. 



126 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


4. Prahlada’s description of the powers of Visnu and his disc, 
his speech on Vaisnava Kriya-yoga,*^ and his advice to Bali to become 
a Bhagavata (chaps. 76-81): 

5. Prahlada’s narration, in chaps. 83-91, of what Vasistha had 
said to Mandhatr on a number of vows^® and gifts. 

^aunaka further spoke on the following topics : benefits of medi- 
tating on and rendering various kinds of devotional service to Visnu 
(chap. 71); practice of one’s own duties as well as of the virtues such 
as kindness, tolerance etc., and shunning of unlawful work (vidharma) 
and association with uncultured people (gramya-sanga) (chap. 74) ; 
building of Visnu-temples, and construction of images of the god with 
gold, silver, copper, brass, scone, wood, earth etc. (chaps. 75, 99); 
description of Visnu as Brahma .and the source of the universe 
(chap. 95)* process of origin of the world from Visnu, although 
he is unchangeable (aparinami — chap. 96); description and praise of 
Yoga said to have been declared originally by Hiranyagarbha (chaps. 
97-98); distinction of Yoga into Para and Apara, and their characteris- 
tics; description of a Visnu-image,*® which is to be constructed with 

47 This Kriya-yoga is said to have been spoken out by Brahma, from whom 
it came down to Prahlada through Svarocisa Manu, Rtacaksus, Sukra and others. 
It includes construction of images and temples of Visnu with different 
materials, bathing of an image of Visnu with ghee and milk on different occa- 
sions, offer of various articles (including different kinds of cloth, viz., dukula, 
patta, kauseya, karpasika, etc.) and of select flowers and leaves (including Tulasi 
and Kala-tulasi). 

48 Viz., Vikrama-vrata, Yisnu-pada-traya-vrata, Suddhi-vrata, and Krsna- 
sumi-vrata alias Devaki-vrata (chaps. 83, 84, 89 and 90). 

49 Viz., Go-dana, Tila-dhenu-dana, Ghrta-dhenu-dana, Jala-dhenu-dana, 
etc. (chaps. 85'88 and 91). 

50 The relevant verses, as reconstructed from ASB Mss Nos. 1670 (fols. 
23ib-232a) and 3506 (fol. i66a-b), run as follows; 

karyas tu visnur bhagavan saumya-rupas caturbhujah/ 
salila-dhvanta-meghabhah sriman srivatsa-bhusitah / / 
abaddha-mukumh sragvi hara-bhararpitodarah/ 
sviksanas caru-eikurah suIalaKna subhruna/ 
svosthena sukapolena vadanena virajitah// 
kanthena subha-lekhena varabharana-dharina/ 
nana-ratnarcitabhyatn ca sravanabhyam alamkrtah/ / 



127 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

gold, silver, copper, brass, stone, wood, earth etc. or to be painted, 
and in which Brahma is to be contemplated during worship (chap. 99); 
description and practice of yama^^ and niyama^^ and the other means 
of attaining Yoga (yogahga), viz., asana, pranayama, dharana, dhyana 
and samadhi;®® detailed discourse on dhyana; praise of Yogins, who 
only are said to experience Visnu in his supreme state(chap. ioo);due 
performance or neglect of one’s lawful work causing birch in a higher 
or lower caste; discourses on universal duties®* and on those enjoined 
by one’s caste or order of life (chap. loi); means of attaining Advaita- 
jhana; explanation of Visnu’s highest state (parain rupam) and his 
birth in parts on earth (chaps. 102-103); measurement of time by 
kastha, kala, muhurta etc.; duration of yugas; state of Dharma and 
Visnu-Narayana’s appearance in different forms (including Kalkin) in 
the different yugas (chap. 104); elaborate description of the evils of 
the Kali age (chap. 105). 

For the effective glorification of Krsna-Visnu (also called Vasudeva) 
the Visnudharma has a number of devotional hymns, viz., Visnu- 
panjara-stotra (chap. 69), Sarasvata-stava spoken out by Sarasvatl (chap. 
70), Visnvastaka (chap. 71), Bali’s eulogy of Visnu’s Sudrasana-cakra 
(chap. 78), two hymns for the removal of sins (papa-prasamana-stava 

pusta-slis^yata-bhuias tanu-tamra-nakhatigulih/ 
madhyena trivali-bhanga-bhusitena ca caruna/ 
supadah suru-yugalah sukati-gulpha-janukah// 
vama-parsve gada-devi cakram devasya daksine/ 
jaakho vama-kare deyo daksine padma-suprabham/ / 
urdhva-drsrim adho-drstim tiryag-drsum na karayet/ 
nimilitakso bhagavan suprasasto janardanah/ / 
saumya tu drsdh kartavya kimcit-prahasiteva ca/ 
karyas carana-vinyasah sarvacah supratisdiitah/ / 
caranancara-satnstha ca vibhrati rupam uttamam/ 
karya vasumdhara devi cat-p^a-tala-carini/ / 
yadrg-vidha va manasah sthairya-lambhopapadika/ 
nrsiinha-vamanadinarn tadrsim karayed budhah// 

5 1 it consists of ahimsa, sama, asteya, brabmacarya, and aparigraha. 

52 Consisting of samtosa, sauca, svadhyaya, tapas, and iivara-bhavana. 

53 For the definition of ‘samadhi’ see ASB Ms No. 1670, fol. 233a, and 
No. 3506, fol. 1673. 

54 These are the eight gunas, viz., anasuya, daya, ksanti, sauca etc. 



128 


studies in the UPAPURaNAS 


— chaps. 92-93), Arjuna’s eulogy of Krsna (in which many incidents 
connected with Krsna’s infancy at Vrndavana have been mentioned 
— chap. 35), and many others (for which see chaps. 2, 39, 68, 72, 76 
and 103). 

In connection with the above contents the Visnudharma narrates a 
number of stories, one of which is highly interesting and sheds a flood 
of light on the attitude of an important section of people towards 
Buddhism and other non-V'edic and anti-Vedic religious systems current 
in those days. This story, which has been given in chap. 25 in connec- 
tion with the description and denouncement of Pasandas, runs as 
follows. 

In ancient times the mortals, being pious through the due perfor- 
mance of their duties, could go to heaven at the mere wish, and the 
gods also grew stronger by getting their due share in the sacrifices. 
Consequently, the Daiteyas and Asuras could not prevail upon the 
gods. In course of time two Daiteyas, Sanda and Ndarka by name, 
intended to annihilate the gods and performed a dangerous krtya 
(a magic rice meant for destructive purposes), from which came out a 
dreadful figure called Mahamoha, who had a very dark body resembl- 
ing a mass of darkness and was extremely fierce, haughty, deceitful and 
lazy.*® This Mahamoha was divided by Sanda and Marka into four 
parts, one of which decried the gods and Brahmins, another discouraged 
people from practising Yoga, the third engaged them in unlawful acts 
(vikarman), and the fourth deprived them of their jnana, made them 
accept ajnana as jnana under infatuation, and took delight in whatever 
went against the Vedas (veda-vada-virodhena ya katha sasya rocate). 
Thus produced by Sanda and Marka, this Mahamoha, ‘who was 
adharma in person’ (adharma-svarupah) and was polluted by pride and 
other vices, took his position among the people (lokesv eva vyavasthi- 
tah) and deluded them in various ways. By his misleading instructions 
he turned them worthless through infatuation (mohabhibhava-nihsaran) 
and made them discard their conscience as well as their respective 
duties enjoined upon them by their castes. Being mad with their 
wrong knowledge, these infatuated people set themselves to unlawful 

55 tatrotpanno ’cikrsnahgas tamah-prayo ’tidarunah/ 

danibhadharah sa^ya-saro nidra-prakrtir ulvanah/ / — fol. 42b. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


129 


acts by defying the instructions of their friends and the learned people, 
to whom they gave replies with misleading and confusing arguments 
(prayacchanty uttaram mudhah kuta-yukti-samanvitam). They turned 
Pasandins (or Pasandas)*® and Vratyas, knew no sacraments, spoke 
highly of the food received from others (paranna-guna-vadinah), caused 
mixture of castes, did not care for the purification of the body, decried 
the rites sanctioned by the Vedas — Rk, Yajuh and Sama, and preached 
the doctrine of the non-existence of any thing (nanyadastiti-vidinah). 
They also spread their influence upon the less intelligent (alpa-mati) 
section of people and made them discard their own lawful duties and 
perform unlawful acts. Thus, they led themselves as well as others 
to hell (fol. 43a-b). 

There is another story, given in chaps. 102-103, which narrates 
the creation of UrvasI by the sage Narayana, one of the four sons of 
Dharma, the other three being Nara, Hari and Krsna. In this story 
it is said that while Nara and Narayana were practising austerities 
(tapas) and yoga in the Gandhamadana mountain, ‘lions, tigers etc. 
(turned nonviolent and) moved about complacently in that mountain 
with deer’,®^ that, apprehending the occupation of heaven by Nara 
and Narayana, Indra sent Rambha, Tilottama and other nymphs with 
Cupid (Sraara, Madana) and Spring (Vasanta) to distract the sages, 
that Nara and Narayana gave themselves out to the unsuccessful 
nymphs to be parts of Vasudeva who was catur-vyuha, mayin, and 
identical with Paramatman and pervaded and comprised all, and that, 
being propitiated by the nymphs, Narayana gave out a laugh and thus 
showed the entire universe, together with the gods, in his mouth. 

The other stories include those of SambharayanI’s attainment of 
an extremely long life by performing the Masa-rksa-puja, and her 
narration to Indra and Brhaspati of the accounts of the previous 
Indras from her personal knowledge (chap. 27); (Kartavirya) Arjuna s 

56 According to Laksmidhara, Candesvara and others, Pasandas are those 
who are extra- Vedic (pakhandadayo veda-bahyah — Krtya-kalpataru, I, p. 22; 
pakhanda veda-bahyah — Krtya-ratnakara, p. 28; and so on). Vallalasena takes 
Pasandins (or Pasandas) to mean those people who give instructions on anti- 
Vedic Dharma (pasandino veda-viparita-dharmopadestarah — Danasigara, p. 57)- 

57 sunha-vyaghradayah saumyas ceruh saha mrgair girau. Fol. 241a. 

17 



130 STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

fcirth to her mother Siladhana as a result of the latter’s observanee 
of the Ananta'vrata, his worship of Visnu in the form of Dattatrcya, 
and his attainment of paramountcy through his favour (chap. 30); 
keeping a thousand lamps burning day and night in a Visnu-temple 
by Lalita (daughter of Citraratha, king of Vidarbha, and chief queen 
of Caruvarman, king of Kasi), who was, in her previous birth, a 
mouse in a Visnu-temple (constructed by Maitreya, a Brahmin minister 
of the king of Sauvira) on the bank of the river Devika and chanced 
to keep a lamp burning there in course of her escape for fear of a 
cat (chap. 32); Virabhadra of Vaidisa, who, being at the point of 
death in the Vindhya forest, was found lying on heated sand by a 
Brahmin named Pipita (chap. 37); the two Asvins’ meeting at 
Pratis^ana with Aila Pururavas, who would not see them without 
being properly dressed, their explanation to him of the transitoriness 
of everything on earth by referring to the opinions of Kapila, 
Pahcasikha, Magarism (?), Janaka, . Hiranyagarbha, Jaiglsavya and 
Devala on the highest bliss (param sreyah), ' and their instructions 
to the king on karma to be done by him (chap. 38); appearance 
of Dharma in the form of a Candala, and his instructions to 
Yudhisthira on Visnu-worship (chap. 64); Visnu’s assumption of the 
form of a Brahmin and meeting with Janaka, and the latter’s praise 
of the former as the highest truth (chap. 65); an elephant’s eulogy of 
Narayana and getting free from the clutch of a crocodile living in a 
lake on the CitrakuU mountain (gajendra-moksana — chap. 67); a 
Ksatriya’s turning a Raksasa after death, his attack in his new form 
on two Brahmins, who saved themselves from his hands by citing 
the Visnu-panjara-stotra and the Sarasvata-stava, and his going to 
Salagrama for practising austerities (chaps. 69-70); Cedi-raja Vasu’s 
loss of power of moving through the sky, his consquent fall into 
Pat^a, a nether world, his self-protection from the hands of the 
Danavas, who tried to take his life, and his rescue from there by 
Visnu (chap. 72); Aditi’s prayer to Krsna for the safety of her sons 
and the security of Indra, and Krsna’s entrance into Aditi’s womb to 
be born as her son Vamana (chap. 75); birth of Vamana, and his 
sending of Bali to Sutala, a nether world, saying that as soon as Bali 
would go against the Brahmins, he would be bound with Varuna’s 



131 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

noose (chaps. 76-77): appearance of Visnu’s Sudarsana-cakra before 
Bali after it had been worshipped by the latter to stop the mischief it 
had been doing to the pregnant wives of Daityas by its passage through 
the air (chap. 78); Sumana’s dialogue with Sandill, a Brahmin 
woman, who found Sumana residing happily in heaven with her 
husband and having an odorous and beautiful body by worshipping 
Visnu with various articles dear to themselves and by bathing the 
god with ghee (chap. 81); and king Mandhatr’s attainment of royal 
fortune as a result of serving, with his devoted wife, in a Visnu- 
temple and attending upon Yogins in his previous birth as a cruel 
Sudra, who was always bent on doing harm to others, maltreated his 
chaste and devoted wife, and failed to earn his livelihood by agri- 
culture (chaps. 82-83). In chap, 5 aunaka is found to narrate 
the story of a wicked, treacherous and undutiful Ksatriya named 
Vimati as follows ; Being discarded by his parents and relatives for 
his misconduct Vimati used to maintain his family by killing 
animals. During the summer he met in a forest a sage who was 
afflicted with thirst. Vimati took pity on him and took him to a lake. 
The sage was satisfied, and, learning Vimati ’s conduct by meditation, 
advised him to utter the word ‘Govinda’ incessantly. Vimati did so 
and felt happy. In course of time Vimati died and was reborn in a 
Brahmin family with the power of recalling the memory of his 
previous births. In this life he remembered all the previous sufferings 
and had great indifference. He eulogised Krsna for his pity, and 
the latter freed him from all sins and gave him final release. 

From the above indication of the contents of the Visnudharma it 
is evident that the entire subject-matter of this work has been set out 
in the forms of a number of primary and secondary dialogues, which 
ate as follows: 

I. Principal interlocutors — Saunaka and Satanika. 

A. 8aunaka reports to Satanika the interlocutions between the 
following persons: 

(1) Brahma and the sages (Marici and others) (chap. i). 

(2) Visnu and Ambarisa (chap. 2). 

(3) Vasistha and Ambarisa (chaps. 2-42). 

[Vasistha reports to Ambarisa the interlocution between 

(i) Sukra and Prahlada (chap. 3). 



132 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


^ukra reprodruces to Prahlada the interlocution between 
(a) Pulastya and Dalbhya (4-42). 

Pulastya reproduces to Dalbhya the interlocutions 

between Yajnavalkya and Maitreyl (chaps. 13-16), 
between ^amkara and Devi (chaps. 21-22), 
between Vasistha and Arundhati (chap, 29), 
between Maitreyl and ^iladhana (chap. 30), 
between Krsna and Arjuna (chaps. 35-36), 
between the Asvins and Aila Pururavas (chap. 38).] 

(4) Krsna and Yudhistliira (chaps. 43-63)' 

(5) Bhima and Yudhisthira (chap. 67). 

(6) Prahlada and Bali (chaps. 76, 79-83). 

[Prahlada reports to Bali the interlocution between 

Vasistha and Mandhatr (chaps. 83-91). 

Vasistha reports to Mandhatr the dialogue between 
Gaurainukha and Parlksit (chaps. 89-90),] 

In the remaining chapters ^aunaka speaks direct to Satanlka. 

A perusal oE the Visnudharma shows that it is purely a Vaisnava 
work on the glorification and worship of Krsna-Vasudeva, who, in his 
supreme state, is said to be the same as Visnu or Narayana. Accord- 
ing to this work, Krsna (often called Visnu or Narayana) is all- 
powerful (Isa), unborn, eternal and boundless, and, being the Uni- 
versal Soul, resides in the heart of all. He has no beginning, trans- 
cends both the real and the unreal (sadasatah param— chap. 2) and 
is identical with the Supreme Brahma. He has two states of existence 
— ‘para and and is consequently both dual and nondual (bheda- 

bheda-svarupastha — chap. i). Although he is uncha.ngeable (apari- 
naml), he is the cause and source of creation, which is explained from 
the standpoint of ‘bhedabheda’ (duality and nonduality — chap. 96). 
It is he who, in creation, becomes Pradhana and Purusa by lila, and 
also Brahma, Visnu and Rudra by fancy (chap. i). He comprises all 
including the universe, which lies in his belly (brahmandam udare- 
sayam). For the good of created beings he incarnates himself on 
earth in parts (kala, amsa) as Vamana, Nara-Narayana, and others.®* 

5S Vamana is said to be a partial incarnation of Vasudeva — vasndevah 



JHE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 133 

Even Krsna (son of Vasudeva and Devakl) is said in more places than 
one to be a partial incarnation of this Supreme Krsna®® (also called 
Vasudeva) who, as has already been said, is the same as Visnu in his 
supreme state. In chap. 102 Vasudeva is identihed with Paramatman 
and said to be catur-vyuhn and mayin.^^ 

As to the best way of realising Krsna-Visnu the Visnudharma 
puts great stress on the practice of Yoga, which it characterises in the 
following verse of Saunaka (said to Satanika) : 

“parena brahmana sardham ekatvam yan nrpatmanah/ 
sa eva yogo vikhyatah kim auyad yoga-laksanam/ /” 

(Chap. 99, fol. 231a). 

“It is unity, O king, of the (individual) soul with the Supreme 
Brahma that is well known as yoga. What else is the characteristic 
of yogaV 


kalayavatirnah (chap. 76, fol. i6tb); amsavatirnena ca yena (chap, 76, fol. 
162a), 

Nara and Narayana describe themselves as extremely small parts of 
Vasudeva. — 

sa sarva-vasi-devatvad vasudevety udahrtab/ 

vayam amsatnsakas tasya caturvyuhasya mayinah// (chap. 102, fol. 
244a). 

Krsna-yisnu calls Lahgali Rama (i.e. Balaratna) the second part of himself. — 
Cf. dvitiyo yo mamamsas tu ramo ’nantah sa lahgali (chap. 66, fol. 127a). 

In chap. 101 Brahma and other gods are said to be parts of Visnu. — 
yato hi devatah sarva brabmadyah kutu-nandana/ 
amfabhuta jagad-dhatur visnor avyakta-janraanah/ / (fol. 239b). 

59 Krsna-Visnu, being worshipped by Devaki, assured the latter of his birth 
as her son, saying : 

“bhavisyaty acirad devi mad-amsena sutas tava” (chap. 90, fol. 206a). 

See also fol. 206b — 

avapa ca tato garbharn devaki vasudevatah/ 
ajayata ca visvesah svenamsena janardanah/ / 

By calling Lahgali Rama the second part of himself Krsna-V 4 nu suggests 
that Vasudeva Krsna also was one of his parts, 

^ For the relevant verse sec foot-note 58 above. 



134 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


It classifies Yoga into two types, viz., fara and afara^^, which are 
better known as jnana-yoga and kriya-yoga (i. e. karma-yoga) respec- 
tively; and it briefly distinguishes between these two types saying: 
“jnana-yogas ca samyogas cittasyaivatraana tu yah/ 
yas tu bahyartha-sapeksah sa kriya-yoga ucyate//” 

(Chap. 8o, fol. i83a-b). 

“Yoga by knowledge is communion of the mind with Atman, but 
Yoga by work is what depends upon external objects.” 

By the apara type of Yoga (or Kriya-yoga, which is intended for 
those who are unable to control their mind in spice of their sincere devo- 
tion for the god)®* it means worship of the deity in images, with the 
practice of yaina and niyama, which arc said to be the causes of success 
in Yoga (chaps. 99-100). It looks upon karma (work) as the only cause 
of bondage for creatures, and says that karma causes the distinction 
between Ksetrajna and Paramatman (bhedas ca karma-janitah ksctrajna- 
paramatmanoh — chap. 96, fol. 225a). It follows the Bhagavad-gita 
in stating that it is selfless work and constant devotional service and 
complete self-surrender to the god which can liberate people from the 
bonds of karma and make them merge into him.®* By way of pres- 

61 For detailed treatment of para and apara yoga see chap, 99 ffols. 

23ob-232b). 

62 Cf. chap. 2 — 

bhaktyatipravanasyapi cancalam tvan-mano yadi/ 

mayy upasye bhaved bhupa kuru mad-rupinim tanum// (fol. loa). 

63 Chap. 2, fol. loa-b — 

mad-bhavana mad-yajana mad-bhakta mat-parayanab/ 

mama puja-paras caiva raayi yanti layam narah// 

mat-kriya-paramah param/ 

padam apsyasi ma bhais tvain mayy arpita-mana bhava// 

mayi samnyasya sarvam ... / 

mad-artham kuru karmani // 

Chap. 79, fol. 176b — 

karosi yani karmani tani dcve jagat-patau/ 

samarpayasva bhadrain te tatab karma prahasyasi// 
ksina-karma mahabaho subhasubha-vivarjitah/ 
layam abhyeti govinde tad brahma paramam mahat// 

For relevant verses see also chap, i (fol, 4b— tannis^as tad-gata-dhiyas tat- 
karm^as tad-airayah/ etc.). 



135 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

cribing karma which the Vaisnavas should do for freedom from 
bondage and the consequent rebirths, this work extols not only wor- 
ship, muttering of mantra, constant remembrance of the deity, service 
to Visnu-temples, presents and donations, fasting and other austere 
practices,®* and so on, but also the due performance of Varnasrama- 
dharma as known from the Vedas, the Smrtis (especially that of 
Manu), and the Puranas.®* In chap. 74 Visnu is found to speak to 
LaksmI on the characteristics of his favourites, thus: 

“O beautiful lady, those people are my devotees who fare without 
transgressing even by mind the duties declared by Sruti and 
Smrti. 

“As I took the form of Brahma, the Vedas came out of my 
mouth; and it is to me appearing in the forms of Manu and others 
that the Smrtis are known to belong. 

“Sruti and Smrti are my command. He, O auspicious one, who 
worships me with all his belongings by violating that (command of 
mine), does not attain me, O venerable one, a violator of (my) 
command as he is. 

“To him, who does not deviate from his own duty or indulge in 
doing harm (to others) and who always has devotion for me, 1 am not 
difficult to attain,”®® 

It is further said that hy the due performance of his duties 
enjoined by his caste and order of life a member of a lower caste is 
elevated in his next birth to the immediately higher caste, that the 
reverse happens in case of neglect of the same, and that an honest 


64 For mention of some of these practices see chap. 47 (fols. 93a If.). 

65 See especially chaps. 42, 44, and 5 *. 

66 sruti-smrty-uditam dharmam manasapi na ye narah/ 
samullatighya pravartante tc bhakta mama bhamini// 
brahma-rupa-dharasyasyan mama veda vinihsrtah/, 
manvadi-rupinas caiva samastah smrtayah smrfih// 
srutih smrtir mamaivajna tam ullahghya yajec chubhe/ 
sarvasvenapi mam devi napnoty ajna-vighatakrt/ / 
yah sva-dharman na calati hims^au yo na sajyyate/ 
vahatas tasya mad-bhaktim sadaiv^am na durlabfaah/ / 

Fol. i57a-b. 



136 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


and dutiful Brahmin is blessed with final release.®' Thus, the 
Visnudharma firmly believes in caste-system, which, in its opinion, is 
a pointer to a man’s progress to the attainment of final emancipation. 

As regards the highest (fara) type of Yoga (i.e. Jnana-yoga) 
the Visnudharma says that it is this Yoga which finally severs the 
bonds of karma and leads one to kaivalya by putting a stop to all the 
functions of the mind. Although this type of yoga is thus ‘the 
veritable ambrosia ensuring the complete cessation of sufferings’, it is 
extremely difficult to attain and requires strenuous efforts extending 
over many births, because one finds it very difficult to control the 
organs of senses and to get over their objects (visaya). On the other 
hand, being deluded by their own karma creatures regard their souls 
as separate from Paramatman and undergo rebirths.*® So, the 
Visnudharma extols and prescribes the much easier Kriya-yoga, which 
leads definitely to jnana and thus makes one experience unity with 
Brahma by completely severing the bonds of karma.^* According to 
this work Yoga benefits all without distinction of caste and sex, and 
this distinction is determined by their progress in Yoga, because by 
its practice one may pass from womanhood successively through the 
different states of existence as members of different castes beginning 
with that of a ^udra, until one becomes a Brahmin and attains final 
emancipation. By naming a number of persons of different castes 
and sexes who attained success in Yoga,'® it asserts that the proper 

67 Chap. loi, fols. 3366-2373 — 

sudra-dharman asesena kurvan sudro yathavidhi/ 
vaisyatvam eti vaisyas ca ksatriyatvam sva-karmakrt/ / 
vipratvam ksatriyah samyak dvija-dharma-paro nrpa/ 
vipras ca mukti-labhena yujyate sat-kriya-parah/ / 

68 pasyaty atmanain anyatra yavad vai paramatmanah/ 
tavat sa bhramyate jantur mohito nija-karmana / / 

Chap. 96, fol. 225a. 

69 samksinasesa-karma tu paratn brahma prapasyati; and 
satnksina-karma-bandhasya na bhedo brahmana saha. 

Chap. 96, fol. 225a. 

70 These persons are Jaigisavya, Asita, Hiranyanabha, Janaka, Tuladhara 
and other Vaisyas, Pelavaka and other 5 udras, Maitreyi, Sulabha, Gargi, Sandili, 
Dharmavyadha and others. (Fol. 2303-6). 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 137 

practice of Yoga is sure to lead one of any caste or sex to final 
release/* 

It has already been said that in chap, i the Visnudhanna describes 
Narayana (i.e. Krsna-Visnu) as ‘bhedabheda-svarupastha’, and in 
chap. 56 it explains the creation of the universe from the standpoint 
of ‘bhedabheda’. So, there is little scope for doubt that the philoso- 
phical view advocated by the Visnudhanna is ‘bhedabheda’ or 
‘dvaitadvaita’ (duality and nonduality). As a matter of fact, this 
work expressly says : 

“advaitam paramartho hi dvaitain rad-bheda ucyaCc/ 
ubhayarn brahmano ruparn dvaitadvaita-vibhedatah/ 

The Visnudharma, as we have it at present, is decidedly a work 
of the Bhagavatas. It prescribes the sectarian mantra ‘om naino 
vasudevaya’ (chap. 79, fol. iSib), and characterises and highly 
praises the Bhagavatas at more places than one.” It looks upon these 
sectaries as superior to the performers of austerity {tapas) and costly 
sacrifices, and says that to be eligible for Visnu-worship one has to 
become a Bhagavata, because no one other than a Bhagavata can 
merge in him or even eulogise him rightly or sec him or have true 
knowledge about him.” It further adds that it is by great religious 
merit that a person becomes a Bhagavata devoted to Bhagavat 
Janardana, who is the same as Paramatman,’® and that the god of 
death does not allow his servants to lay their hands on the sincere 
Bhagavatas.” 

We shall now try to determine the period of composition of the 
present Visnudharma, which has been recognised very widely as a 

71 See chap. 98. 

72 Chap. 96, fol, 225b. 

73 See chaps. 3, 79 and 80, 

74 For the relevant verse see foot-note 38 above. 

75 paramatnia ca bhagavan visvakseno janardanah/ 
tad-bhaktiman bhagavato nalpa-punyena jayate// 

Chap. 79, fol. 1 76a. 

76 Cf. ye tu bhagavata loke bhavitas tat-parayanah/ 

pujayanti sada visnuin te vas tyajyah suduratah/ / 

(said by Yama to his servants). — Chap. 80, fol. 184a. 

18 



138 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


respectable source of Dharma. As a matter of fact, on the strength 
of some verses of the Bhavisya-p.^^ Laksmidhara, Candesvara and 
others accept the Visnudharma to be as much authoritative on Dharma 
as the Puranas and rank it with the Mahabharata, Ramayana etc/® 
These scholars as well as many others quote from it numerous verses, 
and sometimes even complete chapters, in their respective works. For 
instance, verses are found quoted from chap. q. in Gadadhara’s Kalasara, 
from chaps. 2, q, 10, 25, 32, 8i and 105 in Gopala-bhatta’s Hari- 
bhakti-vilisa, from chaps. q8 and 53 in Govindananda Kavikahkana- 
• carya’s Dana-kaumudl, from chaps, q, 25, 88 and qi in Candesvara’s 
Krtya-ratnakara, from chaps. 6, ii, 12, iq, 16,21, aq, 25, 3q, qq, 50, 
53, 61, 7q, 83, 8q and 86-8q in Hemidri’s Caturvarga-cintamani, 
from chap. 81 in Devanabhatm’s Smrti-candrika, from chaps. 22, 25, 
38, 60 and 86-88 in Apararka’s commentary on the Yajnavalkya- 
smrti, from chaps. 25, q5, 53, 58-60, 85-88 and qi in Vallalascna’s 
Danasagara, from chaps, q and 13 in Jimutavahana’s Kalaviveka, and 
from chaps. q6-q8 in the Svetasvatara-upanisad-bhasya ascribed to 
5 arnkara.^* In his account of India AlberunI names the ‘Visnudharma’, 
to which he ascribes the verses quoted by him from the present 
Visnudharmottara, obviously by taking the latter work to be a part 
of the former. The present Visnudharmottara, which, as we shall 
see afterwards,’*® was composed between qoo and 500 A.D., betrays 

77 These verses are the following: 

asudasa-puranesu yzni vakyaiii putraka / 

tany alocya mahabaho tatha smrty-antaresu ca// 
manv-adi-smrtayo yas tu satcriinsjt parikittitah/ 
casain vakyani kramasah samalocya braviini te// 
and ast^asa-pur^ani raraasya caritam tatha/ 

visnudharniadi-sastrani sivadharmas ca bharata/ / etc. (quoted above). 

For these verses see Krtya-kalpataru, I, pp. 24 and 25, Krtya-ratnakara, pp. 
29 and 30, and so on. 

78 See Krtya-kalpataru, I, p. 25, and Krtya-ratnakara, p. 30. See also Nitya- 
cara-pradipa, I, p. 22. 

79 According to S. K. Belvalkar the ascription of the Svetasvatara-upanisad- 
bhasya to Samkaracarya ‘is more or less debatable.’ — See Belvalkar, Shree Gopal 
Basu Mallik Lectures on Vedanta Philosophy, p. 218. 

79a Under ‘Visnudharmottara’ below. See abo Ha2ra in - Journal of the 
University of Gauhati, III, 1952. pp. 43-58. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


139 


its knowledge oE the Visnudharma by claiming, in two o£ its verses,®" 
to be the latter part o£ this work and by giving some stories 
which are decidedly bas ed on and developed from the same as 
occurring in it.®"“ By a critical examination of the genuine 
Agneya-purana [alias Vahni-purana)®^ we have found that this 
work originally concerned itself with the Fire cult of the Agnihotri 
Brahmins of the Yajurveda, dealt with the five Purinic topics as well 
as with the various duties and sacrificial rites of these Brahmins, and 
advocated the worship of Rudra in the form of Agni, that it passed 
through three main stages before attaining its present form, extent and 
character, and that in the second stage it was appropriated by the 
Vaisnavas (most probably the Bhagavatas) who modified this work with 
chapters and verses from the Visnudharma dealing with Vaisnava Kriya- 
yoga and having Vasistha and king Ambarlsa as the principal interlocu- 
tors.®^ As these chapters and verses common to the two works are very 
numerous and as the Visnudharma has not yet been printed and its 
verses are not numbered, we give below a list of only those chapters of 
the two works which have large numbers of verses common to them. 

Agneya-p. Visnudharma Agneya-p. Visnudharma 

28. 1-^6 — Chap. I. Chap. 36 — Chaps. 82, 

28. 37ff. — „ 2. (verses 27!!). 86 and 87. 

2g. iff. — Chaps. 3 ”37 — Chap. 88. 

and 66. ,, 59 (verses — „ 81. 

Chap. II — Chap. 52. ,, 63 — 61. 

,,31 — ,, 80. ere. etc. 

That the Agneya-p. took these common chapters and verses from 
the Visnudharma, can be established by the following evidences: 

(2) At the beginning of chap. 28 of the Agneya-p. the sages 

80 For these two verses see foot-note 24 above. 

8 oa For the relevant chapters containing these stories and for the grounds 
of their later date, see under ‘Visnudharmottara’ below. 

8 1 In 1951 I discovered this work from the ASB Ms No. 8ogo, which was 
found wrongly described in Shastri’s ASB Cat., V, p. 4*^ 6 e a Ms of the 
spurious Agni-p. published so often from different parts of India, 

82 For our analysis of the genuine Agneya-p. {alias V ahni-p.) see Our 
Heritage (a half-yearly Bulletin of the Research Department, Sanskrit College, 
Calcutta), 1, 1953. pp. 209-245, and II, 1954, pp- 77-1*0. See also Journal of 
the Oriental Institute, Baroda, V, 1956, pp, 411-416. 



140 


STUDIES IN The upapuranas 


request Suta to speak on the various acts which please ‘Krsna and 
yield final liberation; and in compliance with this request Suta agrees 
to tell them elaborately about (Kriya-) Yoga, which, he says, was 
spoken out to him by his father, who had received it from Vahni, the 
Fire-god, through Marici. He then goes on to speak on Kriya-yoga 
and narrates the story of king Ambarisa in almost the same way and 
the same words as those in Visnudharma, chaps, the main differ- 
ence between the two sources being that in the Visnudharma this 
story is narrated by Saunaka to king 5 atanika and Kriya-yoga is said 
to have been spoken out first by Brahma to Marici, Bhrgu and others 
and then by Vasistha to king Ambarisa through Visnu’s favour, 
whereas in Agneya-p., chap. 28 it is narrated by Suta to the sages of 
the Naimisa forest as an interlocution between Vahni (the Fire-god) and 
Marici, and the discourse on Kriya-yoga is traced back to the Fire-god 
(Vahni, Agni), who is said to have narrated it first of all to Marici 
and others and from whom Vasistha is said to have heard it during a 
sacrifice (instituted most probably by Marici).*^ 

(2) In all the Mss of the Agneya-p. we have been able to 
consult, the colophon of chap. 28 (which contains the said story of 
king Ambarisa and has, in its latter part, many verses in common 
with chap. 2 of the Visnudharma) has been given as ‘devambarlsa- 
samvido nama dvitlyo ’dhyayah’, clearly in imitation of the colophon 
of chap. 2 of the Visnudharma which runs as ‘iti visnudliarmesv 
acyutambarisa-samvido nama dvitlyo ’dhyayah’. 

(3) It is in chap. 28 of the Agneya-p. (and not in chap. 3, 
wherein the story is given as to how the Fire-god came to speak to 
Marici and other sages on the various Puranic topics) that Vasistha 
is mentioned for the first time and said to have heard the Kriya-yoga 
from Vahni during a sacrifice (instituted most probably by Marici). 

(q) In several places of the Agneya-p. the words ‘visnudharma’, 
‘vaisnava dhanna’ and ‘vaisnava-dharma’ have been used, though in 
their literal sense. 

It should be mentioned here that in chap. 3 of the Agneya-p. the 
Fire-god is said to have spoken to Marici and other sages on the 

8j For the relevant verses see Agneya-p., chap. 28, verses 10-12 (£ol. 97a) 
and 118-119 (fol, iota). 



THE MAJOR VAHNAVA UPAPURaNAS 141 

different Purinic topics during the sacrifice instituted by Marici, there 
being no mention of Vaisnava Kriya-yoga or of Vasistha as a hearer, 
that it is as late as in chap. 28 (which, as we have already seen, is 
constituted of verses mostly taken from Visnudharma, chap. 2) that 
Vasistha is mentioned for the first time and said to have heard 
discourses on Vaisnava Kriya'yoga from the Fire-god during a sacrifice 
(most probably the one instituted by Marici),®* and that in several 
places of the Agneya-p. Vasistha has been made to refer either to 
Vahni as the original speaker or to the interlocution between Vahni 
and Marici.®® So, there is no doubt that the interlocution between 
Vasistha and Ainbarisa marks a later stage in the constitution of the 
present Agneya-p. than that in which this Purana was a work of the 
Agnihottl Brahmins of the Yajurveda and had Vahni and Marici as 
interlocutors. 

From what has been said above it is evident that the Agneya-p. 
borrowed the common chapters and verses from the Visnudharma. 
Our critical analysis of this work has shown that it must have been 
recast by the Vaisnavas not later than 500 A.D.*® The way in which 
the language and contents of the Visnudharma, as well as the colophon 
of chap. 2 and the speaker Vasistha in chaps. 2-^2 of the same 
work, have been utilised in the Agneya-p., shows definitely that at 
the time when the Agneya-p. was recast by the Vaisnavas, the 
Visnudharma attained sufficient recognition in society. That this 
recognition was very wide and deep-rooted is quite evident from the 
facts that in two of its verses the Visnudharmottara claims to be the 
latter part of the Visnudharma and that the Bbavisya-p. mentions it 
once in the Madhyama-parvan (7. 8b-i i), and twice in the Brahma- 
parvan (4. 87-89, and 216. 36-37) together with ‘the eighteen 
Puranas’, the Ramayana (called 'Rama’s biography ), the Sivadharma, 
the MahabhSrata and the Saura-dharnia. It may be mentioned here 
that the present Brahma-parvan of the Bhavisya-p. cannot be dated 

^4 For the relevant verses see Agneya-p. 28. 10-12 (tol. 9*^)’ 

(foi. loia), and 29. 3 (fol. loia). 

85 See, for instance, Agneya-p. 29. 3 (fol. loia), 53. 4 (foi. i6ia), and 54. 
35a (fol. 165b). 

86 See Our Heritage, II, i 954 » P- 79 - 



142 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


much later than the sixth century A.D.*' Like the Agncya-p. the 
Bhavisyottara also has a good number of chapters in common with the 
Visnudharma,*® and it may be that these chapters were taken by the 
Bhavisyottara from the Visnudharma.®* As the Bhavisyottara must 
have been compiled between 700 and 800 A.D., and most probably 
towards the end of the eighth century,*® it could not have been 
utilised by the Visnudharma, except in the case of two chapters to be 
mentioned hereinafter. Whatever the relation between the Bhavisyo- 
ttara and the Visnudharma may have been, it is evident that the 
Visnudharma attained wide recognition as a respectable authority on 
Dharma by the beginning of the fifth century A.D. So, it could not 
be composed later than about 300 A.D. 

This lower limit of the date of the Visnudharma finds full support 
in the facts that this work, though speaking so often of Visnu-worship, 
is completely free from Tantric elements, that it does not betray'its 
knowledge of any work written later than the end of the second 
century A.D., and that it mentions the Naksatras in the old order 
from Krttika.** We know from the evidence of the Srauta- and the 
Grhya-sutras, the Yajnavalkya-smrti, and the latest books of the 

87 See Hazra, Puranic Records, p. 172. 

88 These common chapters are the following : 


Bhavisyottara 
(i.e. Bhav. IV) 

Visnudharma 

Bhavisyottara 
(i.e. Bhav. IV) 

Visnudharma 

Chap. 77 = 

Chap. 14. 

Chap. 107 = 

Chap. 27. 

78 = 

.. 15- 

„ 108 = 

„ 29. 

.. 79 = 

16. 

« 3 ° = 

32. 

„ 82 = 

- 37 - 

.. 152 = 

86. 

„ 106 =r 

30. 

.. 153 = 

.. 88. 


Bhav. I. 107 = Visnudharma, chap. 18. 

Bhav. I. 20, and IV. 15 — cf. Visnudharma, chap. 41. 

89 The line ‘varahena pura proktatn mahapataka-nasinim’ of Bhav. IV. 152 
(which agrees with Visnudharma, chap. 86) raises doubt about the source of the 
Bhavisyottara and seems to suggest that at least this chapter was derived by the 
Bhavisyottara from the Varaha-p. 

90 See Hazra in Journal of the Oriental Institute, Baroda, III, i 953 > 
pp. 24-26. 

91 See Visnudharma, chap. 26 (fol. 44a). 


143 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

Mahabharaca that tlic old arrangement of the Naksatras from Krttika 
to Bharanl was in vogue at least some time after the beginning of the 
third century xA.D. When this order of the Naksatras was changed 
we do not know definitely. It is only as late as about 550 A.D. 
that we find in the Brhat-samhita of Varahamihira the order of the 
Naksatras from AsvinI to Revati to be an established fact in all parts 
of India. So, it can be held, and not quite unreasonably, that the old 
order of the Naksatras held ground at best down to the latter half of 
the fifth century A.D. 

As regards the upper limit of the date of the Visnudharma it may 
be said that it mentions the Smrti works of Manu and others,** 
incorporates verses from the Mahabharata,** the Bhagavad-gita,’* and 
the Manu-smrti,*® frequently denounces the Pasandas, especially the 
Buddhists,** speaks very highly of the Bhagavatas,**- and narrates the 
interesting story of Mahamoha,** which must have preceded that (in 
Visnu-p. III. 17-18) giving out the Buddha to be an incarnation of 
Visnu. So, the Visnudharma is to be dated not earlier than 
200 A.D. 

Thus, the date of composition of the present Visnudharma falls 
between 200 and 300 A.D. 


92 Ibid., chap. 44 (fols. 88b ff.), in which the Dharma-satnhitas of Manu, 
Vasistha, Parasara, Atri, Gargy.i, and many others have been mentioned. For 
these names see foot-note 45 above. 

93 For instance, Mbh I. 74. 30 (aditya-candrav analaniiau ca) etc. occur in 
Visnudharma, chap. 55 ffol. loib), Mbh XIII. 115. 64 (caturo varsikan masan) 
etc. occur in Visnudharma, chap. 62 (fols. 112b ff.), Mbh III, 190. i3b-2ia, 23, 
25-263, 30, 36, 43b-44, 46b, 49, etc. occur in Visnudharma, chap. 105 (fols. 
2552 ff-)i 2nd so on. 

94 For verses of the Bhagavad-gita see Visnudharma, chap. 2 (fol. 9a — man- 
mana bhava mad-bhaktah), chap. 66 (fol. 123a — yada yada hi dharmasya glanih). 
In chap. 35 (fols. 65^663 — bhagavan uvaca — purvam eva yathakhyatam rana- 
rambhc tat^juna, etc.) there is a clear reference to the Bhagavad-gita. 

95 For verses of the Manu-smrti (3. 2, 6. 2, etc.) see esfiecially chap. loi 
of the Visnudharma. 

96 See Visnudharma, chaps. 25, 66, 73. 105, and so on. 

97 Ibid., chaps. 3, 80, etc. 

98 Ibid., chap. 25, 



144 STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

This early origin of the Visnudharma must not be taken to be 
disproved by the mention of tlie Buddha as an incarnation of Visnu 
in Visnudharma, chap. 66, because from an examination of the 
different lists of Visnu’s incarnations as given in the Puranas, 
Pancaratra Sarnhitas, and various other works we have found that the 
Buddha came to be regarded as an incarnation of Visnu not very much 
earlier than 500 A.D.®® The relevant verses of Visnudharma, chap. 66 
run as follows : 

tatah kali-yuge ghore satnprapte ’bja-samudbhava/ 
suddhodana-suto budtlho bhavisyami vimatsarah/ / 
bauddharn dharmam iipasntya karisye dharma-desanam/ 
naranam atha narinarn dayarn bhutesu darsayan/ / 
raktambara-vyanjitangah prasanta-manasas tatha/ 
sudra dharmam pravaksyanti mayi buddhatvam agate// 
cduka-cihna prthivi na deva-grha-bhusita/ 
bhavitrl prayaso brahman mayi buddhatvam agate/ / 
skandha-darsana-matram hi pasyantah sakalatn jagat/ 
sudrah sudrcsu dasyanti mayi buddhatvam agate// 
alpayusas tato martya mohopahata-cetasah/ 
narakarhani karmani karisyanti prajapate/ / 
svadhyaycsv avasidanto brahmanah sauca-varjitah/ 
antya-pratigrahadanam karisyanty alpa-medhasah// 
na srosyanti pituh putrab svasru-svasurayoh snusah/ 
na bharya bhartur Isasya na bhrtya vinaya-sthitah/ / 
varna-sarnkaratatn prapte loke ’smin dasyutarn gate/ 
brahmanadisu varnesu bhavisyaty adharottaram// 
dharma-kancuka-sarnvlta vidharma-rucayas tatha/ 
manusan bhaksayisyanti mlccchah parthiva-rupinah//*®" 
There is no scope for doubt that these verses (in which Visnu speaks 
to Brahma) arc later additions and were inserted into the Visnudharma 

99 See Hazra, Puranic Records, pp. 41-42. 

100 The above text of these verses is based on those given in ASB Mss 
Nos. 1670 (fol. laya-b) and 3506 (£0). loia), which have variants too numerous 
to be noted here. 

The line ‘eduka-cihna prthivi na deva-grha-bhusita’ is the same as Mbh 
111. 190. 67b. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


145 


after its language and contents had been utilised in the genuine 
Agneya-p. in the second stage of its modification. The reasons for 
such a conclusion are as follows: 

(i) In connection with a description of the Kali age Agneya-p. 
25. (fol. 102b) names the Buddha in the line ‘sudra dharmam 
vadisyanti saksad buddhopajivinah’; but here the Buddha appears as 
the founder of a heretical faith, and there is not the slightest indication 
anywhere in the whole work that it looked upon the Buddha as an 
incarnation of Visnu. There is, of course, mention of ‘ten incarnations’ 
(dasavatara), without any complete list, in three places of the Agneya- 
p., viz., in chaps. 3, 23 and 28, but this mention does not necessarily 
mean that the Buddha was one of them. According to the Narasitn- 
ha-p., which, as we shall see afterwards, has a good number of verses m 
common with the Agneya-p., the ten manifestations or incarnations 
(pradurbhavah, avatarah — Nar. 54. i, 6) are the following: Matsya, 
Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha, Vamana, Parasurama, Rama (son of 
Dasaratha), Balabhadra (Rama), Krsna and Kalki (Nar. 36-54).*®^ 
Thus, in its list of Visnu’s ten manifestations or incarnations the 
Narasiinha-p. names both Balabhadra and Krsna, but not the Buddha. 
As a matter of fact, the Buddha came to be included in the list of 
Vi§nu’s incarnations in place of Krsna after the latter had ceased to be 
looked upon by a considerable section of people as a partial incarnation 
of Visnu and had become the Bhagavat himself. 

(2) Like the Narasirnha-p., Visnu-p. and other early works, the 
Visnudharma names both Krsna and ‘Lahgall Rama as partial incar- 
nations of Visnu in the thirteen lines (on fols. izbb-izya) immediate- 
ly preceding those on the Buddha incarnation quoted above. It also 
names Kalkin, son of Visnuyasas, in the nine lines following chose on 
the Buddha. 

(3) By way of describing dhdfrntt in the different Yugas in chap. 
104 the Visnudharma names KrsM and Kalkin, but not the 

Buddha. 


101 That Nar. 36. 9a, mentioning the Buddha as one of the manifestations 
of yisnu, is undoubtedly spurious, we shall see below (under *Narasimha-p. ). 


19 



146 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


(^) In many other places of the Vxsnudharma the incarnations of 
Visnu have been named, but there is no mention of the Buddha as 
an incarnation of this god anywhere except in the verses of chap. 66 
quoted above. On the other hand, the Buddha has clearly been iden- 
tified with Mahamoha born of the malevolent rite (called krtya) per- 
formed by the demons Sanda and Marka for the destruction of the 
gods, and his followers have been denounced at every step. 

The name ‘Mayamohaka’ for Visnu, as occurring in king 
Ambarlsa’s eulogy of the god in chap. 2 (fol. yb) of ASB Ms No. 
1670 of the Visnudharma, need not be taken to be based on Visnu-p. 
III. 17 and 18, which narrate the story of Visnu’s creation of the 
delusive figure called Mayamoha from his own body. In the other ASB 
Ms (No. 3506) of the Visnudharma, which we have been able to 
consult, this name has been given as ‘Mayamohana’ (which, therefore, 
has to be taken in its literal sense). The tradition of Vis^u’s deluding 
creatures with his Maya is very ancient and well known. The Visnu- 
dharma itself says that pleasure in the association of Pasandas and 
partiality for their logic are caused by Visnu-maya.^®® Moreover, the 
story of Mayamoha in Visnu-p. III. 17-18 is to be dated later than 
the middle of the fourth century A. D. and probably not earlier than 
500 A.D.*®* 

102 For instance, chap. 28 names Varaha, Narasimha, Yamana. Tnvikrama, 
Rama (Dasarathi), Vaikundia, Nara and Hayagriva, chap. 39 omits Vaikuntha 
and Nara of chap. a8 but adds Bhargavottama, chap, names only Narasimha, 
Rama (D^rathi) and Parasurama, chap. 67 names Kautma, Matsya, Varaha, 
Yamana, Tarksya and Narasimha, chap. 68 names Varaha, Yamana and Nara- 
simha (the line ‘ramo ramas ca ramas ca etc.’ on fol. 137a not occurring in ASB 
Ms No. 35 °^)" ®od chap. 90 names Varaha, Nrsiinha, Yamana, Asvasiras, 
Jamadagnya, Raghava and Krsna (who is called ‘recent’ — sampratam). 

The incarnations, named in chap. 66, arc the following : Varaha, Kapila 
(said to be the first incarnation in a human form — janami kapilam tupain 
pratharaam paurusain mama — fol. 126a), Nrsiinha, Kurma, Yamana, Dattatreya, 
Bhargava-rama, Raghava-rama, Krsna, Langali Rama (said to be the second part 
of Visnu dvitiyo yo mamamsah — fol. 127a), and Kalkin, the verses oo the 
Buddha being spurious. 

103 pasandesu ratih puinsam hetu-vadanukulata/ 

jayate visnu-mayambhah-padtanam duratmanam// Chap. 3 (fol. i ib), 

104 Sec Hazra, Puranic Records, pp. 24-25. 



147 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

The early dace, to which we have assigned the Visnudharma, must 
not be taken to be that o£ all its chapters and verses. We have al- 
ready seen that a part of chap. 66, dealing with the Buddha incarna- 
tion, is spurious. There are also two more complete chapters which 
were derived, most probably at a much later date, from the Bhavisyot- 
tara. These are chaps. 19 and 20, which are practically the same as 
Bhavisyottara (i.e. Bhav. IV), chaps. 80 and 105 respectively. It is 
remarkable that in the other chapters of the Visnudharma in which 
Pulastya speaks to Dalbhya, the latter has been addressed as ‘dvija- 
srestha’, ‘brahman,’ ‘mahamune’ etc.; but in the said two chapters 
(19 and 20) he has been addressed as ‘parthiva’, ‘nrpa,’ ‘manujesvara,’ 
‘rajan’ etc. This abrupt change in the personality of Dalbhya is due 
to the facts that in the Bhavisyottara, from which these chapters were 
derived, Kr^na speaks to king Yudhisthira, and that when chaps. 80 
and 105 were incorporated into the Visnudharma to form chaps. 19 
and 20 respectively, no attempt was made to adapt them to the inter- 
locutors Pulastya and Dalbhya of the Visnudharma. 

It will be interesting here to describe the circumstances which, 
according to the Visnudharma, necessitated and inspired the composi- 
tion of this Vaisnava ‘ 5 astra’ as early as in the third century A.D. 

From a study of ancient Indian history we learn that during the 
few centuries from the time of Asoka Mautya’s reign, there was a 
great spread of Buddhism in and outside India. The Visnudharma 
amply testifies to the spread of this and other heretical faiths, the 
followers of which it calls ‘Pasandins’ (or ‘Pasandas’) and defines thus: 

“sruti-smrty-uditam dharmam varnasrama-vibhagajam/ 
ullahghyaye pravartante svccchaya kfita-yuktibhih// 
vikarmabhirata niudha yukti-pragalbhya-durmadah/ 
pasandinas te dul^ila narakaiha natadhamah/ 

“Those, who fare wilfully by transgressing, with puzzling argu- 
mentation, the duties (dharma) arising from the distinction of castts 
and orders of life (and) declared by 5 ruti and Smrti, and who, being 
infatuated, set themselves to unlawful work and are maddened by 


*05 Chap. 25 (fol. 42a). 



148 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


(their) skill in reasoning, are Pisandins, the worst of men, having 
reproachable conduct and deserving (residence in) hell.” 

We have already seen in the story of Mahamoha how, according 
to the Visnudharma, these Pisandins encouraged indiscipline in society 
by decrying Sruti and Smrti and encouraging the violation of their 
prescriptions as regards the rites and duties of the different castes and 
orders of life and the performance of unlawful acts. In giving a 
dismal picture of the evils of the Kali age in chap. 105 the Visnu- 
dharma repeats many verses of Mahabharata III. 190'“® and adds : 

“People will hanker after property earned by unfair means, and 
females (eager for union with males) will ardently wish (to imitate) 
the beauty and gestures of prostitutes. 

cc 

••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

“ People will forsake the Vedas and the twice-born 

(Brahmins) and direct their attention to other things. 

“Then, being overpowered by Time, they will forsake Brahma 
and other gods who enjoy shares in the sacrificial offerings and are read 
of in the Vedas by the twice-born (people), and, being given to 
(heretical) dialectics, will create other deities. 

H 

••• *** ••• *** ••• 

“ At that time they will have much regard neither 

for bath nor for (physical) purification. 

“The minds of people will not be inlined to devotion for Visnu 
in the Kali age, after Krsna, being characterised by blackness, comes 
down. 

“During the first quarter (of this age) people will decry Hari, but 
at its end none will utter his name. 

<< 

••• *** ••• ••• ••• ••• 

“If, during this Kali age, in which the earth will be crowded 
with many heretics, a virtuous person will utter the words ‘I bow 
down to you, Krsna’ (krsnaya te namah), 

“the heretics, decrying the system of the four stages of life, will 
create delusion (of the mind) by means of (their) power of (rationalistic) 
argumentation and the rogues. 

106 For these verses see foot-note 93 above. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


149 


“Then this earth, turning heretical to a very great extent and 
(consequently) growing uncultured, will be made difficult (lor residence) 
by the pseudo-ascetics. 

“At that time the vile Sudras, bearing the signs oE mendicancy, 
will not serve the twice-born people, nor will they practise their own 
dharma. 

“Some will become Utkocas^®' (?), Saugatas, Mahayanists, and 
the heretical Kapilas and Bhiksus, 

“while other wicked Sudras will turn Sakyas, Sravakas, Nirgran- 
thas and Siddhaputras in the Kali age. 

“Turning wandering mendicants the villainous Sudras will under- 
go no (physical) purification, have crooked nature, and habitually live 
on food perpared by others. 

“These and many others, as well as the Brahmins, Ksatriyas, 
Vaisyas etc. will turn heretics. 

“These mean people will misappropriate state revenue, rob the 
householders, remain concealed by (assuming) the appearance and 
dress of sages, and subsist on trade. 

“Being perverted by (heretical) reasoning (and) by compositions 
(made) in the language of Mlccchas, people in the Kali (age) will 
respect neither the twice-born (Brahmins) nor the Vedas. 

“With their growing extremely wicked in this way, others (also) 
will turn wicked by following their path and moving about in a 
wrong way. 

“Then people will utter unrefined speech, denounce the Vedic 
works, and make the world stray from the right path.”*®* 

toy In ASB Ms No. 3506 (fol. 179b) this name has been ^ven as 
Utkauca’ (utkaucah). 

108 The relevant verses, as reconstructed from ASB Mss Nos. 1670 (fols. 

255b-257a) and 3506 (fols, i79a-i8oa), arc the following: 

anyayopatta-vittesii karisyanti uarah sprbam/ 
vesya-lavanya-bhavesu sprham yosit katisyad/ / 

nara veda-dvijarns tyaktva bhavisyanty anyato-mukhah / 
yajna-bhaga-bhujo deva ye veda-pa^ica dvijaih/ 
brahmMyas tan parityajya narah kala-balatkrtah// 
hetu-vada-para devan karisyanty aparams tada// 



150 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Regarding the state of Vaisnavism and Krsna-worship in those 
days the Visnudharma further says in chap. 73; 

“(Those) who, though ignorant, take themselves to be wise by 
following heretical dialectics and, with their knowledge screened by 
nescience (avidya), consider a life dependent on Krsna to be not worth 
living, 

“and (also those) who take to misleading argumentation in refuting 
the statements in favour (of the authority) of the Vedas, — in their 
heart Kesava never becomes a dear guest. 

bahu mamsyanti iia snanain napt saucam tada iiarah / / 
na visnu-bhakti-pravanani naran^ orpa manasam/ 
bhavita tu kalau prapte krsne karsnyopalaksite/ / 
vinitidain prathame pade karisyanti barer narah/ 
yugante tu barer naoia naiva kascid grahisyati / / 

bahu-pasanda-samkirne jagaty asmin kalau yuge/ 
krsnaya te natnas tatra sukrti yadi vaksyati// 
hetu-vada-balair moham kuhakais ca janais tada/ 
pasandinah karisyanti caturasraroya-dusakali// 
pasanda-bhutam atyartham jagad etad asamskrtain/ 
bhavisyati tada bhupa vrtha-pravrajitotkowm// 
na tu dvijati-susrusatn na sva-dharmanupalanam/ 
karisyanti tada sudrah pravrajya-Iingino ’dhamah / / 
utkocah saugatas caiva mabayana-ratas tatha/ 
bhavisyanty atha pasandah kapila bbiksavas tatha / / 
s^yah sravaka-nirgranth^ siddhaputras tathapare/ 
bhavisyanti duratmanah sudrah kaii-yuge nrpa, / 
nihsauca vakra-matayah para-pakanna-bhojinah/ 
bhavisyanti duratmanah sudrah pravrajitas tada/ / 
cte canye ca bahavah pasand^ purusarsabha / 
brahmanah ksatriya vaisya bhavisyanti tathapare// 
raja-sulka-har^i ksudra grhastha-parimosakah/ 
muni-vesakrti-cchanna vanijyam upajivakah/ 
na dvijan na kalau vedan pujayisyanti manavah / / 
mieccha-bhasa-nibandhais tu hetu-vadair vikulitah// 
evam tesv atidustesu vimarga-parivardnah / 
bhavisyanty apare dus^ tesam marganuyayinah / / 
asaniskrtokti-vaktaro veda-sastra- vinindakah / 
agad unmarga-kartaro bhavisyand tada narah// 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


151 


“There is no expiation for those wicked people who decry his (i. e. 
Krsna’s) activities by taking him to be a human being. 

“Some (people) call him a god, some of poor intellect give him 
out to be a man, (while) others, being deluded by his Maya, take 
Visnu (to have been born) in the state of a lower animal”'”®. 

From the above description of the effects of the spread of the 
heresies in the Indian society of those days it is evident that the 
indefatigable efforts of the heretic dialecticians, especially Buddhist, 
helped the wide spread of the anti-vedic faiths, especially Buddhism, 
among all grades of people and encouraged the breach of social 
discipline as understood by the followers and supporters of the Vedic 
way of life. As a matter of fact, it was the irrefutable reasonings 
of the heretic dialecticians which popularised their faiths to such a 
great extent and made the people lose faith in Krsna and other deities 
respected and worshipped by the followers of the Vedas and the 
Varnasrama-dharma. We have already seen how the heretical 
dialectics have been mentioned repeatedly in the Visnudharma with 
a feeling of awe and frustration. In a verse of chap. 105 it has been 
said that in the Kali age even a fool gives an irrefutable answer 
by taking to the (heretical) way of reasoning.^'” So, it is was 
clearly the wide spread of the heresies, especially Buddhism, which 
encouraged the composition of the present Visnudharma and similar 
other sectarian ‘Sastras’ of the Saivas, Sauras and others. 

We have already seen how, by following the teachings of the 
Bhagavad-gita, the present Visnudharma advocates the practice of 
Yoga for the realisation of Visnu-Brabma; and it can hardly be denied 


*09 heyam k»nalrayam vrttim manyante betu-samltitah/ 
avidyopahata-jnana ye 'jnana jnana-maninah//, 
veda-vada-virodhena kuw-yuktim upasritah/ 
ye kelavas taddhrdaye na kadacit priyatithih/ /, 
manusam tarn manusyatve manyaman^ ku-buddhayah/ 
karmani ye 'sya nindanti na tesam niskrtir nrtnam/ / 
kecid vadand tam devain manusyam calpa-medhasah/, 
dryaktve capare visnutn mayaya tasya mohitah/ / (fol, 15^). 
* »o betu-v^alrito mudbo dadaty uttaram aksayam. — Fol. 2593. 



152 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPIJRaNAS 


that this advocacy was inspired to a great extent by the teachings of 
the heretical faiths, for which theistic Yoga was the most suitable 
antidote. Though prescribing this Yoga to all including women and 
Sudras, the Visnudharma extols the Vedas and the Varnasrama-dharma 
and tries hard to keep the people aloof from the influence of the 
Pasandas. It declares 5 ruti and Smrti to be the commands of the 
Bhagavat himself,^** regards the Purana, the Manava Dharma 
(- 5 astra), and the Vedas together with the Ahgas as authoritative by 
origin and consequently unquestionable, and says: “One should 
know that man to have derived his origin from a part of an Asura 
who bears hatred towards Govinda and decries the twice-born 
(Brahmins) and the Vedas’’^'®. It tries to impress upon the people that 
one’s caste depends wholly on one’s actions in the previous births 
(chap. 57), chat the due performance of one’s caste-duties without any 
feeling of attachment, hatred, etc. destroys the previous actions 
causing rebirth,*'* and that ‘it is the Vedas, the deities, the sacrifices 
and the twice-born (Brahmins), who, being eulogised, praised and 
worshipped with much respect, confer the highest bliss (param 
sreyah)’"*. It speakes very highly of Brahmins as well as of various 
kinds of service"® rendered to them and glorifies them saying chat 
they can reduce people to ashes, create Lokas and Lokapalas, and 
lead the aspirants to heaven, and that it was they who made the 
waters of oceans saline and undrinkable and whose fire of wrath still 
burns in the Dandaka forest (chap. ^2). It encourages the cultivation 
of various personal virtues such as universal friendship, satisfaction, 
kindness, tolerance, regard for others’ wives as mothers, and so on, 
and urges the avoidance of attachment, untruth, himsa and other 
vices, and especially of association and conversation with the Pasandas 
not only during Visnu-worship and the observance of the Vaisnava 


HI For the relevant verse see foot-note 66 above. 

1 12 Chap. 3 (fol. lib). 

113 Chap. 42 (fol, 87a). 

1 14 Chap. 33 (fol. 63b). 

115 Such as rendering hospitality to Brahmins as guests, shampooing their 
feet, saving them at the sacrifice of one's own life, and so on. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPARURANAS 


153 


Vratas but also on ocher occasions^*®. In case of conversation with 
these heretics it prescribes expiations, viz., citation of particular Vedic 
and Puranic verses, remembering of Acyuta, and looking at the sun, 
and in case of physical contact with them the expiation consists of 
all these acts as well as bath (chap. 25, fol, ^aa-b). So, the ideal 
society aimed at by the Visnudharma is Brahmanical. According to 
this work a ‘worthy son’ (sat-putra) is one who is devoted to the gods 
and Brahmins, knows the Sastras, and attains Nirvana (chap. 3°)’ 
as regards feeding of Brahmins in a Sraddha ceremony it docs not 
favour any discrimination between them but says that the squint-eyed, 
hunchbacked, poor, diseased and similar other Brahmins are to be 
mixed up with those who are versed in the Veda.*^^ 

< As to the position of females m society the opinion expressed by 
the Visnudharma is not always very encouraging. According to this 
work, women, as creatures, are inferior even to the Sudras, for it says 
that by practising Yoga a female can become a Brahmin by passing 
successively through the states of Sudras and others in her different 
births (chap. 98). It prescribes Vratas and worships to females but 
says that in undertaking these a virgin girl must seek the permission 
of her parents, and a married woman, of her husband. “A wife has 
no separate sacrifice, Sraddha or fast. She attains her desires merely 
by serving her husband.”'** In case her husband forsakes her, or 
dies, or, turning a heretic (pasanda), does not allow her to worship 
Visnu, she is to worship her husband and remain faithful to him in 
kndy and mind.*** If she is a widow, she should remain chaste, give 

ti6 Sec chaps. 3 (fol. iib), 4 (fol. i6a), 5 (fol. 17®)* 7 
8 (fol. 22b), 14 (fol. 26b), 15 (fol. 27b), 22 (fol. 36b), 73 (fol. * 53 “)' 
especially 25. 

na brahmanam parikseta sraddha-kale by upasthite/ 
sumahan partvado hi brahmananain pariksane/ / 
kanah kubjaf ca sandhas ca daridra vyadhitas catha/_ 
sarve iraddhe niyoktavya miirita veda-paragaih/ j 

Chap. 52 (fol, 97a). 

naiva tasyah prthag yajna na sraddham napy upositam/ 
bhartr-susrusanenaiva prapnoti stri yathepsitam/ / 

Chap. 22 (fols. 35b-36a). 

t*9 Chap. 22 (fed. 36b). 

20 



154 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


libation of water to her deceased husband, worship Visnu daily by 
observing fast, receive guests, perform the Agnihotra rites without 
Mantra (agnihotram amantrakam), make gifts, and do other pious 
acts (chap. 22), 

From what has been said above it is evident that the present 
Visnudharma is an interesting work and has to be valued for its reli- 
gious matters and more particularly for its philosophical views. It 
seems to be a compilation rather than an original work, and it is pro- 
bable that it derived chapters and verses from more ancient works of 
the same type. Chap. 152 of the Bhavisyottara (i. e. Bhav. IV), which 
agrees remarkably with chap. 86 of the Visnudharma, is said in verse 
5 to have been ‘spoken out in ancient times by the Varaha’ (varahena 
pura proktam). Moreover, in some chapters of the Visnudharma the 
deity has been named much more frequently as Narayana or Visnu 
than as Krsna, while in others the name ‘Krsna’ or ‘Vasudeva’ is very 
common. From the facts that in chap, i of the Visnudharma 5 ata- 
nlka wants to hear ‘discourses on Narayana’ (narayana-katha), that in 
the first two chapters of this work the name ‘Krsna’ occurs very rarely, 
and chat the Visnudharmoctara, which, as we shall see below, was 
written by the Pancaratras, claims to be a part of the Visnudharma, 
it appears that in its origin the Visnudharma also was a Pancaratra work 
but was later on appropriated and recast by the Bhagavatas to its 
present form and character. 

The text of the Visnudharma, thar we find now in Mss, does not 
agree completely with those used by the commentators and Nibandha- 
wricers. A very large number of verses ascribed to the ‘Visnudharma’ 
in these works is not found in the present text of this work. For 
instance, none of the numerous verses of the ‘Visnudharma’ quoted in 
Raghunandana’s Smrci-tattva, Govindananda Kavikankanacarya’s 
5 raddha-kaumudi, 5 uddhi-kaumudl and Varsa-kaumudr, Madanapala’s 
Madana-parijata, and Madhavacirya’s Kalanirnaya, occurs in the present 
Visnudharma; of the 103 metrical lines quoted from this work in 
Gopalabhatta’s Haribhaktivilasa, only 37 are traceable in the present 
text of the same; and among the verses ascribed to the ‘Visnudharma’ 

120 See especially chaps. 2. 42, 79-80, 95-100, and 102-3. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


155 


in Apararka’s commentary on the Yajnavalkya-smrti, the number o£ 
those which are not traceable in the present Visnudharma, is consi- 
derable/'* This large proportion of the untraceable verses indicates 
that a more extensive text of the Visnudharma was once current in 
some parts of India. 

As to the provenance of the present Visnudharma it is very difficult 
to say anything definitely. From the facts that of the holy places 
named in chap. 36 almost all belong to Northern India, and a large 
number to its western part, and that the small river Devika has been 
mentioned on two occasions (in chaps. 32 and 36) and considered as 
much sacred as the Gahga, Yamuna etc., it appears that the Visnu- 
dharma was written in the north-western part of Northern India. 

2. THE VISNUDHARMOTTARA*"* 

This work, as we have it now, is an encyclopaedic work consisting 
of three Khandas and dealing not only with various stories, myths and 
legends but also with varied subjects, viz,, cosmology and cosmogony, 
geography, astronomy and astrology, division of time, pacification of 
unfavourable planets and stars, omens and portents, genealogies 

121 A list of these untraceable verses will be given in Appendix If in the 
final Volume of the present work. 

122 The only printed edition of this work is that published by the Vehkat. 
press, Bombay. 

Being based on highly insufficient Ms material, this edition contains various 
defects, some of which are as follows: — 

(a) Besides printing inistakas, it has lacunae in a large number of places. 

(b) One complete metrical line after Visnudh. 1 . 81. 4a is missing, 

(c) In Visnudh. 1 . 146 the description of the characteristics of bulls (vrsa- 
laksana) is begun abruptly (from verse 41b) with the second half of a verse in 
which the description of bulls called ‘samudra’ (rsabhah . . . samudrakhyah) was 
given. The missing verses of this incomplete chapter are to be found in 
Mat. 207. 

(d) A few lines after Visnudh. I, 175. 1 appear to be missing. 

(e) Visnudh. I, chaps, 223 and 225 are incomplete, and chap. 224 is 
wanting. 

It may be mentioned here that H. P. Shastri also found chaps. 223 and 224 
incomplete (trayovimsa-caturvimsadhyayau khanditau) in the Ms of the Visnu- 
dharmottara described by him in his Notices, II, pp. 164-172. 



156 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


(mainly of kings and sagcsj, manners and customs, penances, results of 
actions, rules about vrata and sraddha^ description and praise of 
various kinds of donatio ns, law and politics, science of warT^atomy, 
medicine, treatment of diseases of human beings and lower animals, 
cookery, manufacture of perfumes, horticulture, grammar, lexicography, 

(£) Though in Visuudh, I. 226. 636-643 Nadayana proposes to mention 
the names of the 'thirty-two’ Matrs created by Narasimha from his own body, 
he practically names twenty-four Matrs only Hence a complete verse after 
Visnudh. I. 226. 66a must have been lost. This verse occurs in the Matsya-p. 
(179. 696-703), 

(g) One complete chapter on ahirbudhnya snaiia is wanting. This chapter 
is referred to in Visnudh. II. 99. Sib (ahirbudhnyarn tatha snanarn godam 
uktarn pura tava) and is found quoted, in its entirety, in Caturvarga-cintamani, 
II. ii. pp. 654-5. 

For Mss of the Visnudharmottara, see 

(i) Shastri, Notices, II, pp. 164-172 (No. 190. — In this Ms, the work is 
divided into three Kandas, of which the first two have exactly the same con- 
tents as those of the first two Khandas of the printed Visnudharmottara, but 
the last Kanda ends abruptly with chap. 120 of the third Khanda of the printed 
edition. Hence this Ms does not contain the complete text of the Visnudhar- 
mottara) 

(ii) Benares Sans. Gjllege Cat., pp. 305, 308 and 326. 

(iii) Stein, Jammu Cat., p. 214. (This Ms has been described as follows: 
kani truuta-patrani vihaya sainpurnam/ navina kasmirikS lipih), 

(iv) .AJyar Library Cat., Part I, p. 150. (This Ms claims to be a part 
of the Garuda-p.). 

(v) Buhicr, Report, pp. vi-vii. 

(vi) Dacca Univ, Ms No. 4669. (This is an incomplete Ms of the 
third *Kanda’ of the Vhnudharmottara. It consists of fols. 8-259, 261 and 
two more without number. Of its first seven folios, two are missing and the 
rest are mutilated. The arrangement of its chapters does not, in all cases, 
agree with that of the printed edition. It ends with a part of chap. 329 of the 
third Khanda of the printed edition). 

(vii) List of Sans., Jaina and Hindi Mss, p. 92. 

(viii) In his essay on the Visnudharmottara published in Ind. Ant., 
Vol. XIX, 1890, pp. 381-410, Bhiiler says that he used Mss Nos. 89-91 of the 
Deccan College Collection of 1875-77. According to Biihler’s description, the 
text of the Visnudharmottara, as preserved in these Mss, consists of three 
Kandas, of which the first two appear to have the same contents as those of 
the first two Khandas of the printed edition, but the third 'is much shorter than 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


157 


metrics, rhetorics, dramaturgy, dancing, vocal and instrumental music, 
sculpture, painting, architecture, Vaisnava theology, and so on. As, 
due to want of space, it is not possible to give a complete summary 
of the contents of all its chapters, we note below the different topics 
dealt with in it, with the mention of some of the most striking 
points. 

Khanda I. 

Chap. I. — Vajra’s'^^ request to some sages to speak on various 
kinds of ‘Visnu-dharma’ or ‘Vaisnava dharma’ (duties to Visnu); and 
the latter’s selection of Markaiideya to do so. Markandeya’s consent 
to comply with Vajra’s request. 

the other two and contains only n8 Adhyayas’. (See Ind. Ant., Vol. XIX. 
1890. pp. 382-3). 

(ix) M, Rangacharya, Madias Cat,, IV. i. pp. 1437-41. Nos. 2111-18. 
(All these Mss arc incomplete, the first three consisting of 27 chapters each. 
No. 2111 is written in Nandi-nagari and has the colophon: «i-garuda-purane 
visnudhartnottare prathamo ’dhyayah). 

(x) There is yet another Ms of the Visnudharniottara in Bhau Daji s 
Collection in the Library of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 
(Bombay). This Ms is written in Devanagari and was copied in Vikrama 
era 1925. 

For Mss of Stotras, Vraia-kathas etc., claiming to belong to the Visnudhar- 
mottara, see 

(i) Eggcling, Ind. Off. Cat., VI, p. 1309. No. 3605 (Apafajita-stotra). 

(ii) Keith, Ind. Off. Cat., II. i, pp, 912 and 913 (Apatajita-stotra); II. 
ii. p. loiq (Dvaraka-mahatmya). 

(iii) Shastri, ASB Cat., V, pp. 765-9. Nos. 4101-4 (Aparajita stotra ; 
Vyadhi-prasamanapamarjanaka ; and Apamarjana-stotr.i), and p. 841 (extracts 
belonging to the Visnudharmottara). 

(iv) Mitra, Notices, II, p. 16, No. 550 (Dharmaghata-vrata-katha). 

(v) Chakravarti, Vahgiya Sahitya Parisat Cat., p. 1 15 (Trailokya-vijaya- 
parajita-stotra and Siva-ratri-vrata-katha). 

(vi) Stein, Jammu Cat., p. 214 (Apatajita-stotra). 

(vii) P.P.S. Sastri, Tanjore Cat., XV, pp. 7i73"74. Nos. 10578-81. 

(viii) Dacca Univ. Mss of the Vanasa-kavaca, Aparajita-stotra, Svapna- 

dhyaya, and Apamarjana-vidhi. 

(ix) Weber, Berlin Cat., No. 1162 (Apamarjana-stotra). 

And so on. 

•23 King Vajra was the son of Atiiruddlia and the great-grandson of Krsna, 



158 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


Chaps. 2-3. — Description of the origin of the universe as well as 
of Brahma, Rudra and others from Narayana. Account of Visnu’s 
raising of the earth by assuming the form of a Boar. 

Chaps. ^-3. — Description of the nether worlds (viz., Patala, Sutala 
etc.) and the different regions (viz., Varaha-loka, Kalagnirudra-loka, 
Visnu-loka, bhurloka, hhuvarloka etc.), in which Visnu remains with 
LaksmI by assuming different forms. 

In chap. 4, verses i-/j. there is a description of the different meas- 
urements of space, viz., trasarenu, liksa, raja-sarsapa, gaura-sarsapa, 
sarsapa, yava^ ahguli, sahku, hasta, dhanuh, krosa, gavyuti and yojana. 

Chaps. 6-1 1. — Geography of the earth. — Names and description 
of its dvipas. Names of its mountains, oceans etc. Position of mount 
Meru, and the names of the cities (of Indra, Vahni, Yama, Varuna 
and others) situated round it. Description of Jambu-dvipa, with the 
mention of the names of its varsas, mountains etc. Description of 
Bharata-varsa'** (including Lahka)^*® — the names of the tribes living 
in its central, eastern, south-eastern, southern, south-western, western, 
north-western, northern and north-eastern parts;*®® the names of its 

124 Visnuclh. I. 8. 16-18. 

125 Ibid., I. 8. 9 — 

lavanasyoctare parsvc sagarasya ca daksine/ 
puri lanka saninivista yasyam vai ravano hatah / / 

126 Visnudli. I. 9, 2-10 — 

pancalah kuravo maesya yaudheyah savatascarah / 
kuntayah suraseiias ca madhyadesa-\aniL\\ smrtah/ / 
vrsadhvajanjaiiah paiinah suhma iiiagadha-cedayah/ 
kasayas ca vidchas ca purvasydm kosalas tatha// 
kalinga-vanga-pundr-anga-vaidarblia niulakas taclia/ 
vindhyanfa-nilayah proktah piirva-dakstnatah smrtah// 
puiindasmaka-jimuca-iiararasna-nivasinah/ 
karnataka bhojakata daksinapatba-vasinah j j 
ambastha dravida nagah kambojah strimukhah sakMi/ 
anancavasinas caiva jneya dakuna-pascimef / 
stii-rajyam saindhava mlcccha nastikya yavanas tatha/ 
pascimena ca vijneyah patuinanausadhaih saha// 
iiiaiidavyas' ca tusaras ca muiikai ca mukhah khas^/ 
niahakcsa inahanasa desas tUttara-pascime j j 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPLIRANAS 


159 


seven principal mountains (kula-farvata) as well as o£ the principal 
rivers arising from them; the names of those chief rivers^^^ which 
arose from the Himalaya and are regarded as specially sacred. 

Chaps. 1 2-2 2. i — Description of Kosala and Ayodhya. 

Names and accounts of the kings of the Solar dynasty from 
Iksvaku (son of Vaivasvata Manu) downwards. 

Story of Sagara, whose sons were burnt to ashes by Kapila, a form 
of Vasudeva. Story of Bhagiratha’s bringing Gafiga^** down to earth. 


lampagas talanagas ca maru- gandhaiajahiitah/ 
himavan-nilaya mleccha hy udicim disam asiitah// 
trigarta-mina-kauluta bialimaputrah satiganah/ 
abhisaras ca kasmiras codak-fiirvena kirtitab// 

127 The names of these rivers areas follows: — Kausiki, Gandaki, Lohitya, 
Drsadvati. Mena, Bahuda, Mahanadi, Gomati, Devika, Vitasta, Candrabhaga, 
Sarayu, Iravati, Vipasa, 5 atadru, Yamuna and Sarasvati. 

Of these rivers, the Kausiki is said to be the beloved of Kausika and is des- 
cribed as ‘nimnagottama’, ‘gajendra-bhinna-kula’, and ‘ganga-tulya ca punyatah’; 
the Bahuda is said to have restored the severed arm of the sage Likhita; the 
Devika is identified with the beloved wife of Samkara; the yitasta is called 
'visnu-Ioka-prada' and ‘agha-nasini’; the Candrabhaga is described as 'candra- 
loka-prada’; the Iravati is called ‘indrebha-sevita-tata’ and ‘indra-loka-pradayini ; 
the Vipasa is said to be ‘visista-pasa-vicchede kiisala’; and the Satadru is 
described as ‘sarva-papanam vipakakarini’ and ‘vasistha.vidruta’. 

For description of all the above-mentioned rivers see Visnudh. 1 . 1 1. 2-21. 
In this description, the Sarasvati is called ‘sapta-prakara’ and is said to consist of 
seven parts known by seven names, viz., Suprabha (at Puskara), Kataraksi (at 
Naimisa), Visala (at Gaya), Manasa-hrada (at Kosala), Sarasvati (at Kuruksetra), 
Ogha-nada (at Gafiga-dvara), and Suvenu (on the Himacala). 

It is to be noted that in these verses the word ‘devi’ has been used with 
respect to the following rivers; — Devika. Vitasta, Iravati, Satadru and 
Sarasvati. 

128 In chap. 19, verses i8ff. it is said that Gahga, being let out from Siva’s 
matted hair, first entered the Bindu-saras (which had been created by the drops 
of water of Gahga) and then divided herself into seven streams, of which three 
(viz., Hladini, Hradini and Plavini) flowed towards the east, three (viz., Sita. 
Yaktra and Sindhu) rushed towards the west, and one (viz. Gahga) flowed 
towards the south by following the track shown by Bha^atha. 



160 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Digressions : — 

(i) Visnu’s killing of the demons Madliii and Kaitabha, who 
had originated from a drop of Brahma’s perspiration. — Chap. 15. 

(ii) Story of Kuvalayasva, who was named Dhundhumara for 
killing the aquatic demon Dhundhu (son of Madhu and Kaitabha) 
with the help of sage Uttahka. — Chap. 16. 

(iii) Story of Jahnii, king of Kanyakiibja, who drank up Gang!, 
because the latter flooded his sacrificial hall in wliich preparations were 
made for the performance of a horse-sacrifice. Jahnu’s letting Gahga 
out through his ear. — Chap. 20, 

(iv) Story of Vamana (Trivikrama), who chastised Baskali and 
ushered Gahga into the world. Presence of Gahga in different places 
in different names and forms. 

Chaps. 23-71. — Story of Visnu’s birtli as Bhargava Rama, his 
attainment of Ksatriya characteristics, and his performance of various 
exploits, viz., his extermination of the Saimhikeyas as well as of the 
demons living in the nether world, and his killing of the Ksatriyas 
including Kartaviryarjuna. 

Stories of Nahusa’s change into a snake; Indra’s residence in a 
lotus-stalk in the Miiiasa lake for getting rid of Brahma-hatya arising 
from Vrtra-vadha; Visnu’s manifestation as Dattatreya; Vasistha’s 
curse on Kartaviryarjuna for burning his forest for pleasing Aditya; 
birth of Visvamitra, and the cause of his turning a Brahmin; Surya’s 
offer of an umbrella and a pair of shoes to Renuka, wife of Jamadagni; 
churning of the ocean by gods and demons; Visnu’s beheading of 
Rahu; and Bhargava Rama’s meeting with Varuna in the latter’s 
residence. 

In connection with these stories, portents (utpata) have been dealt 
with in chap. 37, bad dreams (duhsvapna) in chap. 39, and evil omens 
(durnimitta) in chap. q6. 

Chaps. 52-65 constitute a separate section called ‘Samkara-glta,’ 
in which Samkara, being requested by Bhargava Rama, glorifies Nara- 

129 Ganga is said to sanctify the Dar.adas, ]ahudas, Kasmiras, Nairasas, 
Abhiras, Kalapa-gramakas, Tamra'iptakas, Vangas, Pundras and others. — 
Chap. a_tj verses 17-24 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA tJPAPURANAS l6l 

yan,a (i.c. Visnu) as Para Brahma and the source oE the universe, 
admits that he himselE meditates on Narayana, and then speaks on 
the following topics: — Visnu ’s manifestation as Varaha, Narasirnha 
and Vamana; Visnu’s various vibhutis; praise of devotion (bhakti) to 
Visnu; enumeration of actions**® which please Kesava; results of worship- 
ping Visnu by observing fast on the different days (from Sunday to 
Saturday) of the week, on different Tithis (from Pratipad to PancadasI) 
and under different Naksacras from Krttika to Bharani); worship of 
Visnu with the due observance of ‘panca-kala,’ viz., abhigamana-kala, 
upadana-kala, ijya-kala, svadhyaya-kala and yoga-kala.*®* 

Chaps. 72-73. — Varuna’s speech to Bhargava Rama on the follow- 
ing topics : — Division of time according to saura, candra, savana and 
ndksatra mana; measurement of time — duration of a nimesa, truti, 
prana, vinadika, nadika, muhurta, ahoratra, paksa, masa, ayana, 
samvatsara, yuga, half a etc.; duration of the day and night of the 
Pitrs; longevity of Brahma; condition of dharma etc. during the four 
yugds, especially in the Kali-yuga. 

Chap. 7,^. — Condition of Bharata-varsa at the end of each yttga', 
and Visnu’s appearance in human forms (such as chose of Pramati, 
Bhimaracha, Vasudeva-and-Arjuna, and Kalkin) for relieving the earth 
of her burden. 

This chapter gives us information regarding the literary activity 
of Valmiki and Vyasa at the ends of Treta and Dvapara respectively. 
It is said that at the end of the Dvapara-yuga Visnu would be born as 
Vyasa, divide the original Veda into tour, viz., i^g-veda, Sama-veda, 
Atharvana and Yajur-veda, and write Vakovakya, Purina and Bharata, 
and that at the end of the Treta-yuga Visnu would be born as Valmiki 
and write the ‘Ramakhyana’. (See verses zzff.). 

Chaps. 75-77. — Condition of the world at the ends of Manvan- 
taras, Kalpas and Mahakalpas. 

Chaps. 7S'7^. — Entrance of Markandeya and Brahma into the 

* 3 ® Such as non-giving of Visnu-naivedya or yisnu-nirmalya to non-Vaisna- 
vas ; showing respect to all deities and faiths; honouring the Pancaratras; and 
so on.— Chap. 58 
* 3 * For details see chaps. 61-65, 

21 



162 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


body o£ Visnu, and their experience at the close of a Manvancara and 
a Kalpa respectively. 

Chap. 8o. — Measurement of time beginning from the origin of 
Brahma. Duration of the periods of reign of Vajra and Parlksit. 

Chap. 8i. — Names of fourteen Manus. Difference between the 
Manvantaras and Kalpas. 

Chaps. 82'I0^. — On astrology and astronomy. — Different kinds 
of years, and their characteristics and results; names of deities dominat- 
ing the different seasons, months, planets, stars, tithis and muhiirtas’, 
names and description of karanas (viz., bava, balava, kaulava etc.), and 
the names of their presiding deities; description of bora, kulika-veld 
and lagna\ nature of the influence of planets and stars on different 
countries under different circumstances; long and detailed description 
of the method of performing graha-yajna (which consists of prak-tantra 
and uttara-tantra); relative position of the planets and stars. 

Chap. io6. — Stories of the birth of Dhruva and the different 
Planets.'** 

Chap. 107. — Brahma’s creation of gods, demons, sages, Pitrs and 
others, as well as of planets, birds, snakes etc. 

Daksa’s descendants (including Satl, who is said to have forsaken 
her body and been reborn as Uma). 

Chaps. 108-109. — Dhruva ’s descendants including Vena'®* and 
Prthu, whose stories have been given at length. Daksa’s rebirth as 
the son of Pracetas, and his creation by sexual intercourse. 

Chaps. iiO'ii8. — Descendants of Bhrgu, Ahgiras, Atri, Visva- 
mitra, Parasara and other sages. Origin of gotras and fravaras. 
Restriction as regards marriage among them. 

Digression : — Story of Nimi and Vasistha’s mutual curse, and the 
latter’s birth as the son of Mitra and Varuna. — Chap. 117. 

Chaps. 1 19-121. — Descendants of Dharma and Kasyapa. 

132 For the peculiar stories of the birth of Bhauma, Budha and Sukra, see 
verses 34-51 and 54-60. 

133 Following the Lokayatikas Vena says: — 

yavaj-jivam sukham jiven nasti mrtyor agocaram/ 
bhasmibhutasya santasya punar agamanam kutah//, 

Visi^udh. 1. 108. .18-19. 



163 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

Chaps, 122-8.— Story of Krsna’s killing of Kalanemi. Visnu’s 
manifestation as Varaha. Birth of Maruts. Creation of Apsarases, 
viz., Tilottama, Ahalya, UrvasI and others. 

Chaps. 129-137. — Story of Pururavas and UrvasI. — The latter’s 
origin from Narayana’s thighs; Tumburu’s curse on her; her love 
for and residence with Pururavas (of Pratisthana)*®* on certain condi- 
tions; Urvasl’s departure, and Pururavas’s vain enquiry for her to beasts 
and birds; Narada’s request to UrvasI to pass one night with the 
king; Urvasl’s meeting with Pururavas in a lake in Kuruksetra; and 
so on. 

[Though based on its Vedic and Puranic versions, this story has 
innovations and betrays the influence of Kalidasa’s VikramorvasIya.J 
Cause and praise of performing sraddha on the Amavasya Tithi. 
(Chap, 137, verses agff.). 

Chap. 138. — Names and classification of Pitrs; and the effect of 
offering sraddha to them. 

Chap. I 39. — The custom of offering sraddha — first introduced on 
the Varaha-parvata by Visnu in the form of Varaha in the Vaivasvata 
Manvantara. 

Chaps. 1 40- 1 44. — Performance of sraddha . — Detailed description 
of its procedure; persons entitled to offer sraddha under different 
circumstances; selection of proper placed®® different kinds of articles 
(including meat of particular animals) to be offered to the Pitrs; proper 
tune and occasions for the performance of sraddha; persons (viz., 
vardhusika, cikitsaka and others) who do not deserve to be invited in 
sraddha ceremonies; persons^®® who are ‘pahkti-pavana’; results of 

134 For mention of Pratisthana see Visnudh. 1 , 130. 21; 131. 12; and 

>35.15. 

>35 ttisanku varjayed desam sarvam dvadasa-yojanam/; 
uttarena patahgasya daksinena ca kaikatam// 
de^as traisankavo nama vivarjyah sraddha-karmani/, 
karaskarah kaling^ ca sindhor uttaram eva ca//. 
caturvatnya-vihinas ca ye ca desa naradhipa/ 
anyesv api ca desesu tad-desa-jana-darsanam// 

Visnudh. I. 141. 2-4, 

* 3 ® Such as those who have studied any of the four Vedas, Dharma^sttas, 
Pucanas, Itihasa, ‘sottara Yisnudharma’, or grammar; those who know Jyodsa 



164 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


performing sraddha at selected places (viz., Gaya, Puskara, Prayiga, 
Naimi^, Varanasi, Prabhasa and Kuruksetra; banks of the Gahga, 
Yamuna and Narmada; mountains such as Amarantika-parvata, 
Varaha*paravata and Himavat; and so on). 

Chap. 145. — Pitr-gathas. Method of observing the Asunya-sayana- 
dvitiyi (as described by Pulastya to Dalbhya). 

Chap. 146. — Ways of release from rebirths. Characteristics of 
bulls (vrsa-laksana) as mentioned by Krsna to Yudhisthira. 

[This chapter refers to the contents of the Santi and Anusasana 
Parvans of the Mahabharata, and to the Dharmasastras of Manu, 
Vasistha, Parasara, Atri, Sahkha, Gargya, Likhita, Yama, Javali and 
many others.] 

Chap. 147. — Procedure and praise of dedication of bulls (vrsotsarga) 
to the Pitrs. 

Chaps. 148-1^6. — Pururavas’s penance and worship of Visnu on 
the DvadasI Tithis in the Himalaya in his previous birth as a king of 
Madra, his performance of the Rupa-satra-vrata according to the method 
described by Atri, and his consequent attainment of uncommon 
physical beauty through Visnu’s favour. 

Chaps. 157-161. — Description of various kinds of Dvadasi-vratas, 
viz., Rajya-prada-dvadasi-vrata, Kama-dvadaH-vrata, Sukla-paksa-dvad- 
asi-vrata, and Sravana-dvidasl-vrata (in all of which Visnu is to be wor- 
shipped.) 

Chap. 162. — Praise of the Sravana-dvadasi-vrata by means of a 
story of a merchant who strayed into a forest in Dascraka and met a 
group of spirits (preta), one of whom told him that he had been a mer- 
chant of ^akala and that, as a result of his observance of the ^ravana- 
dvadasl-vrata and giving food to Brahmins on this occasion at the 
confluence of the rivers Tausi and Candrabhaga, he used to have a 
regular supply of food and water even after his death. 

In this chapter, the Candrabhaga is described as a part of the 


or Ayurveda but do not earn their livelihood with these; and 50 on. — Chap. 
145, verses 12-19, 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


165 


Gahga,”^ and the TausI is called ‘arka-nandini’ (daughter of the 
Sun),^’* and the meeting places of the following rivers are said to be 

highly sacred : — (a) Gahga and Sarayu, (b) Gahga and 5 ona, (c) Gahga 
and Iksumatl, (d) Gahga and Yamuna, (e) Gomati and Sarayu, 
(f) Kausiki and GandakI, (g) Vipasa and Devahrada, (h) Vipasa and 
Satadru, (i) Sindhu and Iravatl, (j) Candrabhaga and Vitasta, and 
(k) Sindhu and Vitasta. — Verses 61-65. 

Chaps. 163-164. — Description of the Tila-dvidasl-vrata (which is 
Vaisnava). 

Praise of this Vrata by means of the story of Nayanasundarl, 
wife of king Candavega of Magadha, who, in her previous birth in 
a country watered by the river Vitasta, performed the Tila-dvadasi- 
vrata on the bank of this river and consequently attained royalty. 

In Chap. 164, verses 23-26 the Vitasta has been praised as a 
highly sacred river and identified with Uma, the beloved wife of 
Hara. 

Chap. 165, — Method and praise of muttering the Gayatrl; and 
the cause and efficacy of its use in various kinds of Vaisnava homa 
(viz., laksa-homa, koti-homa etc.) and in abhicara. 

[For the method of using Gayatri in abhicara and the restrictions 
under which it is to be employed for this purpose, see verses 55-67.] 

Chaps. 166-7. — The method and result of dipa-dana in Visnu- 
temples and other places. (The use of animal-fat and of blue or red 
wicks in lamps is strictly prohibited. — Verses 31 and 35). 

Story of Lalitika (or Lalita), daughter of king Citraratha of 
Vidarbha and wife of the king of Kasi, who always kept herself 
engaged in dipa-dana and who, in her previous birth as a female 
mouse, chanced to cause an extinguishing lamp to continue to burn 
in a Visnu-temple constructed by Maitreya (the Brahmin minister of 
the king of Sauvira) at Nrsiinha-tirtha on the bank of the river 

*37-138 candrabhaga saric-chrestha yatra sitamalodaka/ 
mahadeva-jaujute gahga nipatita pura/ / 
candrena bhagato nyasia candrabhaga smrta tatah/ 
tat-kala-tapta-salila taUfi tatrarka-nandini// 

yisnudh, I. 162. 34-35. 



166 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Devika in Madra and was consequently born and married in royal 
(amilies. 

In chap. 167, verses 15-18 it is said that, for the good of man- 
kind, Brahmins caused Lima, wife of Hara, to come down to the earth 
in the form of the river Devika. 

Chap. i68. — Praise of Visnu-worship with wild flowers, fruits 
etc. by poor people. 

Chaps. 165-170. — Results of sweeping a Visnu-temple and be- 
smearing it with cow-dung. 

Story of a destitute Sudra and his wife, who felt a strong desire 
for royal fortune at the sight of Citravahana, king of Sauvtra, and 
were reborn as Mandhatr (son of Yuvanasva and king of Ayodhya) 
and Prabhavati (daughter of Bhimavega, king of Kasi) respectively as 
a result of besmearing, with cow-dung, a Visnu-temple which was 
situated on the bank of the Sindhu and in which an image of Varaha 
was established by sages of old. Mandhatr’s conquest of the world, 
and his devotion to Visnu. 

[The river Sindhu has been praised in chap. 170, verses 40 .]. 

Chaps. 171-172. — Being questioned by Vajra as to how this Man- 
dhatr could be killed by Lavana with the sula of Mahesvara, Marka- 
ndeya says that such an incident became possible simply because the 
energy of Visnu (vaisnavam tejah) resorted to the tip of Siva’s saU. 

Markandeya’s description and praise of ‘vaisnava-tejas’, without 
which, Markandeya says, even Brahma and Siva cannot live and which 
cannot be comprehended without bhakti. Markandeya adds that it 
is Visnu who is the single eternal Being (avinasi tad evaikam) known 
by different names such as Sadasiva, Vasudeva, Kala, Daiva, Svabhava, 
Purusa, Pranava etc. and who, though himself eternal, formless, 
omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent, manifests himself as Varaha 
etc. for accomplishing various objects but is not bound by his actions. 

Description of kings of the Treta-yuga. — It is said that these kings 
could cleanse their faces with their own tongues; each of them had 
68 teeth and possessed seven gems (sapta ratnini), viz., hasti-ratna, 
asva-ratna, ratha-ratna, bharya-ratna, ayudha-ratna, mani-ratna and 
nidhi-ratna; their movement was not obstructed in the nether world. 



167 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

the sky, the mountains and the sea; and so on. — Chap. 172, verses 
37-46. 

Chaps. 173-174. — Description of the Ananta-vrata (by perform- 
ing which Yuvanasva and Krtavirya had Mandhatr and Kartaviryarjuna 
respectively as sons) and Masa-naksatra-pujana-vrata (in which Visnu 
is to be worshipped for one year from Karttika). 

[In chaps. 175-151 Markandeya reports, in connection with 
Masa-naksatra-pujana-vrata, what SambarayanI said to Indra.] 

Chaps. 175-185. — Accounts of the past, present and future 
Manvantaras, with the mention of Visnu’s killing of the foes of the 
respective Indras during these Manvantaras by assuming different 
forms such as those of Matsya, Kurma, Hamsa, Asva, Nr-varaha, 
Mayura etc. 

Chap. 150 — Eternity of Visnu; and his innumerable manifesta- 
tions in different Manvantaras, viz., Varaha, Vamana, Trivikrama, 
Narasimha, Matsya, Kurma, Hainsa, Nr-varaha, Rama (Bhargava), 
Rama, Mandhatr, Prthu, Kartaviryarjuna and others. 

Chap. 1 51. — SambarayanI’s statement that it was by observing 
the Masa-naksatra-pujana-vrata that she was able to attain such an 
extremely long life and residence in heaven. 

Chaps. 192-194. — Praise of Vi5nu-stuci. 

Story of the transformation of the Gandharvas Haha and Huhu 
into an elephant and a crocodile respectively as a result of Devala’s 
curse, because these Gandharvas disrespected Devala by taking him 
to be ignorant of music. 

Fight between the elephant and the crocodile; and the former’s 
eulogy of Visnu, who consequently saved the elephant by killing the 
crocodile and restored both the animals to their former states. 

[This story is called ‘gajendra-moksana’. In chap. 194, verses 
58 ff. Gahga, Naimisaranya, Prayaga, Brahma-tlrtha and Dandakar- 
anya have been praised.] 

Chap. 195. — Method of self-protection by means of the Visnu- 
panjara-stotra, which Brahma discovered for ^amkara’s safety when 
the latter destroyed Tripura. 

Chap. 196. — Protection of others from various kinds of diseases 



168 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURS.NAS 


and calamities by means of the Visnu-panjara-stotra and ocher Vaisnava 
stotras and mantras (especially those of Narasimha). 

Chaps. 197-198. — Origin of Yaksas, Raksasas, Pisacas and 
Yatudhanas; and the names of their descendants (including Heti, 
Praheti, Ravana, Puloman and others). 

Chap. 199. — Story of the birth of Cyavana and his reducing 
Puloman to ashes with an angry glance when Cyavana’s mother 
Puloma was being abducted by this Raksasa. 

Chap. 200. — Birth of the Raksasa named Lavana, and his death 
at the hand of Satrughna. 

Chaps. 201-269. — Rama’s order to Bharata to chastise the impious 
(adharma-niraca) Gandharvas living on both banks of the Sindhu; and 
Bharata’s consequent march against, and killing of, these Gandharvas 
including ^ailusa, and sending the rest to the Himalaya. 

Bharaca’s march against the Gandharvas has been described ela- 
borately in chaps. 202-209. 

According to chap. 20^ Rama sent with Bharata a retinue consis- 
ting of actors, musicians, dancing girls, public women, merchants (or 
contractors), poison-doctors, physicians, surgeons.*®* dentists (dan- 
takarah, dantopajivinah), engineers, weavers, leather-workers, fisher- 
men, tailors, scribes, astrologers, manufacturers of weapons, washer- 
men, painters etc.**® 

During his march Bharata is said to have seen the following rivers 
and places: — Ganga, Yamuna, Sanniti (a holy place in Kuruksetra), 
Amarakanmka, Satadru (also called Gauri), Vipasa, Iravatl, Devika, 
Candrahhaga, Vitasta, Sudima (a river) and Rajagrha (capital of 
Kekaya). — Chaps. 206-207. 

In chap. 207 the holy place Sanniti and the rivers Yamuna, 
Satadru, Vipasa, Iravatl, Devika, Candrahhaga and Vitasta have been 
specially glorified as being highly sacred; regarding Sanniti it has been 
said that here Dadhica called together all the holy places and rivers on 
earth before giving up his life for the sake of Indra and that thencc- 

139 visa-vaidyah salya-vaidyas tatha kaya-eikitsakah//. 

— Chap. 203, verse 9a. 

140 This list seems to have been influenced by Ramayana II. 83. laff. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


169 


forward all the gods and tlrthas used to visit this place every month; 
the reasons for the names ‘Satadru’ and ‘Vipasa’ have been stated; 
and the rivers Satadru and Devika have been identified with Uma, 
the beloved wife of Hara. 

Chap. 208 contains description of the hurry and eagerness of wo- 
men of Rajagrha to see Bharata when he was entering the city. 

In chaps. 212-247 Nadayana advises 5 ailusa not to declatc war 
against Bharata but to repair peacefully to the Himalaya, and relates 
the following stories : — 

(r) Agastya’s drinking of the waters of the ocean for helping 
Indra to kill the demons who had taken shelter in it after Vrtra’s 
death; his lowering of the Vindhya which had covered the paths of 
the sun and the moon; his killing of Vatapin by thoroughly digesting 
him; and his furnishing the bows of Rama and Laksmana with in- 
vincible ‘vaisnava-tejas.’ — Chap. 213. 

(2) Visnu’s war with and killing of the demon Malin of Lanka, 
— a story which had been narrated to Rama by Agastya. — Chaps. 
214-215. 

The following rivers are said to have joined Visnu in his march 
against Malin : — -Gahga, Kalindl, Sarayu, Gomatl, Godavari, Sarasvatl, 
Satadru, Vipasa, Candrabhaga, Iravatl, Sindhu, Vitasta, Devika, 
Gandaki, Kaverl, Hiranvati, Iksumati, Parnasa, KausikI, Vedasmrti, 
Narmada, Sita, Hradini, Pavani, Lauhitya, Sindhu, Caksu, Sita, Gau- 
taml, Drsadvati, and ‘others.’ — -Chap. 215, verses 43-52. 

(3) Story of Ravana and his exploits and death. — Birth of Kuvera 
from DevavarninI by Visrav.as, and his residence at Lanka which was 
situated on the mountain Trikuta. Birth of Dasagriva, Kumbhakarna, 
Vibhisana and Surpanakha from Kaikasi by Visravas, their penance at 
Gokarna, and their receipt of boons from Brahma; Ravana’s leadership 
of those Raksasas who had fled to Patala after Malin’s death, his 
wresting of Lanka from Kuvera, and his world-conquest. Ravana’s 
attempt to molest Vedavatl,**^ daughter of Kusadhvaja, and the latter’s 
entrance into fire with the threat that she would be born again as an 

14* For the story of Vedavati, see chap. 221, verses lyff. 

This story is based on Ramayana VII. 17. 

22 



170 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


‘ayonija being for bringing about his destruction; birch of Vedavatl as 
Sica; and che incidencs in her life (including her entrance into the 
nether world). Ravana’s taking away of the chariot called Puspaka 
from Kuvera, and his sad experience in Kailasa (where he was cursed 
by Nandin that monkeys would bring about his destruction); his 
victory over the gods; his conquest of Patala; and his experience at 
Kiskindhya (where there was a conflict between Balin and Sugriva). 
Ravana’s meeting with Bali, the former’s inability to remove one of 
the ear-rings which Bali inherited from Hiranyakasipu, and Bali’s 
praise of Visnu who had killed Hiranyakasipu; Ravana’s meeting 
with Visnu, in whose body he saw all the gods and the whole 
universe and who told him that he would be born as a human being 
and kill Ravana. — Chaps. 21^-223 and 238-239. 

(4) * eulogy of Vinayaka, and his burning of Tripura with 
an arrow, the tip of which was occupied by Visnu. — Chaps. 
224(?)*^“-225. 

(5) Siva s killing of the demon Andhaka with the help of the 
Matrs created by himself as well as by Visnu and Narasitnha whom 
Siva had eulogised for help.— -Chap. 226. (This chapter contains che 
names of a large number of Matrs including Kali and Mahakall). 

(6) Birth of Sadanana on the mountain Sveta; his boons to the 
Kutikas to be worshipped with himself at a time when the moon 
would remain with the Kretikas, and to Gahga to be worshipped on 
the Vaisakha-sukla-trtlya (which is called Aksaya-trtlya); Indra’s 
creation of a large number of highly pernicious beings called Grahas, 
VIZ., gods. Purs, demons, Raksasas^ evil spirits, Nagas etc., for doing 
harm to Sadanana s life; Sadanana s creation of a far larger number 
of similar Grahas named Skanda, Visakha etc. to counteract the 
influence of those created by Indra, and his prescription of particular 
duties to these Grahas; Indra s praise of Skanda and his worship; 
Siva’s appointment of Skanda as the general of gods; and Skanda’s 
killing of the demon Mahisa and others.— Chaps. 228-230 and 233. 


142 In the printed ed., chaps. 223 and 225 are incomplete and chap. 224 
is wanting. 



JHE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 171 

(7) Narayana’s saving of Yajna from the hand of Siva. — 
Chap. 234. 

(8) Destruction of Daksa’s sacrifice by Virabhadra and Bhadrakall 
horn of Siva and Parvatl respectively, because Daksa refused to give 
to Siva a share of the sacrificial offerings; Daksa’s eulogy of Siva at 
Bhadra.kaniesvara according to Virabhadra’s advice; Siva’s boon to 
Daksa. — Chap. 235. 

(In this chapter the confluence of the Sarasvatl and the Jahnavi 
at Bhadrakarnesvara as well as the five holy places — ‘tirtha-pancaka’, 
viz., Gahgadvara, Kusavarta, Bilvaka, Nilaparvata and Kanakhala, 
have been highly praised by Siva, Mahakali has been eulogised and 
described as ‘astadasa-bhuja’, ‘sula-mudgara-dharini’, ‘kamandalu- 
dhara’, ‘pitakauseya-vasana’, and ‘nllotpala-dala-syama’, and her 
worship has been prescribed on the Sukla-navamI). 

(9) Story of sage Sveta, who used to worship a Siva-lihga and 
whom Siva saved from the hands of Yama by reducing him to ashes, 
because Yama refused to wait till Sveta could finish his worship of 
Siva. Description of Visnu-kavaca, with which Siva protected himself 
against Yama. — Chaps. 236-237. 

(10) Satrughna’s fight with and killing of the Raksasa named 
Lavana who lived at Madhuvana. — Chaps. 240-247. 

Chap. 227 contains the names of herbs, food meterials etc. with 
which the enraged Matrs can be pacified. 

Chaps. 231-232 deal with the following topics: — Various kinds 
of actions which bring people under the influence of the Grahas 
created by Indra and Sadanana; causes which encourage these Grahas 
to exert their influence;**® symptoms of persons influenced by 
different kinds of Grahas; and treatment of such persons by means 
of herbs, mantras etc. 

In chaps. 248-253 Nadayana further speaks to ^ailusa on the 
following topics : — 

Beasts and birds descended from Pulaha. — Chap. 248. 

Brahma’s appointment of kings over herbs, stars, water, gods. 


*43 For these causes see chap, 231, verses I2b-i4a. 



172 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Yaksas, Daityas, Danavas, Pisacas etc.; coronation of Ii'dra. — Chaps. 
249-250. 

Origin of the eight elephants named Airavana, Padma, Puspadanta 
etc. (which are called quarter-elephants — dig-gajah), and the classifica- 
tion of their descendants. 

Location of the eight forests in which the eight quarter-elephants 
live with their descendants. Characteristics of elephants living in 
these forests.— Chap. 251. 

Monkeys descended from Pulaha Chap. 252. 

Description of the fight between the elephants and monkeys at 
Antarvedl. Indra’s severing of the wings of elephants and sending 
them down to earth to serve Lomapadn, king of Ahga. Lomapada’s 
authorship of a Sutra-work on medical treatment of elephants. — 
Chap. 253. 

Chaps. 254-257. — Sailusa’s determination to wage war against 
Bharata in spite of Nadayana’s advice to the contrary. Inability of 
the Gandharvas, sent by Sailusa, to create the least disturbance in 
Ayodhya, Rajagrha and Bharata’s camp. 

Description of love-lorn women in Ayodhya. 

Chaps. 258-268. — Description of the war between Bharata and 
Sailusa, — a war which resulted in the death of the latter. Description 
of the battle-field. 

Chap. 269. — Bharata’s performance of Visnu’s sayanotsava, and 
jagaranotsava for five days each from Asadha-suklaikadasI and 
Karttika-suklaikadaS respectively; his construction, for his sons 
Puskara and Taksa, of two cities named Puskaravatl and Taksasila on 
both banks of the Sindhu; his return to Ayodhya and worship of 
Visnu. 


Khanda II 

[This Khanda deals with the duties of kings — raja-dharma.] 
Chap. I. — Vajra praises Markandeya for narrating, with various 
other topics, the story of Bharata’s successful war against the 
Gandharvas and requests him to describe what Bhargava Rama heard 
from Varuna after reaching the latter’s region. Markandeya says 
that Rama Jamadagnya first heard from Varuna about measurement of 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


173 


time and then asked him to speak on the duties o£ kings (raja-dhatma), 
that Varuna referred Bhargava Rama to his own son Puskara, who, 
Varuna said, had heard about raja-dharma from Indra, and that, in 
compliance with Varuna’a request, Puskara took Bhargava Rama to his 
own residence. 

Chaps. 2-7. — Being requested by Bhargava Rama, Puskara spoke 
on the following topics: — 

Necessity of a pious and dutiful king for the establishment of law 
and order in the country; various qualifications (such as submission 
to the opinions of ministers and the state-astrologer) that a king must 
possess; selection, to be made by the king’s predecessors as well as 
by the most prominent people of the state, of a worthy member of 
the royal family for the throne;*'** the king’s oath; appointment of 
a qualified Brahmin as state-astrologer (samvatsara) — the first duty of 
the king; qualifications of the state-astrologer, and the king’s sub- 
mission to him; selection of ministers, priest {purohita) and chief 
queen in accordance with the instructions of the state-astrologer; the 
king’s coronation to be performed by the state-astrologer; qualifications 
of the Purohita (who is to be an Atharvan versed in the Yajur-veda 
and the Atharva-veda and to have thorough knowledge of the five 
kalpas, viz., naksatra-kalpa, vaitana-kalpa, samhita-kalpa, ahgirah-kalpa 
and santi-kalpa); necessity of Purohita for peace and prosperity of 
the king; qualifications of ministers, who arc to be Brahmins versed 
in the Vedas and the Nlti-^stras of Brhaspati and Usanas;*** qualifica- 
tions to be possessed by the chief queen. 

Chaps. 8-^ — Auspicious signs of men and women. 

' Chaps. lo-ii. — Characteristic signs of good and bad elephants 
and horses. 

Chaps. 12-14. — Making of a chowry, an umbrella and a holy 
seat (bhadrasana) for the king. 

Chap. 15. — Names and characteristics of jewels to be worn by 
the king. 

*44 See chap. 3, verse 8, and chap. 4, verse i. 

145 See chap. 6 , verse a. 



174 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


Chaps. 16-17. — Construction o£ bows with metals (such as gold, 
silver, copper and steel), horns (of huSalocs, sarab has and other beasts), 
bamboo, wood etc. Construction of arrows, and of swords with steel 
of different countries, viz., Vahga, Surparaka, Vidcha, Ahga etc. 
Characteristics of swords manufactured in these countries. 

Story of the origin of ‘khadga’ (sword) from a divine being named 
Nandaka and of ‘loha’ (steel) from the different limbs of a demon 
named Loha. 

[In connection with the selection of materials for the construction 
of bows, Pu^kara says: 

vamsanam api tac chrestam yatra gahga mahanadi/ 
salanam api tac chrestam gomatl yatra bhargava/ 
vitasta-kulajatn sresthain vetasinam tathaiva ca// 

Chap. 16, verses 14- 15a. 

The countries manufacturing the best arrows are mentioned in tlie 
following lines ; — 

sarah kiratajah sresthah kancipura-samipatah/ 
tebhyo’pi te sresthatamah skanda-janma-samipatah//, 

Chap. 16, verses 2ob-2ia. 

The following verses name the countries producing steel of differ- 
ent qualities for the manufacture of swords S — 

loham pradhanam khadgarthe prasastam tad visesatah/ 
katikadura-rsikain vahge surparakesu ca/ / 
videhesu tathahgesu madhyamain gramacedisu/ 
sahagramesu nipesu tatha kalanjare ’pi ca// 

Chap. 17, verses 2ib-23a.] 

Chaps. 18-23. — On coronation. — Proper time for coronation; per- 
formance of Purandara-^anti; characteristics of fire in which homas 
are to be performed; procedure of coronation; mantras to be used on 
this occasion, — all these mantras being Puranic in character and 
containing invocations to the gods, goddesses (including Durga mount- 
ed on a lion), Dik-palas, Prajapatis, Pitrs, Matrs, wives of Dharma, 
Kasyapa and others, Naksitras, Planets, Manus, Rudras (including 
Dhumaketu, Bharata and Kapali), Sadhyas, Adityas, Matuts, Gandhar- 
vas, Apsarases, Daityas, Danavas, Raksasas, Yaksas, Pisacas, Suparnas 
and others. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


175 


[In some of the mantras given in chap. 22, there is mention of 

(i) Rg-veda, Yajur-deda, Sama-veda, Atharva-veda, Itihasa, 
Dhanurveda, Gandharva-veda, Ayurveda, the six Ahgas (viz., siksa, 
kalpa etc.), Mimamsa, Dharmasastra. Purana, Samkhya, Yoga, Panca- 
ratra, and Pasupata (chap. 22, verses 129-134); 

(ii) a large number of holy places, rivers, lakes etc., the majority 
of which belongs to the western and north-western parts of Northern 
India (chap. 22, verses 142-184). 

It is to be noted that the names of the rivers include the 
following S— Sindhu (mentioned thrice), Sarasvati, Satadru, Gomatl 
(mentioned twice), Sarayu, Vipasa, Candrabhaga, Iravatl, Vitasta, 
Devika (mentioned twice) and Iksumati. 

Kausiki and Karatoya also have been mentioned.] 

Praise of tlrthas. 

Chaps. 24-25. — The first and the most important duty of a newly 
crowned king. — Selection of qualified persons for the posts of generals 
(who should be Brahmins or Ksatriyas), messengers (who should know 
the local dialects), body-guards, tambula-dharin, sandhi-vigrahaka, 
khadga-dharin, kosa-dharin, sarathi, sudadhyaksa, cooks, judge, scribe 
{lekhaka), gate-keeper, gajadhyaksa, asvadhyaksa, durgadhyaksa etc. 
Conduct of these officers towards the king. 

Chaps. 26-27. — Selection of proper place for residence; construc- 
tion of forts (viz., dhanva-durga, maht-durga, nara-durga, varksa-durga^ 
ambu-durga and giri-durga) and furnishing these with houses, means 
of protection, herbs etc. 

Chaps. 28-32. — Protection of the king from poison etc. Science 
of house-building (vastu-vidya). Directions about gardening and plan- 
tation. Building of temples, and making provisions for the worship 
of different deities. Praise of ren dering service and making gifts to 
Brahmins; and g lorification of Brahmins as superior to, and more 
powerful than, gods. 

Chaps. 33-41. — On the conduct and duties of women. — 

Praise of chaste women, and the protection to be given to them by 
the state. 

Duties of a chaste woman. — She is to live under the guardianship 
of her father, husband or sons. She is not to take to magic (mula- 



176 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


karma) for any reason whatsoever. In case she becomes a widow, she 
is to die by mounting the funeral pyre of her deceased husband**® or 
remain devoted to him without marrying for the second time. A wife, 
who dies in the above-mentioned way, is said to have a very happy 
future. If a widow has none on her husband’s side, she is to be 
maintained by her father or some other relative on her father’s side. — 
Chap. 34. 

Duties of women continued. — Their worship of Sri, Asokika, 
Chando-deva, vastu-devata, Visnu, a cow with a calf, the constella- 
tions called Krttika and RohinI, Karttika, Gauri and Narlyana. — 
Chap. 35. 

Story of Savitri, narrated elaborately to exemplify the power of a 
devoted wife. — Chaps. 36-41. 

Chaps. 42-44. — On cows. — ^Sanctity of cows; praise of service to 
cows; medical treatment of various diseases of cows (viz., those of the 
eyes, teeth, mouth, heart etc.); description of rites (santi-karma) and 
measures for the welfare of cows in normal times as well as in various 
kinds of crises. 

Chaps. 45-50 — On horses and elephants. — Necessity of these to 
kings; medical treatment of various diseases of these animals; descrip- 
tion of rites (viz., asva-'santi and gaja.santi) and measures for their 
welfare. 

Chaps. 51-60. — Necessity of man-power to the king. Directions 
about the selection of persons for helping the king in his work of 
public administration. — Chap. 51. 

Medical treatment of females, so that they may give birth to 
numerous healthy sons. 

Nursing and medical treatment of children from their very birth. 

1 46 pati-vrata tu ya nari saha bbartra divam gata / 

kalpavaiesatn mudita pujyate thdaialaye/ j 
(chap. 34, verse 4i)» and 

mrtam bhartaram adaya yadi vatha pati-vrata/ 
pravised dvija-sardula )vaiitatn jatavedasam// 
tisrah kotyo ’rdha-koti ca yani lomani manave/ 
tavanty eva latabdani svarga-Iokc tnahiyate/ / 
and so on (chap. 3^}, verses 47!!.). 



177 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

Use o£ herbs and perEormance o£ various rites for their welfare. Per- 
formance of other rites and sacraments, viz., jata-karma, karna-vedha, 
niskramana, anna-prasana^*- and vidyarambha.^*® — Chap. 52. 

Rites and vows (viz., Rohinl-snana, Saptami-vrata^-® and Astaml- 
vrata) to ensure the birth of male children. — Chaps. 53-55 • 

Symptoms and medical treatment of various diseases of males. — 
Chap. 56. 

Description of ceremonial baths and vows (viz., Satabhisa-snana, 
Arogya-dvitIya-vrata,*®“ Arogya-pratipad^®* and Arogya-vrata) meant 
especially for ensuring freedom from diseases. — Chaps. 57-60. 

Chap. 61. — On raja-dharma. — Appointment of administrative 
officers, viz., gramddhipati, dasa-gramadhipa, sata-grdmddhipa and 
visayesvara, whose activities are to be keenly observed through spies. 

Benefits of good administration. Protection of subjects especially 
from the tyranny of Kayasthas.^®* Necessity of financial strength. 
Mention of the manifold avenues of income (viz., revenues, taxes, 
mines etc ). Laws about treasure-troves, lost articles, inherited property 
and stolen goods. Rates of taxation on various kinds of indigenous 
and foreign goods. Protection to be given by kings to Srotriya Brah- 
mins. 

Chap, 62. — Necessity of females in life. The king’s duties to 
the inmates of his harem.. 

Chaps. 63-6^. — Directions about the preparation of food and 
perfumes. 

Chap. 65. — Education and protection of princes: general conduct 

147 Chap. 52, verses 102-109. This rite includes the testing of the future 
tendency of the child by means of books, weapons, wares etc. 

148 Chap. 52, verses 123(1. At the beginning of this ceremony, Hari, 
LaKsrai, Sarasvati and the Sutrakaras are to be worshipped. 

*49 f** this vrata the Sun is to be worshipped. 

150 In this vrata the Moon is to be worshipped at night. 

* 5 i In this vrata the Sun is to be worshipped. 

*52 bhaksyamanah praja taksyah kayasthais ca visesatah. — Verse 29. 

For an idea of the tyranny of the Kayasthas in Kashmir see Ksemendra’s 
Kala-vilasa, Narma-mala and Dewpadesa, and Kalhana’s Rajataraugini, iv. 90 
and 6aiff.,'vii, 1226, and viii. 131 and 85-11^. 

23 


178 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


of a successful ruler; his duties towards his friends and foes; benefits 
of good deliberation and of maintenance of its secrecy. 

Chaps. 66-71. — Praise of furusakara (enterprise). Proper applica- 
tion of the expedients, viz., sama (which is classified into ‘tathya and 
'atathya), bheda, dana and danda. The king’s possession of certain 
divine capacities, viz., those of the Sun, the Moon, the Wind, the son 
of Vivasvat (i.e. Yama), Varuna and others. 

Chap. 72. — Occasions for application of danda . — Laws about 
inheritance of property, unclaimed articles, stolen goods, witnesses, 
mortgaged property, deposits, contract, purchase, marriage, boundary, 
defamation, criminal assault, theft, adultery, prostitution, holy days, 
gambling, prize-fighting, labour, embankments, taking of forbidden 
food, etc.; and nature of punishment in case of violation of these laws. 

Chap. 73. — Occasions for application of danda . — Rules of expia- 
tion (prayascitta) for sin caused by food, killing of animals, theft etc.; 
and punishment for violation of these rules. 

Chap. Methods of performance of various kinds of rahasya- 
frayascitta. 

Chaps. 73-76. — Determination of the periods of impurity (asauca) 
caused by births and deaths; cremation and other attendant rites (such 
as oEEer of food and water to the deceased, consolation of the bereaved 
relatives, and so on); purification of things (dravya-suddhi). 

Chaps. 80-82. — Duties of the four castes. Origin, nature, and 
duties of the mixed castes (viz., Candala, Magadha, Ayogava, Vaidc- 
haka, Suta, Pukkasa and others). Profession of the members of the 
four castes in times of extreme distress (apad-dharma); rules about 
interest and agriculture.**’ 

Chaps. 83-8^. — Description of ceremonial baths, viz., Purvasadha- 
snana (meant for profit in trade) and Mula-snana (for gain in agricul- 
ture). 

Chaps. 85-86. — Rules to be observed during cohabitation with the 
wife to ensure the birth of a male child; description of the different 
sacraments (samskara). Duties of a student. 

Chap. 87. — Marriage. — Intercaste marriage — permissible in the 


153 For directions about agriculture see chap. 82, verses 13(1, 



179 


T|HE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

descending order of castes; relative position of the wives of different 
castes: disapprobation of the acceptance of sulka (nuptial fee); remarri- 
age of women;*®* forms of marriage; method of accepting the girls of 
different castes; auspicious time for marriage; rules about adhivedana; 
and so on. 

Description of the method of worshipping Saci before celebrating 
a marriage ceremony,*®® 

Chaps. 88-1 1 o. — Daily duties of a householder, viz., answering 
the call of nature, cleansing the mouth, bathing etc. Various pre- 
scriptions and prohibitions for a householder. — Chaps, 88-89. 

Method of worshipping Visnu, and selection of flowers for the 
purpose. — Chaps. 90-91. 

Performance of Vaisvadeva; offer of food to the manes; giving 
of fodder to cows; reception of guests; gifts of various things jo g uests. | 
— Chap. 92. 

Instructions about taking food and sleeping. Performance of 
‘panca-mahayajna’ as well as of other sacrifices.— Chaps. 93'95- 

Description of ceremonial baths (viz., Krttika-snana, Ardra-snana, 
Sravana-snana, Janmarksa-snana, Dikpala-snana, Vinayaka-snana, 
Mahesvara-snana etc.) and of special worship of Visnu under particular 
Naksatras and on special occasions for the accomplishment of desired 
objects, such as destruction of one’s enemies, freedom from diseases, 
and so on. — Chaps. 96-1 10. 

Chaps, 111-123. — On karma-vipdka . — Results of sinful acts such 
as murder, theft, etc. Description of birth of creatures (with a dis- 
course on bboga-deha and the origin of the foetus. — Chaps. 1 1 2-1 14). 

>54 naste mrte pravrajite klibe ’tha patite ’patau/, 

pancasv apatsu narinam patir anyo vidhiyate// (II. 87. 11). 

This verse occurs again in Visnudb. III. 329 and is the same as Patasara-smrti 
4 . 30, Both in Visnudh. Ill, 329 (verse 14) and Parasara-smrti,- chap, 4 it 
reads 'patite patau’. 

155 See verses 2 iff. During this worship, an image of Sad is to be con- 
structed with earth, taken with great ccreinOny to the side of a river or a lake 
by such women as have their husbands living, and worshipped for three days. 
While taking the image to the place of worship, these women are to wear ted 
clothes and carry arms in their hands. 



180 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Description of the structure of the human body (chap. 1 1 5). Passing 
of the soul out of the body, and the dissolution of the latter into the 
five elements; description of the region of the dead — preta-loka (chap. 
1 1 6). Actions (viz., the due performance of one’s duties, abstention 
from wine, meat etc., donation of various things, and so on) that lead 
to heaven; and actions leading to hell. — Chaps. 117-S. 

Names and description of hells; results of stealing different articles. 
— Chaps. iip-i2t. 

Actions that enable people to get over difficulties. Description of 
various kinds of expiatory penances, viz., Candrayana, Santapana, 
Taptakrcchra, Krcchratikrcchra etc. — Chaps. 122-3. 

Chaps. 12^-129 — Praise of muttering the Gayatrland the different 
Suktas of the Rgveda. Method of performing vasikarana, uccatana 
etc. with the use of mantras of the Yajurveda. Attainment of different 
objects by muttering different mantras of the Sama-veda and the 
Atharva-veda and performing bomas with these. Praise of the ^rl-sukta 
and the Purusa-sukta, and their use in homas. 

Chaps. 130-131, — Duties of vanaprasthas and sarnnyasins. 

Chaps. 132-133.— Mention of various kinds of Atliarvana santi 
(purificatory rite) meant for the accomplishment of various objects. 

Chaps. i34-iz}4. — Various kinds of heavenly, atmospheric and 
terrestrial omens (utpata), as described by Vrddha-garga to Atri. 

Chaps. 145-130. — Mention of the seven tfngdj of a kingdom, 
viz., sama, dana, durga, kosa, danda, mitra and janapada; description 
of a circle of kings (raja-mandala) consisting of vijigisu, ari, mitra, 
parsnigraha, akranda etc. 

Description and application of prakasa and aprakasa danda; 
occasion for upeksi; terrifying the enemies by creating artificial 
omens, shouting, taking to magic, and by various other means; 
explanation and application of sadgunya. 

Chap. 151.—- Daily duties of kings, viz., meeting the spies, 
hearing about the income and expenditure, answering the call of 
nature, and so on (including hearing of disputes and deliberation witlij 
ministers). 

Chaps. 152-158. Religious rites to be performed by the king. 
Description of Visnu-worship for four months (caturmasya-vidhi); 



181 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

worship of Indra’s banner (sakra-dhvaja), which Visnu gave to the 
gods after the latter’s defeat in a war with the demons and which was 
worshipped by king Vasu and others according to the directions of 
Garga; worship of Bhadrakall in a picture on Asvina-sukla-navaml. 

Chaps. 159-161. — Description of nlrajana-santi. Mantras of 
chatra, asva, dhvaja etc., and Ghrta-kambala-santi, as described by 
Parasara to Galava. 

Chap. 162. — Annual coronation of the king. 

Chaps. 165-165. — Proper time for marching against enemies. 
Omens indicating good or evil in marches. Determination of the 
king’s good or evil from questions etc. 

Chaps. 166-17^. — On astrology and astronomy. — Position of 
planets and scars, and their influence on the life and activity of the 
king; astronomical calculations (including measurement of planets 
and stars). 

[All these chapters are written in prose, and in these, Brahma 
speaks to Bhrgu. 

Towards the beginning of chap. 166 the former says to the 
latter: “When, at the beginning of the Kalpa, you were born from 
my heart, I told you about the movements of the luminaries in 

twenty-four lacs of verses 1 shall repeat all these very 

briefly 

The colophon of chap. 174 is followed by the words ‘samaptam 
paitamaha-siddhantam’.] 

Chaps. 175-176. — Determination of proper time for starting 
against enemies. Rites (such as worship of Vinayaka and other 
deities, performance of jaya-snana or bath for victory, consecration of 
weapons, and so on) to be performed before and during the start; 
the king’s conduct in the land of his enemies. 

Chap. 177. — Preliminaries of war (viz., bathing of elephants and 

156 See Visnudh. II. 166 — ...sribrahmanam bhrgur vijnapayamasa — bhaga- 
van jyotisam ayanain srotutn iceb^i/ tam uvaca bbagavan pitamabah/ yada me 
tvam kalpadau hrdayaj jatas tada inaya te slokaiiam caturvimsati-laksam jyotir- 
ayanam uktam tad evasmin varune yajne mahadeva-sapena jvalaffi bhittva vinir- 
gatasya janmantarotpaiinasya atisamksiptam vaksyami/ tacchrutva sarvam eva te 
purva-janmabhibitam jyotir-jnanam avirbbavbyati/ 



182 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


horses, worship of Nrsimha, and so on). Philosophy and method of 
war (with the names of vyuhas and the mention of the dexterity of 
people of different countries in different types of war);*®^ praise of 
death in war; duty of the king after attainment of victory. 

Chaps. 178-183. — On dhanurveda (including use of khadga, prasa, 
sula etc, in war, and dressing of horses and elephants for the same 
purpose). 

Khanda III. 

Chap. I. — Vajra’s enquiry about the means of attaining happiness 
here and hereafter; and Markandeya’s praise of the worship of deities 
m sacriRces, on the one hand, and of the observance of fasts, vows etc., 
on the other. 

Praise of worship of deities in beautiful images constructed in 
accordance with the principles of painting (citrasutra-vidhanena) 

Chap. 2. — Being requested by Vajra to speak on the art of paint- 
ing (citrasutram) Markandeya says that knowledge of painting is 
dependent on that of dancing, knowledge of dancing rests on that of 
instrumental music (atodya), and the science of instrumental music is 
dependent on that of vocal music (gita), and that one, who is versed 
in the science of vocal music, can master all the rest.*®* 

157 See verses 4 o- 43 a — 

(iaksinatyas ca vijneyah ktisalah khadga-varminah/ 
vahkala dhanvino jneyah parvatiyas tathaiva ca// 
pasana-yuddha-kusalas tatha parvata-vasinah/ 
pancalah iurasenas ca rathesu kusala narah/ / 
kamboja ye ca gandhar^ kusalas te haycsu ca/ 
prayasas ca tatha tnleccha vijneyah pasa-yodhinah// 
ahga vangah kalihgas ca jneya matahga-yodhinali/ 

158 Verses 3b-7 — 

vini tu nrtya-sastrena citrasutram sudutvidam/ 
jagato na kriya karya dvayor api yato nrpa// 

atodyam yo na janati tasya nrttam hi durvidam/ 
atodyena vina nrttam vidyatc na kathamcana/ / 

na gitena vina sakyam jnatum atodyam apy uta/ 
gita-sastra-vidhanajnah sarvam vctti yathavidhi// 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


183 


Going to speak on glia-sastra Markandeya refers to the following 
topics: — composition of songs (i) in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabhrainsa 
and various local dialects and (ii) in prose and verse;*®* classification of 
verses into vrtta and matrika according to the nature of their metres:**® 
mention of some points on grammar, viz., use of sabda-vibhaktis, men- 
tion and use of different persons, and so on. 

Chap. 3. — Mention of the following vrttas (with the number of 
syllables in a quarter) : — Gayatra, Usnik, Anustubh, Brhati, Pahkti, 
Tristubh, Jagati, Atijagatl, Sakvarl, Atisakvarl, Asti, Atyasti, Vrtti, 
Ativrtti, Krti, Prakrti, Akrti, Vikrti, Samkrti, Vikrti(?)and Atikrti.*®* 
Rules about reckoning the syllables as laghu or g«r«. Characteristics 
of Nivrt (?), Tamat (?), Virat and Sura; and the origin of the diff- 
erent types of matra-cchanddh (or metres regulated by the numbers of 
syllabic instants).**® 

Chaps. 4-6. — Characteristics of the speeches of gods, sages. 


159-160 Verses 9-11 — 

samskrtam prakrtain caiva gitam dvividham ucyate/ 
apabhrastatn trtiyam ca tad anantain naradhipa/ / 
desa-bhasa-visesena tasyanto neha vidyate/ 
gitam patha-vaiaj jneyam sa ca patho dvidha matah/ / 
gadyam padyam ca dharmajna gadyain samkathaya smrtam/ 
padyam chando-visesena cchandas ca bahiidha bhavet/ / 
gadya-padyaaubhavena jneyau laksana-samyutau/ 
padyam ca dvividhatn tatra suvrttam atimuktakam/ / 

161 Verses 8b-9a — 

samkrtis caika-satpyukta kathita vikrtir nrpa/ 
sadvitnsatis catikrtis chandai coktain manisibhih/ / 

The text of this verse is obviously corrupt. According to the Chaiido-manjari 
and the Vrtta-ratnakara, Atikrti has 25 syllables in a quarter and Utkrti has 26. 

162 Verses 17-19 — 

matncchandas tathaiva hi/ 
uktavarnaksaram chando bhaved eka-vivarjitah/ /, 
yada tada nivrt-samjno hy adhikena tamat tatha/ 
varna-dvayena rahitatn virad id hi fabditam/ /. 
adhikam ca sura-samjnam kathitam yadu-sattama/ 
tebhyo bhavanti sarvani matra-cchandainsi yadava/ / 



184 


STUDIES IN THE UPAEURANAS 


demons etc. Definition**® and classification of siitras', characteristics of 
their explanation; different kinds of framana; meaning of ‘apta’ and 
‘apta-vacanabhasa’; and so on. 

Explanation of the terms 'adhikarana,’ ‘yoga’, ‘padartha,’ ‘hetvar- 
tha,’ ‘uddesa’, ‘arthapatti’ etc. 

Chap. j . — Characteristics of Prakrit. 

This chapter ends with the following two verses; — 

dimatram etad uddistain madhya prakrta-laksanam/ 
prayogad anukartavyo vistaro hy ativistarah/ / 

desesu desesu prthag vibhinnam na sakyate laksanatas tu vaktum/ 

lokesu yat syad apabhrasta-sarnjnarn jneyam hi tad-desavido 

’dhikaram / / 

Chaps. 8-13. — Sanskrit vocabulary. — 

List of synonymous words denoting various divine beings, division 
of time, rivers, men etc. 

Lists of feminine, masculine and neuter words. 

Chaps. 14-16. — On poetics (alarnkara) — 

Definition of anuprasa, and limitation in its use;’®* definition and 
use’®* of yamaka, and its classification into samdastaka and samudga', 
definitions of rdpaka, vyatireka, slesa, utpreksd, arthantara-nyasa, upa- 
nydsa, vibhdvand, ati'sayokti, svabhdvokti, yathd-samkhya, visesokti, 
virodha, nindd-stuti, nidarsana etc. — Chap. 14. 

[In some of the verses there are references to older authorities on 
poetics. — See Chap. 14, verse 7 — utpreksakhyo hy alatnkarah kathitah 
sa puratanaih; verse 1 2 — yathisarnkhyam iti proktam alatnkarah pura- 
tanaih; and verse 15 — ananvayakhyain kathitam puranaih » • *.] 

Definitions of ‘itihasa’ and ‘kavya’. 

Definition and characteristics of ‘mahakavya’ (which should 
163 Chap. 5, verse i — 

alpaksaram asamdigdham saravad viivatomukham/ 

astobham anavadyam ca sutram sutravido viduh// 

164 Chap, 14, verse 2a — 

atyartham tat krtain rajan gramyat^ upagacchati/ 

(tat = anuprasain). 

165 Chap. 14, verse 4a — 

samasta-pada-yamakatn duskaram parikirdtam/ 



185 


THE MAjOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

contain description of towns, countries etc. and have a nayaka and a 
fratinayaka, but should not describe the death of the nayaka^^^^ 

Defects in poetical composition. 

Delineation of nine Rasas in Mahakavyas, viz., srngara, hasya, 
karuna, raudra, vlra, bhayanaka, btbhatsa, adhhuta and sdnta . — 
Chap. 1 5. 

PraheliUas (Riddles). — Classification of Prahehkas into those which 
are faulty (dosah) and those which are faultless. Names and definitions 
of the Prahelikas of the second type, viz., samdgatd^ vandita,^*^ 
vrttdnta-gopikd, duhkhitd, parihdsikd, samdna-mpd, parusd, samkhydtd, 
kalpitd, ndmdntaritd, nihhrtd, samana-sabdd, vydmudhd, gucchd,^** 
eka-cchannd, ubhaya-cchannd, hahu-cchannd and samkirnd. 

Further classification of Prahelikas into vyabhicdrint, nastdrthd, 
nastdksard, varnabhrastd and lesdkhyd. 

Restriction on the iiseof even the faultless Prahelikas.**® — Chap. 16, 

Chaps. 17-31. — On dramaturgy. — 

Mention of ’Purana’ as having four Padas (viz., Prakriya, Upod- 
ghata, Anusahga and Samhara) and five characteristics (^panca~ 
l^ksana—sarga, pratisarga, vam'sa, manvantara and vamsdnucarita). 

Origin of dramas;**® general form of dramas;*** classification of 

166 Chap. 15, verses 7b-8a — 

pratinayaka-ghatas tu vaktavyo netarasya tu/ 
nayakasya maharaja maranatn naiva varnayet/ / 

*67 The name ‘varjica’ (for ‘vandita’^ occurs in the Dacca Univ. Ms 
(No. fol. lob) of the Visnudharmottara. 

168 The Dacca Univ. Ms (No. .}66o. fol. lob) reads ‘gudhakhya’ for 

‘gucchakhya’. 

•^9 Chap. 16, verse 2 — 

flokenaikena va dvabhyam kartavya tu narottama/ 
na kartavyas ca ta rajan bahu-floka-nibandhan^i/ / 

* 7 ° Chap. 17, verse 7 — 

itihasanusarena purananain samiksitam/ 
caritam tridasanatn va natakain tatra kirtitam// 

* 7 * In this connection the following verses are to be noted : — 
bahu-daivatikam vrttam karcavyam tu prave&kam/ 
samksepoktis ca kartavya kartavyo na hi vistarah// 
prakhyata-nayaka-vadhain na ca tatra pravesayet/ 
tasya prakasanam karyain ahkc’py eva naradhipa / / 


24 



186 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


dramas into 12 varieties, viz., Nataka, Natika, Prakarana,^’® PrakaranI, 
Utsrstikanka,^^® Bhana,*- Samavakara, Ihamrga, Vyayoga, VlthI, 
Dima and Prahasana;^^® characteristics of these varieties; use of Sans- 
krit, Prakrit and Apabhrasta (i.e. Apabhtamsa) in dramas; peculiarities 
(as regards names etc.) of different characters; characteristics of the 
eight types of nayikas (nayikastaka-laksanam), viz., vasa-sajja, virahot- 
kanthita, svadhina-bhartrka, kalahantarita, khandita, vipralabdha, 
prosita-bhartrka, and abhisarika;*^® delineation of the nine Rasas inclu- 
ding sdnta^^^ in dramas. — Chap. ij. 

Characteristics of different kinds of vocal music (gita-laksanam); 
names of particular types of vocal music which are appropriate to the 
nine Rasas (including Santa.) — Chap. 18. 

Classification and characteristics of instrumental music (atodya); 
employment of particular types of instrumental music in the cases of 
the nine Rasas (including Santa). — Chap. ig. 

Dancing and acting. — Definition of ndtya; necessity of nrtta in 
theatrical performances; classification of nrtta', construction of the 

nayakabhyudayah karyo napkante tathaiva ca/ 
bahvyo’pi nayika yatra casam api tatha bhavet// 

Chap. 17, verses 16-18. 

172 Chap. 17, verses 1 98-21 — 

krtam prakaranaip tadvat svayam utpadya vastuna// 
br^mano nayakas tatra vanik ca nrpa-sattama/ 
evam prakarani karya catur-ahkapi sa bhavet / / 
itihasanubandho va svayam utpadya va krtah/ 
bharati-karuna-prayo nivrttam samanantarara/ / 

173 The Dacca Univ. Ms (No. 4669, fol. i ib) reads 'utsrsukahkah’. where- 
as the printed edition has 'catustay^kah'. 

174 The printed edition reads ‘pranah’ for ‘bhanah’ of the Univ. Ms 
(fol. iib). 

175 According to the Na^a-sastta, Prahasanas are divided into Bhanas and 

yithis. 

176 The line ‘kantopasarpana-manas tatha jneyabhisarika’, mentioning ‘abhi- 
sarika’, is wanting in the printed edition but occurs in the Dacca Univ, Ms 
(fol. 12b). 

177 Chap. 17, verse 61 — 

srhgara-hasya-karuna-vira-raudra-bhayanakah/ 
bibhatsadbhuta santakhya nava natya-rasah smrtah// 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


187 


stage; religious rites preceding and following a theatrical performance; 
description of the different modes of abhinaya, viz, aharya, sattvika, 
vaeika and aiigika; description of ahgaharas, karanas, sirah-karmans, 
rasa-drstis, hasta-vyavasthas, anga-racana (by means of paints), samanya- 
bhinaya, gati-laksanas etc. — Chaps. 20-29. 

Treatment of the nine Rasas (including Santa)'-® to be delineated 
in dramas. — Chap. 30. 

Description of the 49 bhavas (including nirveda),^^^ and their 
relation to the different Rasas. — Chap. 31. 

[Chaps. 17-31 are based on Bharata’s Natya-sastra.] 

Chaps. 32-34. — In these chapters Markandcya professes to speak 
‘briefly on nrtya-sdstra.' The topics dealt with in these chapters are 
as follows:' — 

Names and description of the v.irious mudras to be performed in 
dancing. — Chaps. 32-33. 

Story of the origin of dancing (nrtt.a) from Visnu. — Being eulo- 
gised by Brahma to kill the demons Madhu and Kaitabha, Visnu left 
his bed, moved gracefully on the ocean, and thus created the art of 
dancing, by which, he said, one can imitate the three worlds.**® 

178 For santa-rasa see chap, 30, verses i-za — 

hasya-whgara-kacuna-raudra-vira-bbayatiakah/ 
bibhats-adbhuta-santakhya nava natye rasah smrtah// 
iaiito rasah svatantro’tra prthag eva vyavasthitah/ 

verse 4a — 

santa-svabhava-varnas tu rasah prokto naradhipa/ 
and verses 8b- 1 1 a — 

santasya devo vijfieyah parah purusa eva tu/ / 
iintasya tu samutpattir nrpa vairagyatah smrta/, 
sa cabhineyo bhavati iihga-grahanatas tatha/ / 
sarva-bhuta-daya-dhyana-moksa-marga-pravartanaih/ 
nasti yatra sukham duhkham na dveso napi matsarah/ / 
samah sarvesu bhutesu sa santah prathito rasah/ 

For mention of nirveda, see verse 16. 

179 Chap. 31, verse iib — 

daridry-esta-vinaie ca nirvedo nama jayate/, 

180 Chap 34, verse 17b — 

trailokasy-anukaranam nrtte devi pratinhitam/ 



188 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Visnu then killed the demons and imparted the dance, thus created 
by him, to Brahma. The latter, in his turn, imparted it to Rudra; and 
Rudra worshipped Visnu with it. 

Praise of worshipping deities with dance; denouncement of the use 
of dance for earning one’s livelihood. Benefits of dancing, as mention- 
ed in verses 30^31 of Chap. 3/} — 

Isvaranam vilasam tu cartanam duhkha nasanam/ 
mudhanam upadesam tat strTnarn saubhagya-vardhanam// 
santikain paustikain kamyam vasudevena nirmitam// — 

Chaps. 35-43. — Markandeya’s speech on Citrasutra (i. e. the art 
of painting)*®*. — First invention of the art of painting by Narayana, 
who created Urvasi after painting her figure on the surface of the 
earth with the juice of a sahakara tree and taught this new art to 
Visvakarman; close relation of painting with dancing; classification 
of males into hamsa, bhadra, malavya, rucaka and sasaka, and the 
description and measurement of the different parts of their body; 
division of females into five classes; description of the method of 
wall-painting; preparation of dyes ; classification of paintings into 
satya, vainika, ndgara and miha\ peculiarities, in dress etc., of 
different deities, demons, human beings, prostitutes, warriors and 
others; representation of the sky, mountains, woods, water, seasons, 
evening, darkness etc., as well as of the nine Rasas (including Santa) 
through painting; selection of places where pictures representing the 
different sentiments may be placed;*®® types of pictures to be kept in 
houses, palaces etc.; praise of painting; relation of painting with 
clay-modelling. 

[ Chap. 43 ends with the words ‘samaptarn citrasutram’. ] 

181 On this highly interesting section sec Stella Kramrisch in Calcutta 
Review, February 1924, pp. 33 iff., and ]outnal of the Department of Letters 
(Calcutta University), Vol, XI, 1924. 

182 Chap. 43, verses 11-13 — 

srhgara-hasya-santyakha lekhaniya grhesu te// 
para-sesa na k.irtavya kadacid api kasyacit/ 
deva-vesmani kartavya rasah sarve nrpalaye/ / 
raja-vesmani no karya rajham vasa-grhesu te / 
sabha-vesmasu kartavya rajh^ sarva-rasa grhe/ / 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


189 


Chaps. — Markandeya’s speech on the construction of 

images of deities. — Characteristics of images of the Triad (triinurti) 
Brahma, Visnu and Rudra (chap. 44). Construction of a lotus with 
gold, silver, copper or brass for worshipping the intended deity on it 
(chap. 45). 

Causes and benefits of image-worship (chap. 46, verses 1-6). 

Description, ’ and occasional explanation, of the images of Brahma, 
Visnu (having four faces and eight hands), Mahesvara (having five 
faces and ten hands), the two Nasatyas, Indra-and-^aci (who are said 
to be the same as Visnu and Laksml respectively), Yama (who is 
accompanied by Citragupta and Kala and is the same as Sanikarsana), 
Varuna (with Gahga and Yamuna at his sides), Dhanada (i.e. Kuvera), 
Garuda, Tala, Makara, Siva (having one face and four hands and with 
Parvatl at his side), Agni-and-Svaha, Virupaksa, Vayu-and-Siva, Bhai- 
rava, Visnu (having one face and two hands), Mali! (the Earth, having 
four hands and being attended with four quarter-elephants), Gagana 
(the Sky, having two hands and holding the sun and the moon in 
them), Brahma-and-Savitri, Sarasvatl (having four hands), Ananta 
(having four hands and numerous hoods and holding the earth on the 
middlemost hood), Tumburu (with Jaya and Vijaya on his right side 
and with Jayanti and Aparajita on his left), Surya (the Sun, who has 
four hands and beautiful beards and wears a coat and a girdle called 
‘aviyanga’,'*^ and who is lion-bannered and is attended by Dandin 
and Pihgala, as well as either by his four sons named Revanta, Yama, 
Vaivasvata Manu and Savarni Manu and his four wives Rajni, Riksubha, 
Chaya and Suvarcasa or by the other planets), Candra (the Moon),**^ 
the Planets, Manus, Kumara (and his other forms, viz., Skanda, 
Visakha and Guha), Bhadrakali (having eighteen hands and mounting 
a chariot drawn by four lions), Brahma (mounted on a swan), Vinayaka 
(having four hands and the head of an elephant), Visvakarman (having 
two hands and carrying a sarndamsa in one of them), V^asus, Visvedc- 
vas, Rudras, Sadhyas, Adityas, Maruts, multifarious divine and scmi- 

183 ‘Aviyanga’ (or ‘avyahga’) is the name of the girdle originally worn by 
Magi priests of ancient Persia. In the Avesta it is called Aivyaonghen. 

i8q For datailed description of the image of the Moon, see chap. 68. 



190 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


divine beings (viz., Kasyapa, Kasyapa’s wives, Dhruva, Agastya, 
Bbrgus, Jayanta, Bala, Puskara, Jyotsna, Nalakubara, Manibbadra, 
Vayu-putia, Soma-suta, Nandin, Virabhadra and Artha; Kamadeva 
and bis four wives; some female deities such as Sarasvatl, VarunI, 
Camunda, Suska, Siva-duti and others; Kala, Jvara, and Dhanvantari; 
the presiding deities of the individual Vedas, Sadahgas, and various 
other sastras, viz., dharmasastra, itihasa, nrtta-sdstra, fdncaratra, pdsu- 
pata etc.), Linga, Vyoman, Nara-and-Narayana (with a fruit-bearing 
baddri tree standing between them), Dharma (having four faces, four 
hands, four legs, and a wliite complexion), Nrsimha, Varaha, Haya- 
griva (having eight hands), Padma-nabha (Visnu), LaksmI (having two 
hands and being attended with two elephants holding two pitchers), 
Visvarupa (Hari), Aiduka (representing the universe as well as Brahma, 
Visnu and Mahesvara), Vasudeva, Satnkarsana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, 
Matsya, Kiirma, Bhargava Rama, Rama Dasarathi and his brothers, 
Valmiki, the five Pandavas, Draupadi, DevakI, Yasoda, Krsna, 
Balarama, RukminI, Satyabhama, Samba and others, — Chaps, 46-85. 

Chaps. 86-95. — Building of temples. — Description of different 
types of temples (such as Sarvatobhadra etc.) meant for different deities 
(chaps. 86-88); the architect’s selecting, cutting and bringing of wood 
and stone from forests and mountains respectively for the construction 
of temples (chaps. 89-90); method of preparing bricks (chap. 91); 
composition of cement (ch. 92); selection and purification of sites 
for the construction of temples; special marks and flags for the 
temples of different deities (chaps. 93-95). 

Chaps. 96-1 17.— Consecration (pratistha) of an image*” of Visnu. 
Determination of proper time of consecration. Detailed description of 
the method of consecration ( — initiation of the consecrator; perform- 
ance of torana-nyasa; preparation of panca-gavya; purification of the 
image; performance of adhivasa; summoning of the principal deity 
with his attendants; performance of hotna and of the ceremony of 

185 In explaining the necccssity of summoning Visnu although he pervades 

the universe, Markandeya supports image-worship thus ; 

adau krtva mahabhaga sakafe laksa-bandhanam/ 
tatah samartho bhavati sunye dbyane narottama// 

Chap. ro8, verses 266-273. 



191 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 

awakening the Bhagavat (bhagavad-vibodhflna); bathing and anointing 
the Bhagavat; offer oE various things to the deity; worship oE the deity 
according to Vedic and Sattvata methods; taking out the image in 
procession. 

Chaps. 118-125. — Results oE, and occasions Eor, worshipping 
Visnu’s different maniEestations'®® and muttering their names; proper 
time and places^®^ oE such worship and muttering. 

Chaps. 126-225. — Description oE various Vratas, viz., Brahmi 
Pratipad, Trimurti-vrata, Paurust Pratipad, Prakrti-Purusa-vrata, 
Nasatya-dvitiya-vrata, Balendu-dvirlya-vrata, Asunya-sayana-dvitlya- 
vrata, Trivikrama-trtiya-vrata (oE three varieties), Visnu-trimurti-vrata, 
Visnu-caturmurti-vrata (oE EiEteen varieties), Panca-murti-vrata (oE Eour 
varieties), Sanmurti-vrata, Sapta-murti-vrata, Patala-vrata, Sapta-dvipa- 
vrata, Sapta-samudra-vrata, Sapta-saiia-vrata, Sapta-loka-vrata, Sapta- 
nadl-vrata, Sapta-hrada-vrata, Saptarsi-vrata, Marud-vrata, Surya-vrata 
(with the mention oE the names oE those who Eollow the Sun in the 
different months), (Saura-)-Saptaml-vrata, (Saura-) Rakta-saptami-vrata, 
Astavasu-vrata, Mahesvarastaml-vrata, Parvatastami-vrata, Bhadrakali- 
vrata, Visvedeva-vrata, Ahgiro-vrata, Dharma-vrata, Rudra-vrata, 
Bhrgu-vrata, Sadhya-vrata, Dvadasaditya-vrata, Kamadeva-vrata, Dhana- 
vrata, Vayu-vrata, Virupaksa-vrata, Yama-vrata, Mahesvara-vrata, Pitr- 
vrata, Vahni-vrata, Candra-vrata, Paurnamasi-vrata, Varuna-vrata, 
Sakra-vrata, Brahmakurca-vrata, Mahavrata, Roca-vrata, etc. 

The deities, to be worshipped in these Vratas, are called the diff- 
erent Eorms oE Visnu. 

In chaps. 2 15-220 Markandcya reports to Vajra what Pulastya 
said to Dalbhya about the procedure oE some Vratas. These six 
chapters Eorm a distinct section ending with the words ‘satnaptah 
pulastya-dalbhya-samvadah.’ 


186 Valmiki, Dharma, Brahma, Mahadeva, Indra, Prthu and Divakara also 
are regarded as Visnu’s manifestations. — See chaps. 118-121, 

• 87 The names of places include the following: — Puskara, Kalahjara, 
Sindhu-kula, Kasmira, Karnata, Madra-desa, Pragjyotisa, Daksinapatha, Malaya, 
Anga, Mulasthana, Gaya, Lohadanda, Vrndavana, Udra ('where Visnu remains 
as Purusottama’ — udresu purusottamamj etc. — See chaps, izi and 125. 



192 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Chaps. 223-22/^ contain the story oE Astavakra, who learnt, from 
Kuvera and an old woman, about the various Roca-vratas and the 
unstable nature of women respectively. 

Chaps. 226-342. — In tliese chapters, which constitute the Hamsa- 
glta, Visnu is said to have assumed the form of Harnsa and spoken to 
the s.ages on the following topics: — 

Duties of the four main castes and of the mixed castes. Duties 
of students and householders. Selection of food*®* (bhaksyabhaksya). 
Purification of things (dravya-suddhi). Impurity caused by birth, death 
and miscarriage. Good manners and customs. Sacraments. Various 
prescriptions and prohibitions. Sms and expiations. Results of actions. 
— Chaps. 227-237. 

[None of these chapters contains anything striking. They consist 
mainly of verses derived from the Manu-smrti, Yajnavalkya-smrti, 
Parasara-smrti etc.] 

Various unfavourable symptoms (arista) of approaching death. — 
Chap. 238. 

Evils of nescience (ajnana), sins, passion, overjoy, self-conceit, 
intoxication, greed, anger, atheism, egotism, want of purity, violation 
of acara, telling lies (except in some special cases), and practice of 
himsa (except in certain special cases). — Chaps. 235-252. 

Results of various sinful acts. — Chap. 253. 

Benefits of the following : — acquirement of knowledge (jnana), 
practice of dharma, service to superiors, study of sacred books (viz., 
the Vedas, Vedangas, Upavedas, Samkhya, Yoga, Pancaratra, Pasupata, 
Purana etc.), practice of brahmacarya, and begetting of sons. — Chaps. 
254-259. 

Praise of reputation (kirti), fame (yasah), sacrifice (yajna), good 
conduct (sila), self-control, truth, religious austerity, bravery (espe- 
cially in war), ahimsa, tolerance (ksama), gratitude, good manners and 
customs, purity (sauca), visit to holy places, fasting, mental purity, 
sraddha, and bath. — Chaps. 260-277. 

i88 Food offered by rangavatarins, pasandas, cikitsa-jivakas, ayudha-jivins, 
sastra-vikrayakarins, caila-dhavakas and others is not eatable. — Chap. 230, 
verses iff. 



193 


TIHE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

Method and praise of muttering the mantra, performance of 
pranayama, and practice of pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi. 
— Chaps. 278-28;}. 

Praise of perseverance (vyavasaya) and determination (satnkalpa), 
which are at the root of final emancipation. — Chaps. 285-286. 

Praise and results of performing homa, worshipping deities with 
the offer of various things and rendering service to them, offering 
different articles to the Pitrs, performing the rites of hospitality to 
guests, serving Brahmins and cows, showing compassion, becoming 
courteous, speaking sweet words, and being enterprising, — Chaps. 
287-295. 

Praise and results of digging wells, tanks etc., planting trees, 
plants and creepers, making embankments and well-furnished fracas 
(i. e. places for tiistribucing water to travellers), and serving and help- 
ing the travellers in various ways. — Chaps. 296-298. 

Classification of wealth into (a) white (sukla), (b) variegated (sabala) 
and (c) black (krsna), and the ways of earning these different kinds 
of wealth.— Chap. 299. 

Praise of donation. Proper time, place*** and recipients (who 
are Brahmins in most cases). — Chap. 300. 

Certain rules about receiving gifts; deities presiding over the 
different kinds of gifts; methods of receiving these gifts. — Chap. 301. 

Results of assuring safety (abhaya-dana) under different circum- 
stances. — Chap. 302. 

Results and praise of vidya-dana,**® kanya-dana (according to the 


189 The names of places, as specially mentioned in verses 25-29, are the 
following; — Puskara, PraySga, Prabhasa, Naimisa, Dharmaranya, Gaya, Amara- 
kanteka, Gangadvara, Kufavarta, Bilvaka, Nila-parvata, Kanakhala, Saiigrama, 
Varanasi, Sarasvati, Gahga-sagara-sahgama, Sindu-sagara-sandhi, Tritakupa, 
Plaksa-prasravana, Camasonmajjana, Mahalaya, Kedara, Bhrgutuhga, M^asa, 
Uttara-manasa and Dadhi-tirtha. 

19° In connection with vidya-dina, special mention has been made of 
teaching the Vedas, Upavedas, Vedahgas, Dharma-sastras, Siddhantas and odier 
sastras, the different kinds of arts (silpa), and dhanurveda.— Chap. 303. 

25 



194 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Brahma, Daiva and Prajapatya forms), bhumi-dana,*** go-mahisa-dana, 
dadht-dugdhadi-dana, and kapila-dana. — Chaps. 303-306, 

Description and praise or ghrta-dhenu-dana, tila-dhenu-dana and 
jala-dhenu-dana. — Chaps. 307-309. 

Results and praise of suvarna-rupyadi-dana, mukta-marakata- 
vaiduryadi-dana, sayyasanadi-vividha-vastu-dana, dasa-dasi-dana, hasty- 
asvostta-gardabhadi-dana, vastra-dana,^®^ sirastrana-hastatrana-padatra- 
nadi'dana, dhanya^*®-yava-godhuma-tila-mudgadi-dana, guda-phanitadi- 
dana, and anna-dana. — Chaps. 310-315. 

Results of making gifts to different types of recipients and at 
different times. — Chaps. 316-319. 

Results of taking one meal a day and of observing fast for one day 
or more. — Chap. 320. 

Names of different regions (loka) attainable by those who perform 
different kinds of pious acts. — Chap.321. 

Duties of devoted wives. — Chap. 322. 

Duties of kings. — Appointment of ministers and other officers; 
construction of well-provided forts; marriage; appointment of officers 
(viz,, gramadhipa, dasa-gramadhipa, sata-gramadhipa and desesvara) 
for carrying on rural administration; levying of taxes;*®* and so on. 
— Chap. 323. 

Treatment of vyavahara (administration of justice) under the 
following heads; — constitution of the court of justice; laws about 
summoning the accused and placing him under legal restraint; method 
of recording a plaint; legal procedure; examination of witnesses; laws 


about mortgage, gifts 


etc.; different kinds of evidence (viz.^ saksin. 


191 Land has been classified into saka-bhumi, arama-bhumi, udywa-bhumi, 
akara-bhutni, grha-bhumi etc. — See Chap. 304. 

192 In chap. 313 clothes have been classified, according to their materials, 
into karpasika, sa-toma, avika, ksauma, kusa-nirmita, kauseya, krimija, mrga- 
lomika, valkaUja, and sumera-kadaly-adi-nirmita. 

People are prohibited from giving to Brahmins clothes coloured blue or red. 
— Chap. 313, verses 3 and ii. 

193 In chap. 314 there is mention of different kinds of rice, viz., rakta-sali 
(which is said to be the best of all), kalama, mahasali, kasAa-sali, vrihi, syamaka, 
suka-dhanya etc. 

194 For the rates of taxes see chap. 323, verses 38-44. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


195 


lekhya, bhoga, and divya ) ; comparative strength of title and posses- 
sion; method of writing a document {lekhya)-, qualification of wit- 
nesses; description of the different kinds of ordeals;*’® recognition of 
the eight forms of marriage;*’* legal position of the twelve kinds of 
sons (viz., attrasa, putrika-putra, ksetraja, paunarbhava, kanina, 
sahodha, gudhotpanna, dattaka, krita, apaviddha, upagata and sudra- 
putra); laws of partition and inheritance, and of debt, mortgage and 
deposit; laws about joint-stock companies;, settlement of disputes 
between masters and servants; laws about transgression of compact, 
about purchase and sale, about guilds and corporate bodies, and about 
boundary disputes; determination of the nature of punishment and 

195 In chap. 328 there is mention o£ eight kinds of ordeals — 

kosam dhatatn visarn cagnim udakam tapta-masakam/ 

phalatp ca tandnlatn caiva divyany astau vidur budhah/ / (verse 6). 

196 1 he following lines (on the different forms of marriage, remarriage of 
married girls, etc.) are interesting. — 

prajapatyas tatha daivo brahmas capi subhas trayah/ / 
gandharvo raksasas caiva raadhyamau parikirtitau/ 
asuras caiva paisaca arsas caiva tathadhamah// 
na te karyah prayatnena kadacid api kenacit/ 
asurasya tatharsasya viseso naiva vidyate/ / 
sulkam eva tato jneyam alpatn va yadi va bahu/ 
prani'vikrayinah sarve narakatn yanti manavah/ / 
visesena ca yah putratn vikrinati svakam narah/ 
narake vasatim tasya bahun abda-ganan viduh// 
mrte bhattari ya kanya kevalam hasta dusit^/ 
sa ced aksata-yonih syat punah samskaram arhati/ / 
ity evam kecid icchanti na tan mama matam dvijah/ 
saptame hi pade vrtte nanyam arhati sa patim/ / 
vaca datta tu ya kanya mantrais caiva na satnskrta/ 
anyasya sa bhaved deya sati bhartari dosini/ / 
naste mrte pravrajice klibe 'tha patite patau/ 
pancasv apatsu narinam patir anyo vidhiyate// 

Chap. 329, verses 6b-i4. 
trini vars^y upasita kumary rtumati sati/ 
ukta-kalat param kanya vindate saddam patim/ / 

Chap. 329, verse 28. 

The verse ‘naste mrte pravrajite’, as occurring in Visnudh II. 87, 1 1, reads 
‘patite ’patau’. 



196 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


the amounts of line in dilferent kinds of crimes (viz., theft, murder, 
adultery, drinking of wine, killing of lower animals, defamation, 
criminal assault, etc.). — Chaps. 324-338 

[Chaps. 324-338 abound in verses taken from the Vyavahara- 
section of the YijnavalUya-smrti. Some of the verses of these chapters 
have been taken from the Dharma sastras of Manu, Narada, Parasara 
and others.] 

Duties of vanaprasthas and yatis, — Chaps. 339-340. 

[These two chapters contain verses of the Manu-smrti; and the 
second has a few metrical lines from the Upanisads.] 

Results of building new Visnu-temples or repairing old ones, 
constructing images of Visnu, serving Visnu in various ways, singing 
his praise, and offering to him various things (including female slaves 
and dancing girls). — Chap. 341. 

The sages’ eulogy of Visnu, and their vision of the universe in 
the latter’s body. Praise of tlie Hamsa-glta. — Chap. 342. 

[The colophon of chap. 342 is followed by the words ‘hamsa-glta 
samapta.’] 

Chaps. 343-348. — In glorifying Visnu as extremely kind to his 
devotees, Markandeya narrates the stories of (a) Visnu’s favour to 
Garuda, although the latter, being offended with the former for assur- 
ing safety to a Naga named Sumukha, boasted of his own capacity 
and reproached Visnu as ungrateful, (b) Visnu’s birth as Vamana to 
recover Indra’s kingdom from Bali, and (c) king Vasu Uparicara’s 
self-protection in the nether world by means of the Aparajita Vidya 
which was instructed to him by Brhaspati, and his winning of Visnu’s 
favour. 

In these stories there arc eulogies of Visnu and Garuda and a 
description of the Vaisnavi Aparajita Vidya. 

Chaps. 3I9-354* — Glorification of Visnu by means of the stories 
of 

(a) Narada, who went to 5vcta-dvipa in accordance with the advice 
of Nara and Narayana, pleased Vasudeva there by eulogising him and 
by taking to ckanta-bhava, learnt from him about thousands of his 
past and future manifestations, and won Vasudeva’s favour by zeal" 



197 


TjHE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


ously worshipping him in accordance with the method described to 
him by Nara and Narayana (chaps. 349 ' 353 )i 

(b) a Sattvata named Visvaksena, who, being ekanta-bhavo- 
pagata’, violated the order of a Mahesvara and worshipped Narasimha. 
instead of Siva, in a Siva-lihga, and whose life was saved from the 
hands of the Mahesvara by Visnu himself who came out of the Siva- 
lihga by assuming the form of Narasimha (chap. 354 )' 

Chap. 355.— The hymn (called Lihgasphota) that was recited by 
Visvaksena. 


Conclusion of the Visnudharmottara. 


From the summary of the contents given above it is evident that 
the Visnudharmottara is an ambitious work containing chapters on 
multifarious subjects. But it does not claim originality in all matters. 
There are indications which show that this work has more the character 
of a compilation than that of an original work.**- It contains summaries 
of, and extracts and isolated verses from, some of the early works of 
the different branches of Sanskrit literature. For instance, it widely 


utilises the Ramayana and incorporates a large number of verses from 
the Mahabharata,*** the Bhagavad-gita*** and the Upanisads.**® In 
its chapters on astronomy and astrology, it has verses from the works 


197 For instance, see Visnudh. 1 . 1. 16 — 

tasmat tvam raja-sarclula prastum arho dvijottaman/ 
vaisnavan vividhan dhartnan sarahasyan sasamgrahinl I 

198 For example, Visnudh. III. 343*355 based on the Narayaniy a section 
of the Santi-parvan of the Mahabharata; the verse 'samkhyatn yogain 
pancatatram’ (Visnudh. I. 74. 34 and II. 22. 133) is much the same as Mbh XII. 
349. I and 6 ^ ; and so on. 

199 For vetses bottowed from the Bhagavad-gita see Visnudh. I. 3^- 5 ®- 

5b-7a. 122, 9b-ioa. 171. lo-ii, 172. 8. 20 and 33, and 190. 14.15; U- 74 - ® 3 - 
78. 28-34, ®rid 82. 33; and so on, 

200 Visnudh, III. 340.40 = Svetasvataropani$ad 3.20=Kathopartisad 1.2,20, 

III. 340.41 = »» 3 -^ 

„ III. 34o,42b'43a= ,. 3.9 

„ 111,340.438-0= .. 4.6=Mundakopanisad 3.1.1- 

etc. 


etc. 



198 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


of Garga, Vrddha-garga, Parisara and Brhaspati.*®' In Visnudh. II. 
154 (verses 18 and 22) Garga is said to have instructed king Vasu on 
the method of worshipping the Sakra-dhvaja (banner of Indra); in 
Visnudh. II. 134-144 Vrddha-garga speaks to Atri on various kinds 
of omens; and in Visnudh. II. 159-161 Parasara is said to have 
spoken to Galava on the mantras of chatra, asva etc. as well as on 
Ghrta-kambala-santi. Visnudh. II. 166-174, which constitute a distinct 
section called ‘Paitamaha-siddhanta’ and have Brahma and Bhrgu as 
the interlocutors, most probably give the summary of a bigger work of 
some similar title. Visnudh. III. 86-95 (on the building of temples) 
are said to have been based on an earlier work ascribed to Pitamaha 
(Brahma).®®* In its sections on acara, vyavahara and prayascitta, the 
Visnudharmottara refers to Manu as a law-giver on several occasions*®* 
and utilises the language and contents chiefly of the Manu-smrti,*®* 

201 For instance, the verse 'niayura-candrikabho va’, which Vallalasena 

found in his Ms of the Visnudharmottara, occurred in the work of Garga (see 
Adbhutasagara, p. 17), and Visnudh. I. 85. 27b-a8a (udayastamane bhanoh 
etc.) greatly resembled a verse of Garga (see Adbhutasagara, pp. 290-1); 
Visnudh. II. 136. i, 135. 6a and 7a, 137. 58-63, iia, 7a, 6b and yb-Sa, and 
141. I occurred in the work of Vrddha-garga (see Adbhutasagara, pp. 416, 
427, 429, 441, 442-3, 443, 444 and 563); Visnudh. I. 85. 348-353, 268-273, 
338-343, and 488-493, and III. 238^ 2, 31, 27, 26,28, 19 and 32 occurred in 
the work or works of Parasara (see Adbhutasagara, pp. 66, 86, 90, loi, 516, 
517, 526, 541 and 551); Visnudh. II. 135. 6a and 7a, 156. 1-2 and 5, 137.7a 
and 6b, 141. i, and 134, 14-26 occurred in the work of Brhaspati (see 

Adbhutasagara, pp. 427, 429, 437, 442-3, 443, 563 and 743-4); and so on. 

202 Visnudh. III. 86. 139 — 

prasada-Iaksanam idam kathitain samasad 
alokya purva-caritam hi pitamahoktam/ 
sastram hitaya nara-sattama manusanam 
dharyam tvaya tad atiyatna-parena nityam / / 

203 Visnudh. II. 72. 43- manur abravit (=M3nu-smrti 8. 242). 

„ II. 72. 48- iti svayambhuvo’bravit. 

„ 11 . 72. 97- manur abravit ( = Manu-smrti 8. 339). 

204 The Visnudharmottara (especially II. 61-131 and III. 226-342) has 
incorporated a large number of verses from chaps. 2ff. of the Manu-smrti, as 
the following list will indicate. 



XHE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 


199 


Yajnavalkya-smrti,*®® Narada-smrti,*®® Visnu-smrti®®^ and Parasara- 
smrti.^®* It also seems to have incorporated verses from the Smrti-works 

Manu-smrti 


Visnudh. 

II. 24-3 
II. 26.7 
II. 61.2a, 4a 
II. 61.423,426- 
45, 46-48 

II. 61.62-633, 
646-67 
etc. 

II. 65.37 
II. 65.436. 44a, 
45. 46 - 47 . 

48-49. 50-51. 

52-53, and so 
on 

II. 70.6 
II. 70.8,146-152 

and so on 

II. 72-5, 6-11, 1 
12.13 ®od soj- 
on J 


= 7-55- 

= 2.52. 

= 7.1 15a, I i6a. 

= 8.36a, 30-333, 
27-29, 

= 7.1316-132. 
1336-136. 
etc. 

= 8.26. 

= 7-383, 39a, 40, 
43-44. 89-90. 

82-83, 87-88. 

and so on. 


Visnudh. 
II. 73.2 
II. 73.7-12 

II. 73.14 

etc. 


= 8.128 

= 7 -^ 5 . 

on. 

= 8.138, 

34-35. 

on. 


18 and so 


27-32, 
and so 


205 Visnudh. Yaj. 

II. 72. 180b = 11 . 235a. 

II. 72. 182a . — c£. II. 224a. 

II. 72. 182b — cf. 11 . 239a, (Yaj. 

reads ‘tripano 
damah’). 

11. 72.183,184, 155,-^ =11.240,279,282 
186-7, 188,189. j 295-6,303,306, 

Narada-smrti 

= 1.2. 

= 1.493. 

= 1.52-553. 
=4.356-363. 
=3.18. 

= 4.84. 

= 4.85 


2c 6 Visnudh. 
III. 324. 3 

., ,. 136 

„ „ 146-173 

.. ., 34 b- 35 a 

45 

1 

2 


Manu-Smrti 

= 11.45. 

= 4.2096-2113, 
212a, 213-2143, 
216b, 214b. 

= 4-215 

etc. 


II. 74.1. 3-11, I = 11.247-265. 
13-21 -I 

II. 75.2a, 253-6 = 5 - 592 > ' 03 ' 


II. 79.16-23 
II. 85.11, 19 
II. 86.1, 7 
II. 87.15 

II. 130.3-32 

II. 131.1-22, 
24-63 

etc. 

III. 228.1 

III. 230.126-14 
III. 232, la, 2b 
etc. 


5.123. 

= 2.31, 36. 

= 2.69, 52. 

= 3.21. 

= 6.1-283, 296-3 1. 
= 6.33-61, 63-973. 

etc. 

= 2.69. 

= 5-5a. 6a, 5b, 7. 
= 5-592. 61b. 
etc. 


Visnudh, 

If. 105.2-83,106-113,1 
loa, 126-133, 12a, 
96,14-16,176-186, 
19-22,23,24-25. 
etc. 

III. 231.3a, 46-53, 
66-7 

III. 232. 66-73 
etc. 

Visnudh. 

HI. 3^5 3 
,. ,. 4 

III. 327. 1-43 

III. 328. 676-683 
.. 69 
etc. 


= I 


Yaj. 

=1. 271-2883, 
289b-’290a, 
191-2. 

etc. 

188a, 114, 
186-73. 

= 111. 23. 

etc, 

Narada-smrti 

= 4.90. 

= 4.92. 

= 4 .i 49 -* 5 °. 

1516-152. 

= 4-337. 

=4.338. 

etc. 


III. 325, 

207 For instance, Visnudh. I. 142. 136-142 (etani iraddha-kalani etc.) is the 
same as Visnu-smrti 76. z (etams tu sraddha-kalan vai etc.). 

For connections between the Visnudharmottara and the Visnu-smrti as 
regards sraddha, see W, Caland, Altindischer Ahnenkult, Leyden 1893, pp. 68 
and 112. Cf. also Abegg. Der Pretakalpa, pp. 5^. 

208 Paiaiara-smrti 4. 30 (naste mite pravr^ite etc.) is the same as Visnudh. 



200 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


of Devala®®* and Brhaspati,*'® which are now lost. Visnudh. III. 
17-31 are clearly based on Bharata’s Natya-sastra, from which a large 
number of verses has been retained in these chapters.®*^ Similarly, the 
chapters on citra-sutra,^^^ ayurveda, hasti-cikitsa, asva-cikitsa etc. must 
have been based on older works. In its chapters on alamkara the 
Visnudharmottara often refers to the opinions of ancient writers on 
poetics (puratana).®” The stories of Lalitika (or Lalita), SambarayanI 
and gajendra-mosana in Visnudh. I, chaps. 167 (verses aff.), 175-191 
and 192-194 are undoubtedly derived from the same as given in 
Visnudharma, chaps. 32, 27 and 67 respectively. In narrating these 
stories the Visnudharmottara not only retains a large number of verses 
of the Visriudharma but also introduces innovations not found in the 


II. 87. II and III. 329. i 4 ; Pat^ara-smrti 3. 39 (anatham brahmanam pretatn 
etc.) is the same as Visiiudh. II. 76. 2; and so on, 

209 For verses common to the Visiiudharmottara and the Devala-smrti, see 
Caturvarga-cintamaiii, III . ii. pp. 95-96. 

210 For instance, the verse ‘ekadasy asumi sasthi’ is ascribed to Brhaspati in 
Smrti-candrika, IV, p. 47 but to the Visnudharmottara in Kalanirnaya, pp. 190 
and 300; the line ‘brahmaiiam kes.ivani sambhum’ is ascribed to Brhaspati and 
the Visnudharmottara in the Dacca Univ, Mss of Raghunandana’s Ahnika- 
tattva; and so on. 


211 Visnudh. Natya-sastra 
III. 24.ia,2a,3b,5a = 8.i6b,2oa, 223,243. 

HI, 24.6-73 =8.263, 25b, 27a, 

etc. etc, 

III. 25.1-2 =8.38-39. 

'• •’ 3'4 — cf. S.^o-^i. 

»* »■ 5a, 5b, 6b = 8.42b, 446,463. 
etc. etc, 

III. 26. 1-3 =9.4'5 and 6b-7a, 

», ,, 4 — — cf, 9-Ba. 

.. „ 5-93, 10 =9.8b-i2, i4a, 15a. 

etc. etc. 

yisnudh. III. 17-31 may be used for solving the textual problems relating 
to the Natya-sastra. 

212 The ‘citra-sutra’ is mentioned in Damodaragupta’s Kuttanimata, verse 
123. 

213 Visnudh. III. 14. 7, 12 and 15. 


Visnudh. Natya-sastra 

III. 27.26-33, 5b-6a,=23.5, 10,926-933, 
iSb-iga, 21-233, 1026-104, 97b, 

246-253, 22 99a, 108. 

etc. etc. 

111.29.36,37a =13.13,203. 

etc. etc. 

III. 30.26-33. 46-83=6,39, 42-45, 
etc. etc. 

Ill, 31.2, 3, iib =7.10, 9, 28a. 

” •> >4* — cf. 7.33a. 

•' >> 54-56 =6.77-833. 

etc. etc. 



201 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

latter. For instance, it identifies the river Deviki with Uma, wife of 
Hara,**- elaborates Sambarayanl’s account with the mention of the 
names of many of Visnu’s manifestations, and says that two Gandhar- 
vas named Haha and Huhu were transformed into the elephant and 
the crocodile by Devala’s curse. So, there is no doubt that the Vjsnu- 
dharmottara gives the later versions of these stories. It is probable that 
Visnudh. I, chaps. 169-170 (on Mandhatr’s activities in his previous 
birth as a Sudra) and 196 (on the Visnu-panjara-stotra) also are based 
on Visnudharma, chaps. 82 and 69 respectively. It is needless to 
multiply examples. It is to be noted that the Visnudharmottara does 
not utilise Varahamihira’s Brhatsatnhita, Bhamaha’s Kavyalatnkara, 
Dandin’s Kavyadarsa, or any other work written later than 500 A. D. 
and that although the Visnudharmottara is indebted to earlier authori- 
ties for many of its materials, it has not failed to improve considerably 
upon the borrowed portions by innovations of its own. For instance, 
in his Adbhutasagara Vallalasena quotes from the works of Garga, 
Vrddha-garga, Parasara and Brhaspati some verses which do not agree, 
as regards contents, with those of the Visnudharmottara and the 
principles of dramaturgy, as laid down in the Visnudharmottara, 
differ on some points from those of the Na^a-sastra. 

Of the various types of works known to it, the Visnudharmottara 
gives us valuable information. It speaks of ‘nrtya-sastra’, ‘gita-sastra’, 
‘kala-sastra’,®l* ‘dhanurveda’, ‘hastyayurveda’, ‘asvayurveda’, ‘vrksa- 
yurveda’,*‘I ‘phala-veda’,*‘* ‘suda-sastra’*i- etc. and mentions the four 
Vedas,**? the Vedangas,**- ‘the Bharaia (i.e. the Mahabhatata) com- 

^*4 Visnudh. I. 167. 15-18, and 207. 55-56. 

2*5 See Adbhutasagara, pp. 98, 236, 410, 4*9, 471, 559 ' 56 o. 

216 Visnudh. III. 73. 49. 

217 Ibid., II. 91, ii; III. 297. 18. 

‘Vrksayurveda’ is mentioned in Damodaragupta’s Kunanimata, verse 123. 

218 Vhnudh. III. 73. 47. 

219 Ibid.. II. 24. 23. ‘Suda-sastra’ is also mentioned in Kut^imata, verse 
123. 

220 Visnudh. I. 74. 29-30; II. 22. 129-130; and so on. 

221 Ibid., I. 74. 33; II. 22. 131-2. 

26 



202 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


posed by Dvaipayana’,®*® the Ratnayana o£ Valmiki,^*® the scriptures 
of the Pahcaratras and the Pasupatas,®®® a Sutra work (on hasti-cikitsa) 
written by Lomapada, king of Ahga,®*® and the Niti-sastras of Brhas- 
pati and Usanas.*®* Hence there is litrle doubt about the fact that 
the Sanskrit literature hecame enriched by various types of works even 
before the time of composition of the Visnudharmottara. 

A large number of chapters is found common to the Visnudharmo- 
ttara and the Matsya-p., as the following list will show. 


Visnudh. 

Matsya-p. 

Visnudh. Matsya-f 

I. 

1 1 i-i 19 

= Chaps. 195-203 

11. 

39 =Chap. 212. 



respectively. 

11. 

40 =213. 1-13, 17-if 

I. 

145. 1-2, 

4 = 204. 2-3, 9. 

II. 

41 =Chap. 214. 

I. 

146. 416-59 = 207. 246-41. 

II. 

66-70 =Chaps. 221-225 

I. 

148-152 

= Chaps. 115-119 


respectively. 



respectively. 

II. 

71. 1-3 =226. 1-3. 

L 

153; 154. 

i-6a, 7 = Chap. 120. 

II. 

72. i7b-2oo = Chap. 227. 

I. 

226 

= 179. aff. 

II. 

1 33- 140 = Chaps. 228-235 

11. 

24-28 

= Chaps. 215-219 


respectively. 



respectively. 

II. 

1 42- 1 44 = Chaps. 236-238 

II. 

36 

= 208. 3-21. 


respectively. 

II. 

37 

= Chaps. 202-210. 

II. 

1 63 = Chap. 240. 

II. 

38 

= 211. 1-13, 28. 

1 



That as regards these common chapters the Matsya-p. is the bor- 
rower, can be proved definitely by a number of evidertces, some of 
which arc given below. 


(i) The contents of Visnudh. 1. 129-156 are follows: —Chaps. 
1 29-1 37 deal with Pururavas’s love for Urvasi, chaps. 138-1^5 with 
sraddha and the Pitrs, chaps. 1,^6 and 1^7 with vrsa-laksana and 
vrsotsarga respectively, and chaps. 148-156 with Pururavas’s penance 

222 Ibid., 1 . 74. 23-28 ; III. 351, 49. 

223 Ibid., I. 74. 37-39 (valmikina tu racitam,../ ratnakhyanam..,//); I. 81. 
26; III. 351. 48 (maya valmikina karyam kavyam t^ayanam tatha). 

224 Ibid., I. 74. 34; II. 22. 133; III. 73. 48; III. 257, 4. 

225 Ibid., 1 . 253. 34-35. 

226 Ibid., II. 6. 2. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 203 

in his previous birth for attaining extraordinary physical beauty. Of 
these, the last group of chapters (i.e. chaps. 148-156) begins thus: — 
vajra uvaca — 

caritam budha-putrasya markandeya maya srutam/, 
kutah sraddha-vidhih punyah sarva-papa-pranaknah/ /, 
dhenvah prasuyamanayah phalam dane tatha srutam/ 
krsnajina-pradanam ca vrsotsargas tathaiva ca// 
srutva rupam narendrasya budha-putrasya bhargava/ 
kautuhalatn samutpannam tan mamacaksva prcchatah// 

(chap. 148, verses 1-3). 

In these verses there is clear reference to the contents of chaps. 
129-137 (on the story of Pururavas, son of Budha), chaps. 138-145 
(on sraddha), chaps. 146-147 (on vrsa-laksana and vrsotsarga), and 
chap. 130 (verses in which Pururavas is said to have possessed 
uncommon physical beauty). Though in the printed edition of the 
Visnudharmottara there is no chapter or chapters on ‘prasuyamana- 
dhenu-dana’ and ‘krsnajina-dana’, this work was not originally bereft 
of chapters on these topics. In his Danasagara, pp. 531-532 Vallala- 
sena ascribes to the ‘Visnudharmottara’ twenty-one metrical lines which 
deal with krsnajina-dana and all of which occur in Matsya-p., chap. 
206. In his Caturvarga-cintamani, I, pp. 704-5 and 705-7 Hcmadri 
also ascribes to the ‘Visnudharmottara’ two complete chapters on 
‘madhyama-krsnajina-dana’ and *maha.krsnajina'dana’ respectively. 

The Matsya-p., on the other hand, contains only the story of 
Pururavas’s penance in his previous birth in chaps. 115-120 (which 
ate practically the same as Visnudh. I, chaps. 148-153 and verses 1-7 
of chap. 154) and deals with prasuyamana-dbenu-dana, krsnajina- 
dana and vrsa-laksana as late as in chaps. 205, 206 and 207 respec- 
tively, but it does not contain any chapter on vrsotsarga. Yet the 
opening verses of chap. 1 15 arc the same as those of Visnudh. I. 148 
quoted above. It is also to be noted that although in the Matsya-p. 
the story of Pururavas’s love affairs does not immediately precede the 
story of his penance in his previous birth but occurs very briefly in 
chap. 24 and sraddha is dealt with in chaps. 11-22, the opening 
verses of chap. 115 do not refer to the concents of the intervening 
chapters (25-1 14). 



204 STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

The Matsya-p. describes the characteristics of bulls (vrsa-laksana) 
fully in the entire chap. 207, but this topic is dealt with partially in 
in Visnudh. I. 146. z(ib'59 (which are the same as Mat. 207. 24b- 
41). Moreover, in the Visnudharmottara this topic is begun abruptly 
with the line ‘rsabhah sa samudrikhyah satatam kula-vardhanah’ 
(which really forms the second half of the verse ‘svetam tu jatharain 
yasya bhavet prstham ca gopateh/rsabhah sa samudrakhyah satatam 
kula*vardhanah//’ as found in Mat. 207. 24). But this abrupt 
beginning and incomplete treatment of tbe above-mentioned topic in 
the Visnudharmottara should not be taken to prove that the Visnu- 
dharmottara borrowed its verses from the Matsya-p. As a matter of 
fact, the original Visnudharmottara contained all those verses on vrsa- 
laksana which are now found in Matsya-p., chap. 207. In his 
Dinasagara, p. 1 1 5 Vallalasena ascribes to the ‘Visnudharmottara’ 
three verses on vr»-laksana which do not occur in Visnudh. 1 . 148 but 
are the same as Mat. 207. 13-15. 

(ii) The story of Pururavas in Matsya-p., chaps, 115-120 ends 
abruptly, whereas in the Visnudharmottara it is continued through a 
few more chapters to its logical conclusion. 

(iii) In Matsya-p., chap. 195 (which is practically the same as 
Visnudh. I. 111), the second verse runs as follows: 

mahadevena rsayah saptah svayambhuve ’ntare/ 
tesain vaivasvate prapte sambhavam mama kirtaya// 

This verse, as occurring in the Matsya-p., has no preceding story 
or statement to refer to, whereas in the Visnudharmottara it occurs 
in chap. 1 1 1 of Khanda I and refers to Visnudh. I. no. 28. 

(iv) A textual comparison bctweecn the Visnudharmottara and 
the Matsya-p. shows that the latter work has adapted the above- 
mentioned chapters of the Visnudharmottara to its own interlocutors 
often by using unsuitable words. For instance, for Visnudh. I. 148.8 
(pururava madrapatih karmani kena bhargava/babhuva karmana kena 
kurupas ca eatha dvija//). Mat. 115.9 r^^ds ‘pururava madrapatih... 

firthivah jhsihhuvA virupas caiva satajaj j’-, in Visnudh. II. 24. 62 

Puskara addresses Bhargava Rama as ‘manuja-sardula’ (‘a tiger among 
the descendants of Manu, i.c. among men’), and this word (‘manuja- 
sardula’), though not applicable to Manu himself, has been retained 



THE MAIOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 205 

’ ; , I ff* 

in Matsya-p., chap. 215 (verse 88) in which Matsya speaks to Manu; 
and so on. 

(v) The story of Savitrl in Visnudh. II. 36-41 naturally follows 
chaps. 33-35 (on the conduct and duties of chaste women, and the 
treatment they deserve from the king). But the Matsya-p., though 
containing this story in chaps. 208-214, has no chapters corresponding 
to chaps. 33'35 of the Visnudbarmottara. Moreover, in chaps. 208- 
214 the Matsya-p. has a large number of additional verses which are 
not found in the Visnudbarmottara. 

The above evidences are perhaps sufficient to show that the 
Matsya-p. borrowed the above-mentioned chapters from the Visnu- 
dharmottara. 

We shall now tty to determine the date of composition of the 
V isnudharmottara . 

This work is quite familiar with the Greek terms ‘hibuka , 
‘kendra’, ‘lipta’, ‘sunapha’ etc.^*' and mentions ‘hora ‘dreskana , 
and the names of the rasis*®“ and week-days*®* in several places. By 
its mention of Mulasthana*®* as a place of Sun-worship as well as of 
the girdle called ‘aviyahga’,®*® worn by the Sun-worshippers, it betrays 

227 See yisnudh. 11. iGyff. 

228 Visnudh. I. 83. 47ffi.; II. i68flE.; III. 96. 97; and so on. 

The occurrence of the term horS in two verses quoted by Varahamihira 
from Garga shows that it came to be used by the Indians much earlier than the 
sixth century A.D., but there is no evidence to prove that it was used by them 
earlier than the end of the first century A.D. 

229 Visnudh. II. i 67 ff.; III. 96. 97. 

230 Visnudh. I, 72. ti, 73. 8ffi., 84. iff., and 94. 6fi.; H- rS.ii; H- i 67 ff. , 
III. 319. 38£f.; and SO on. 

The total absence of the term r3si in all early works down to the time of 

the Yajnavalkya-smrti, tends to show that the Indians were not familiar with 

the rasis earlier than the second century A.D. 

231 Visnudh. I. 59. 2-5, and 60. 5; II. 47 - 4 , 50. 68, and 52. 84 and 124*, 
HI. 317. i6ff.; and SO on. 

The earliest dated mention of a week-day has been traced in the Etan 
inscription of 484 A.D. (See Fleet, Gupta Inscriptions, pp. 88-89). 

232 Visnudh. III. 121. 12. 

^33 Visnudh, III. 67. 3. 



206 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


its knowledge of the Persian elements in the method of worshipping 
the Sun. It utilises, as we have already seen, the language and con- 
tents of the Upansads, Mahabharata, Bhagavad-gita, Bharata’s Natya- 
sastra, the astronomical works of Garga, Vrddha-garga, Parasara and 
Brhaspati, the Dharmasastras of Manu, Yajnavalkya, Narada and 
Parasara, and the Visnudharma. By its description of ‘Purana’ as 
consisting of four Padas^^^ it points definitely to the Vayu-p.®*® which 
only claims to consist of, and is practically divided into, four Padas, 
viz., Prakriya, Upodghata, Anusahga and Upasamhara. In the story 
of Pururavas and UrvasI, as given in chaps. 1 29-1 37 of Khanda I, it 
clearly betrays the influence of Kalidasa’s Vikramorvasiya.®®® Visnudh. 
I. 208 contains the description of the hurry and eagerness of women 
of Rajagrha to have a glance at Bharata when the latter was entering 
that city. This description bears the unmistakable stamp of the 
influence of Kalidasa’s Raghuvatnsa.*®' Hence the Visnudharmottara 
cannot be earlier than 400 A.D. 

Again, the Visnudharmottara has been profusely drawn upon by 
almost all the Smrci-commentators and Nibandha-writers, viz., Bhava- 

2 ^^ Visnudh. III. 17.26-3 — 

prakriya prathatnah padah kathavastu-parigrahah/ 
upodghatanusahgau ca tatha samhara eva ca/ 
catuspadam hi kathitam puranam bhrgu-nandana// 

The first two lines are the same as Vayu-p. 4 . 13. (The Vayu-p. reads the 
second line as ‘upodghato’nusahgas ca upasamhara eva ca’). 

235 The Vayu-p. and the Brahmanda-p. were originally the same 

236 The similarity in ideas and expressions between the Visnudharmottara 
and the Vikramorvasiya will be evident from the following parallel passages. 

(a) Visnudh. I. 133. 52. — Before leaving Urvasi with Pururavas, Rambha 
says to the latter : 

yatha ceyain sakhi raahyatn notkan^am kurute subba/ 
sakhi-janasya svargyasya tatha karyarn tvayanagha//, 

C£. Vikramorvasiya, Act III — citralekha — ta jaha iam me piasahi 

saggassa na ukkanthedi tjha vaassena kadavvam. 

(b) Visnudh. I. 135, 26-33 (m which Pururavas vainly enquires for Urvasi 
to beasts, birds and plants). — Cf. Vikramorvasiya, Act IV. 

237 Compare, for instance, Visnudh. I. 208. lo-zia with Raghuvamsa VII. 
5-12. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 


207 


deva, Vijnanesvata, Jimutavahana, Apararka, Aniruddliabhatta, Vallala- 
scna, Halayudha, Devanabhatca, Hemadri, Madanapala, Madhavacarya, 
^ulapani, Candesvara, Vidyapati, Vacaspati-misra, Govindananda, 
^rlnathacaryacudamani, Gadadhara, Raghunandana and others. Some 
of these Smrti-writers have made their quotations under the title ‘Visnu- 
dharmottara’ ; some of them (such as Bhavadeva and Vijnanesvata) have 
done so under the name of ‘Markandeya’ (the speaker in the Visnu- 
dharmottara):*®* and the rest (such as Jimutavahana, Apararka, Devana- 
bhatta, Hemadri and others) have ascribed some of the quoted verses to 

238. The verses of ‘Markandeya’ (the word ‘markandeya’ being often used 
in the masculine gender), quoted in the commentaries and Nibandhas, are, 
except in a very few cases, not found in the present Markandeya-p. 

The facts that many of the verses ascribed to ‘Markandeya’ are found in the 
Visnudharmottara wherein the sage Markandeya is the speaker, that the same 
verses are sometimes ascribed to the ‘Vistiudharmottara’ in some places (viz., in 
Kalaviveka, pp. 538 and 539, Caturvarga-cintamani, III. ii. pp. 379 ' 3 ^°» 
Varsa-kaumudi, p. 103, Tithi-viveka, pp. 6-7; and so on) and to ‘Markandeya’ 
in others (viz., in Mitaksara on Yaj, III, 289, Apararka’s com, on the Yaj., 
p. 429, Smrti-candrika, II, p. 620; Smrti-candrika. IV, p. 49, Caturvarga- 
cintamani, III. ii. pp. 93 and r 16; and so on), and that in some places (viz., in 
Kalaviveka, p. 265, Hualata pp. 19 and 29, Smrti-candrika, IV, pp. 85-86 and 
332, and so on) verses of the Visnudharmottara are quoted with the words 
‘Visnudharmottare markandeyah’, show that ‘Markandeya’. to whom these 
verses are ascribed in the Nibandhas, is, in the great majority of cases, identical 
with the sage Markandeya, the speaker in the Visnudharmottara. In those 
cases in which the verses ascribed to ‘Markandeya’ arc not found in the 
Visnudharmottara, the changes in the text of the latter are to be held 
responsible. As to the few cases in which the verses of ‘Markandeya’ are found 
in the Markandeya-p., it may be said that due to a confusion created by the 
similarity between the name of the sage and the title of the Purana, verses 
of the Markandeya-p. were sometimes wrongly ascribed to ‘Markandeya or 
vice versa. For instance, the verses ‘ekabhaktena naktena’ and ‘sukla-paksasya 
purvahne’, which ate ascribed to the *Matkandeya-p.’ in Caturvarga-cintamani, 
II. i. p. 100 and III, i. p. 320 respectively but are not found in the present 
Purana of the same title, ate ascribed to ‘Markandeya’ (the word ‘markandeya 
being used in the musculine gender) in Caturvarga-cintamani III. ii. pp. 176 
and 575 respectively. See also Apararka’s com. on the Yaj., p. 206, Smrtt- 
candrika, IV, p. 64, Smrti-tattva, I, p. 109 and II. pp. 88 and 95, and so 00, 
wherein the former verse is ascribed to ‘Markandeya’ 



208 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


‘Markandeya’ and the rest to the ‘Visnudharmottara’. In his account of 
India AlberunI refers to and draws upon the present Visnudharmottara on 
many occasions, and most of these references and quotations have been 
traced by Buhler in the extant text of this work.*®® The present 
Kalika-p., which was written somewhere about Kamarupa not later than 
the first half of the eleventh century A. D.^ knows and mentions the 
present Visnudharmottara in its encyclopaedic character.*-® So also 

239. Ind. Ant., Vol. XIX, pp- 381-410. 

Alberuni’s references to, and quotations from, the ‘Visnudharma’ have been 
traced in the present Visnudharmottara thus : — 


Sachau, 


Visnudharmottara 

Sachau. 

Visnudharmottara 

Alberuni’s India, 



Alberuni’s India, 

I. P- 54 

— 

cf. 1.81.28-29, 

1. p. 372 

I. 73.17-18 and 

p. 216 

= 

I. 106.29-30. 


34-40. 

p. 218 

— 

cf. I. 120.2-3. 

P- 379 = 

1 . 73.2 i£E. 

pp. 241-242 

= 

I. 106.1-11. 

p. 380 

I. 73.24. 

1'. 242 

= 

1 . io6.iO'ii 

pp. 38ifE. = 

I. 73.2811. 

p. 287 

= 

I. 106.21-28. 

p. 386 = 

I. 81.2-3. 

p. 288 

= 

I. 106.21-28. 

p. 387 = 

I. 81.4-5. 

p. 291 

= 

I. 106.31-32. 

p. 398 = 

1. 82.1. 

p. 321 

= 

I. 81.1-2. 

pp. 398-9 

cf. I, 73.2off. 

pp. 328-9 

= 

I. 73.14-16. 

11, p. 2 = 


P- 33 > 

= 

I. 73.13. 

I. 80. 1-9. 

p. 332 

= 

I. 73.39. 

P -3 

I, 81.23-27; and 

PP- 344-5 

= 

I. 83.3-21, and 


I. 82.6-7. 



50.62, 

p. 21 = 

I. 72.196-23. 

P- 353 

= 

I. 72.17b. 

p. 64 

I. 106.12-13. 

P- 354 

= 

I. 72.i8b-i9a. 

p. 65 — 

cf, I, 78.1-2, 

p. 358 

= 

I. 83.3-9. 

p. 102 = 

I. 29.166-17. 

p. 360 

= 

I. 73 . 37 ff. 

pp, 14O-I — 

I. 106.34-41. 


240 In Kalika-p. 91. 70-713 Markandeya says: 


'visnudharmottare furvarn maya rahasi bhasitam/ 
raja-nitim sadaevatn veda-vedanga-samgatam// 
rahasyam satatam visnor vik^dhvain dvija-sattamah/’ 

See also KaJika-p. 92. 1-2, in which the sages say to Markandeya : 
samksepatah sadacaro viieso raja-nitisu/ 
srutas tvad-vacanad aurvah sagaraya yathoktavan/ / 
visnudharmottare tantre bahulyam sarvatah punah/ 
drastavyas tu sadacaro drastavyas te prasadatah// 

T^e questions of the date and provenance of the present Kalika-p. will be 
discussed fully under ‘Kalika-p.’ in Vol. H of the present work. 



•mE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 209 

does the present Naradlya-p. (I. 94), which refers to the contents of 
the Visnudharmottara and takes it to be the second part of the Visnu-p. 
According to Sulapani, Balaka and Srikara knew the Visnudharmottara 
and utilised its contents in their respective works.®“ The spurious 
Agni-p. (now available in print), which was written, most probably 
in western Bengal, during the ninth century A.D., has incorporated 
a large number of chapters and verses from the Visnudharmottara, 
as a comparison of Agni-p., chaps. 151-172, 218-237, 245 ff. and 
259-272 with Visnudh. II, chaps. 80 ff., 76!!., 2 iff., i6ff., 15, 
124ft., i05ff. and i59ff. will show. In most of these chapters the 
Agni-p. has retained Puskara as the speaker, but in a few Agni appears 
in his place ; sometimes the Agni-p. rewrites the verses briefly by 
retaining as much as possible the language of the Visnudharmottara, 
and although, following the Visnudharmottara, the Agni-p. retains the 
old order of the Naksatras from Krttika of BharanI in all other places, 
it replaces this order with the new one in verse 8 of chap. 219 in spite 
of the mention of the old order in the corresponding passage (viz., 11. 
22. 20-24) of the Visnudharmottara. The Visnu-sahasra-nama-stotra- 
bhasya, ascribed to Samkatacarya,*^* names and draws upon the Visnu- 
dharmottara as well as the Visnudharma. From all these references, 
quotations and common passages it is evident that by the middle of 
eighth century A. D. the present Visnudharmottara attained great 

241 Durgotsava-viveka, p. 16 — 

‘astaini navaini-viddha navami castatni-yuta/ 
ardha-narisvara-praya uma-mahesvari titbih/ / 
ity Uvla^hikziiya-viinHjbarmottara-vacana-matra-dsrUnS balakenatra visaye 

purvadine navami-krtyara yugmad iti yad uktam 

'bhagavatyah pravesadi-visargantas ca ySh ktiyah 
ityadi-vacanena virodhat taddheyam/ visnudharmottafa-vacanarn tu sandhi 
fuja-visayam iti srikara-misrab I 

According to P. V. Kane, Balaka ‘ftourished before ixoo A.D.’ and Srikara 
‘must be placed somewhere between 800 and 1050 A,D. and probably in the 
ninth century. — See Kane, History of Dharmaiastra, I, pp. 283-4 and 266-8. 

242 See Vbtju-sahasra-nama-stotra-bhasya, p. 114* PP' 

According to S. R. Belvalkar. the ascription of this commentary to Sam- 
kar^arya *is more or less debatable.’ — ^See Belvalkar, Shrcc Gopal Basu Mallik 
Lectures on Vedanta Philosophy, pp. 218.9. 

27 



210 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


popularity as a highly authoritative work in all parts of India. It has 
already been mentioned that the Matsya-p. has borrowed a large 
number of chapters from the Visnudharmottara. Hence the Visnu- 
dharmottara must have been written not later than 600 A. D. On 
p. 460 of his Kalaviveka Jimutavahana ascribes to the ‘Brhad-visnu- 
dharma’ a few verses which have Markandeya and Vajra as the inter- 
locutors and are the same as Visnudh. 1 . 16 1. 1-8; and on p. 464 
he quotes two more verses from a ‘Visnudharmottaramrta,’ but these 
two verses do not occur in the Visnudharmottara. The titles of these 
two works as well as the nature of the quoted verses show that the 
Brhad-visnudharma and the Visnudharmottaramrta, which must have 
preceded Jimutavahana by a few centuries, were distinct works written 
on the basis of the Visnudharmottara. Hence the Visnudharmottara 
must have preceded the Brhad-visnudharma and the Visnudharmot- 
taramrta by a few centuries, otherwise it could not be recognised as 
an authoritative work at the time of composition of these two works. 
In his commentary on the Parasara-smrti Madhavacarya ascribes to 
•Katyayana’ a verse which mentions the ‘Visnudharmottara’ along 
with the name of Markandeya as the speaker and refers to the 
contents of Visnudh. I. 140. 19a.*-® We do not know definitely 
who this Katyayana was. He might have been identical 
either with the author of the Chandoga-parisista or with that 
of a Dharma-sastra which is now lost. Whoever this Katyayana 
might have been, he could not be later than 600 A. D. 
It has already been said that the Visnudharmottara has not utilised 
Bhamaha’s Kavyalamkara and Dandin’s Kavyadatsi. These two 
works mention a much greater number of Alamkaras and a considera- 
bly smaller number of Prahelikas and thus indicate the comparatively 

243 Madbavacarya’s com. on the Parasara-smrti, I. ii. p. 413— 

apsu agnaukaranatn jala-samipe sraddha-karane veditavyam/ 
tad aha katyayanah — 

'visnudharmottare vapsu markandeyena yah smrtah/ 
sa yadapatn samipe sySc chraddham jneyo vidhis tada//’ 

This verse refers to Visnudh. I. 140. 19a which runs as follows: 
anahitagnis caupasade agny-abhave tatbapsu va/ 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


211 


early origin of the Visnudharma.®** Nay, there is ample evidence to 
prove definitely that both Bhamaha and Dandin knew the Visnudhar- 
mottara and used it in their respective works.®** In describing the 
method of building temples in chaps. 86-95 Khanda III the Visnu- 
dharmottara makes no mention of the three styles of architecture 
popularly known as Nagara, Dravida and Vesara, of which the first 
two developed into distinction after the Gupta period. According to 
^me commentators, Brahmagupta wrote his Sphum-brahma-siddhanta 
in 628 A.D. on the basis of the ‘Paitamaha-siddhanta’ as found in the 
Visnudharmottara. This view of the commentators, which most pro- 
bably owed its origin to some tradition as well as to the lines common 
to Brahmagupta’s work and the Visnudharmottara,*^® seems to be 
highly plausible because of the fact that the Visnudharmottara docs 
not refer to or utilise the works of Varahamihira or any other later 
author on astrology and astronomy. As a matter of fact, we have not 
been able to find any work, written later than 500 A.D., which has 
been utilised in the Visnudharmottara. Visnudh. I. 9 gives the names 
of the tribes living in the different parts of India but does not mention 
the Hunas. On the other hand, it speaks of the 6akas and the 
Yavanas as living in the south-western and western parts respectively. 
The Visnudharmottara believes in ‘thousands of manifestations’ 
(pradurbhava-sahasrani) of Visnu and gives shorter or longer lists of 
these (including Matsya, Kurma, Varaba, Nt-varaha, Vamana, Nara- 
sitnha, Bhargava Rama, Dattatreya, Nara-Narayana, Hamsa, Asva, 
Mayura etc.) in numerous places; but it does not refer to any group 
of ‘ten incarnations’, nor docs it mention the Buddha anywhere except 

244 A study of the history of Sanskrit Poetics shows that the number of 
Alatnkaras was multiplied in later times, but the Prahelikas, which were once 
very widely popular, came to lose their importance as literary compositions and 
experienced a gradual decrease in their number, 

245 For a datailed treatment (in Bengali) of the influence of the .Visnudhar- 
mottara on Bhamaha and Dandin see Out Heriuge, II, 1954, pp. 375-404* *0^ 
HI, 1955. 

246 For instance, the line ‘sarvarksa-parivartais ca naksatra iti cocyate’ is as- 
cribed to the Brahma-siddhanta in Srarti-tattva, I, p. 741 but to the Visnudhar- 
mottara in K^anirnaya, p. 63, Varsa-kaumudi. p. 224, Smm-tattva, I. pp,740-i, 
and so on. 



212 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


in III. 351 (verse 54) which is most probably spurious. It should be 
mentioned here that the Buddha began to be regarded as an incarna- 
tion of Visnu not very much earlier than 500 The Visnu- 

dharmottara names the Naksatras on many occasions, and it does so 
invariably in the order from Krttika to Bharani,**® which, as the 
Yajhavalkya-smrti, the latest books of the Mahibharata,®*® and 
Varahamihira’s Brhat-samhita indicate, held ground at best down to 
the latter half of the fifth century A.D. 

From all the evidences adduced above it is clear that the Visnu- 
dharmottara cannot be dated earlier than 400 A. D. and later than 
500 A.D. Biihler also is of opinion that ‘the date of its composition 
cannot be placed later than about 500 A.D.’®‘'“ This early date of 
the Visnudhatmottara is fully supported by its non-Tantric character 
as well as by the frequent use of the word ‘pradurbhava’ instead of 
‘avatara’ which occurs only in two places (viz., in I. 172. 56 and III. 
353 - 8 ). 

Although the numerous cross-references in the Visnudharmottara*®* 
indicate that the above-mentioned general date may be taken to be that 

247 See Hazra, Puranic Records, pp. 4 *-42. 

248 Visnudh. I. 59. 6-15; 82. 22-33; 83. 13-Z1; 91. 11-23; 95 - 54 ' 99 « 99 - 
11-24; loi. 5-14; loz. 11-23; 142. 37 (krttikadi-bharanyantam); II. 22. 20-24; 
III. 317. 20-27; 3*8. 1-32; and so on. 

249 Mbh XIII, chaps. 64, 89 and 1 10. 

250 Ind. Ant., XIX, 1890, p. 408. 

According to M. Winternitz, the Visnudhatmottara was ‘compiled between 
628 and 1000 A.D.’ (see Winternitz, History of Indian Literature, I, p.580). 
Stella Kramrisch is of opinion that this work ‘cannot date earlier than the 5th 
century A.D.’ and later than SahkaracSrya. (See Journal of the Department of 
Letters, XI, p. 3). 

251 For instance, Visnudh. 1 . iii. i refers to I. 110. 28; I. 129. i refers to 

1 . 128. 32; I. 148. 1-3 refer to the contents of I. 129-147; I. 1^8. 3a refers to 
I. 130. 3ff.; 1 . 165. I refers to I. 163. 8; I. 173. i refers to 1 . 170. 13; I. 197. 
1-3 refer to I, chaps. laSflE., chap, no and chaps. 1 17-121; II. i. 1-2 refer to 

I. 201-269; II, I. 6 refers to I. 70; II. 1.7 refers to 1 . 72-73 ; II. 99. i refers to 

II . 95-97; 11 . 99. 2 refers to 11 . 53; HI. 60. 2 refers to III. 47; HI. 63. 2 refers 
to HI. 46; HI. 67. 1 refers to III, 56 and 52; III. 70. i refers to III. 50 and 51; 
HI. 71.2 refers to III, chaps. 56, 52, 47 and 50; III. 73.18 refers to III. 77; 

III. 73. 24 refers to HI. 82 ; 111 . 83.5 refers to 111 . 25; 111 . 83.8 refers to 



TiHE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 213 

of the great majority of its chapters, there are certainly some extracts 
and even complete chapters which are spurious. For instance, Visnudh. 
1 . 105.^-20 (in which Pulastya speaks to a Brahmin named Dalbhya on 
Asunya-sayana-dviuya)ijn</ /. 1^6. which Pulastya’s speech to 

Dalbhya on the ways of release from rebirths— samsara-mukti-hetu— 
IS followed by an interlocution between Krsna and Yudhisthira) must 
have been added at a comparatively late date. These verses begin 
abruptly with the words ‘dalbhya uvaca , although nothing is said in any 
of the preceding verses about Dalbhya and Pulastya; and their subject- 
matter is quite unconnected with those of verses 1-4 of chap. 145 and 
verses 4rb ff, of chap. 146. As a matter of fact, they create a serious 
breach in the topics of the chapters and verses preceding and following 
them. The spurious character of these verses is further shown definitely 
by the facts that they occur neither in the Matsya-p. (although it con- 
tains verses 1-2 and 4 of chap. 145 and verses 4ib-59 of chap. 146 
of Visnudh. I) nor in the Ms of the Visnudharmottara noticed by H.P. 
Shastri and that their subject-matter is not mentioned in Visnudh. 
I. 148. i-j which refer to the topics dealt with in the preceding 
chapters (i 29-1 47). As the Visnudharma contains a good number of 
consecutive chapters dealing with the same topics and also others and 
having the same interlocutors as those of the verses mentioned 
above, - it is undoubted that somebody took most of these verses from 
the Visnudharma, adapted them to the interlocution between Vajra and 
Markandcya, and then inserted them into the Visnudharmottara after 
the Matsya-p. had plagiarised chapters and verses from it. 

Similarly, Visnudh. Ill, 215-220 (on Sugati-dvadasi-vrata, Sugati- 
paurnamisi-kalpa, Santanastaml-vrata, Asi-dhara-vrata, Ananta-dvadasl- 


Hl. 26£E., III. 85. 57 refers to III. 76; III. loi and III. 116. i refer to the ‘&un-’ 
ara-^ta in Khanda 1 ; and so on. 

* 5 ^ Shastri, Notices, II, pp. 164-172, No. 190, 

In this Ms, chap. 1 45 deals with ‘sraddha-desanukirtana’, chap. 146 with 
wsa-laksana , and chap. 147 with ‘vrsotsatga-vidhi’. These chapters correspond 
respectively to chaps, 144, 146 (verses 41b to the end) and 147 of the printed 
® . of the Visnudharmottara and do not deal with Afunya-layana-dvitiya etc. 
*53 For the chapters of the yisnudharma in which Pulastya speaks to 
ya and for their contents, see above under ‘Visnudharma’, 



114 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


vrata and Brahma-dvadasi-vrata) must be later additions. These six 
chapters have Pulastya and Dalbhya as the interlocutors and form a 
distinct section ending with the words ‘sainaptah pulastya-dalbhya- 
satnvadah’. They do not occur in the Matsya-p., and of them the 
first three and the fifth agree with Visnudharma, chaps. 5, 7 and 8 
respectively, in which Pulastya speaks to Dalbhya. There is no doubt 
that the Visnudharmottara derived these chapters from the Visnudharma. 

As regards the provenance of the Visnudharmottara it can be said 
that this work must have been comfiled either in Kashmir or in the 
northernmost fart of the Punjab. The evidences supporting this view 
are as follows. 

(i) The law of inheritance (with regard to the right of the father 
and the son to the property inherited from the grandfather), as given 
in the Visnudharmottara,^®^ is the same as that of the Mitaksara 
school. 

(ii) The incidents of most of the stories given in the Visnu- 
dharmottara have been located in the western part of Northern India, 
especially in or about the land of the five rivers,*® * 

(iii) Camels have been mentioned in connection with donation 

etc-*®* 

(iv) Visnudh. III. 314 mentions different kinds of rice, of which 
Rakta-^li (which is a variety of Sali rice) is said to be the best. 

(v) In giving an account of the distribution of tribes in India, 
the Visnudharmottara (I. g) divides this country into several parts, 
viz., central, eastern, south-eastarn, southern, south-western, western, 
north-western, northern and north-eastern. The localities, comprised 
in these parts, show that the author of the Visnudharmottara must 
have lived somewhere about the land of the 'five rivers’. 


254 III. 330. 19-203 — 

paitamahe tv asvatantrah pita bhavati dharmatah/ 
pitamaharjite vitte pituh putrasya cobhayoh / / 
svetnyam tu sadrsam jneyam putras ced gunavan bhavet/ 

255 Visnudh. I, chaps. 20, 148, 162, 164, 167-170, and so on. 

256 Visnudh. III. 301. 32, and 312. 5. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


215 


(vi) The rivers Sarayu, Yamuna, Iksumati, Sarasvati, DrsadvatT, 
Devika, Sindhu, Vitasta, Candrabhaga, Iravatl, Vipasa and ^acadru, 
especially the last seven, have been mentioned and praised as divine 
on many occasions.*®' For instance, the Devika*®® and the Vitasta*®* 
have been identified with ‘Uma, wife of Samkara’, and the Iravatl, 
^atadru and Sarasvati have been called ‘devi’.*®® As a matter of fact, 
the author of the Visnudharmottara seems to have created occasions 
for praising these rivers whenever possible. 

(vii) In Visnudh. I. 162. 61-65 the meeting places of the follow- 
ing rivers have been described as highly sacred: — (a) Gahga and 
Sarayu, (b) Gahga and Sona, (c) Gahga and Iksumati, (d) Gahga and 
Yamuna, (c) Gomatl and Sarayu, (1) Kausiki and GandakI, (g) Vipasa 
and Devahrada, (h) Vipasa and Satadru, (i) Sindhu and Iravatl, 
(j) Candrabhaga and Vitasta, and (k) Sindhu and Vitasta. 

(viii) In Visnudh. I. 162. 33-35 the confluence of the Candra- 
bhaga and the TausI (a small rivet in Kashmir) is praised as follows: — 

sa kadacin maya sardham tausim nama nadim yayau/ 
tasyas ca samgamah punyo yatrasic candrabhagaya//, 
candrabhaga saric-chrestha yatra sltamalodaka/, 
mahadeva-Jau-jute gahga nipatita pura/ / 
candrena bhagato nyasta candrabhaga smrta tatah/ 
tat-kala-tapta-salila tausl tatrarka-nandintjf 
(ix) The sacred lake Bindusaras has been mentioned more than 
once*** and said to have been created by the drops of water of the 
Gahga when she was falling on Siva’s head.*** 


257 Visnudh. I. ii; I. 69. 11-13; 1 . 164. 23-26; I. 167; I. 170. 4®.; 1 * 207. 
40-65; I. 215. 44-52; II. 22. 158, 163 and 168-171; III, 125. i4ff, 

258 Visnudh. I. ii, ro-n; 167. 15-16; and 207. 55-56. 

259 Visnudh. I. 164, 23-24. 

260 Visnudh. I. II. 15, 16 and 18. 

261 Visnudh. I, 19. 19; I. 80. 18; II. 22. 159; and so on. 

26a Visnudh. I. 19. 18-19 — 

tasyah patantya ye kecid bindavah kntiin agatah/ 
taih krtam prthivi-pala tada hindusarah subham/ / 



216 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


(x) Visnudh. I. 139 states that Visnu assumed the form of 
Varaha, raised the earth after killing Hiranyaksa, and stationed himself 
on the Varaha-parvata (in Kashmir), and that it was at this place that 
the custom of offering sraddha to the deceased was first introduced 
by him in the Vaivasvata Manvantara. 

(xi) A study of the Visnudharmortara shows that the author or 
authors of this work had an intimate acquaintance with the geography 
of Kashmir as well as of the northern part of the Punjub. In Visnudh. 
III. 125. lo Kashmir has been mentioned as a seat of Visnu. 

From the evidences adduced above it is highly probable that the 
Visnudharmottara was composed somewhere in Southern Kashmir. 
Biihler and Winternitz also take it to be a work of Kashmir.**® 

The Visnudharmottara is avowedly a Vaisnava work claiming to 
deal with the ‘various duties of the Vaisnavas’.*®* It belongs to the 
Pancarltras and is not ‘a production of the Bhagavata sect’ as Biihler 
takes it to be.**® It recommends the Pahearatra method of Visnu- 
worship, adds great importance to the due observance of ‘panca-kala’,*** 
holds the scriptures of the Pancaratras in high esteem,**’ and extols 
one who honours, or makes gifts to, those who are versed in these 
scriptures.*** According to the Visnudharmottara,**® Narayana is the 
highest deity and Supreme Brahma (param brahma). He is the 
original source of both matter and spirit. For the sake of creation he 
takes to gunas and appears as Brahma, Visnu and Hara. Visnu, who 
carries on the work of protection with the help of Laksmi, exists in 
different parts of the universe by assuming different forms through 
maya. In the world of mortals he resides with Laksmi in Svetadvipa 

263 Ind. Ant„ XIX, 1890, p. 383, Winternitz, History of Indian Literature, 

I. p. 580. 

264 yhnudh. I. I. 16 and 23 — vaisnavan vividhan dharman; I. i. 19 — visnu- 
dharman sanatanSn. 

265 Ind. Ant., XIX, 1890, p. 382, 

266 Visnudh, I. 6. 40; 1 . 6 1-65; and so on. 

267 Visnudh. I. 74. 34; II. 22. 133; III. 73. 48; III. 257. 4; and so on. 

268 Visnudh. I. 58. lo and III. 155. 6. 

269 For an idea of Vaisnava theology, see especially Visnudh.I, chaps. 2,6,52, 
58, 63 (verses 34-40), 139 (verses 19-22), and so on. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 


217 


which is said to be situated in the ocean ot milk lying on the cast o£ 
the mountain Meru. The Visnudharmottara calls Narayana ‘caturac- 
man’ and believes in the doctrine of Vyuha as expounded in the 
Pancaratra Samhitas.®^® It states that by persistently worshipping 
Visnu with absolute devotion (ekanta-bhava) according to the Panca- 
ratra method, one can pass to Svctadvipa after death, reside there for 
long in a divine form, and then attain final emancipation by entering 
Vasudeva after passing successively through the Sun (aditya-mandalam), 
Brahma, Aniruddha, Pradyumna and Samkarsana. It lays special 
stress on image-worship*'^ and recommends to the Visnu-worshippcrs 
both the Vedic mantras (viz,, savitrl etc.) and the sectarian ones (*otn 
namo nSrayanaya’ and ‘om namo bhagavate vasudcvaya’ of eight and 
twelve syllables respectively) but says that women and Sudras are 
allowed to use the latter mantras only.*'* As it regards Visnu as 
‘sarva-devamaya’ and ‘sarva-rupadhara,’*'* it recommends the vows 
and worship of other deities also and thereby tries to infuse the 
Worshippers of these deities with Vaisnava ideas. It looks upon 
Krsna as one of the manifestations of Visnu and seems to add little 
importance to cowherd Krsna (of Vrndavana), who is mentioned very 
briefly on two occasions only.*'* It adds special importance to the 
Pasupatas, whose scriptures it mentions along with those of the 
Pancaratras in more places than one,*'* but it subordinates Satnkara 
to Narayana. So, it seems that the Pancaratras had the Pasupatas as 
their most powerful rivals. 

The Visnudharmottara is practically free from Tantric influence. 
It advises the Vaisnavas to worship Visnu and other deities in images, 
pictures, altars, pitchers (full of water), or lotuses (drawn on the 

270 For clear exposition of the doctrine of Vyuha. see F. O. Schrader, Intro- 
duction to the Pancaratra and the Ahirbudhnya Sainhita, pp. *7®* 

271 Visnudh. I. 65. 32 — 

sakare baddha-laksas tu sunyani saknou cintitum/ 
anyatha tu sukastam syan niralambasya cinunam// 

See also Visnudh. III. 108. 26-27. 

372 Visnudh. I. 155. 27-28; I. 157. 16-17; 1 . 163. 8-ii; and so on. 

273 Visnudh. III. 126. 3. 

274 ybnudh. III. 85. 71®., and 106. 117-125. 

275 Visnudh. I. 74. 34; II. 22. 133-4: III. 73- 48; » 57 . so on. 

2g 



218 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


ground)®^* and recommends the use of Vedic or Puranic mantras or 

both in vows and worship. But it does not recognise the Tantric 
'yantra as a medium of worship, nor does it prescribe the use of 
Tantric mantras. The Tantric bljas, found in some of the stotras and 
kavacas contained in the Visnudharmottara,®'^ are most probably due 
to the influence of the Pancaratra Samhitas, which the Visnu- 
dharmottara follows in form and ideas. 

Although the Visnudharmottara decries the Pasandas as extremely 
unholy and detestable, it seems to have been influenced by Buddhism. 
It recommends the worship of Aiduka, Dharma and Vyoman and 
describes their images.^'® By its recognition of Mayura,®'* Hamsa®*® 
etc. as manifestations of Visnu and by its statement that whenever 
there is decline of dharma, Vasudeva is born, according to necessity, 
among gods, men, Gandharvas, serpents, birds, or others and behaves 
like those creatures among whom he is born,*®‘ the Visnudharmottara 
reminds us of the Jataka stories. 

The Visnudharmottara is written mostly in verse, but some of its 
chapters, or parts thereof, are written in prose.®** Regarding the 
language of this work it may be said that like many other Puranas it 
contains a number of ungrammatical forms. For instance, it has 
‘vartata for ‘vartamanena’ (I. 1.14), ‘yatrastham’ for ‘yatra tisthantam’ 
(I. 4 ' 3 ^)* ‘tstrastham for ‘tatra tisAantam’ (I. 6.58 and 61), ‘sandhya- 
saha for ‘sandhyaya saha’ (I. 26.8), ‘prathame’ for ‘prathamam’ 
(I. 139.1), ‘duhitam for ‘duhitaram’ (I. 252.8), ‘patnayah’ for 
‘patnyah (III. 67.15a and III. 103.21), and so on. 

276 For the different mediums ot worship see Visnudh. II. 90. 9, II. 153. 6, 
II- 158. 3, and so on. For 'padma’, see .Visnudh. II. 44. lyff., 11 . 47. 26!!., 
II. 50. zoff. and yyff.. and II. 54. 4. 

277 8ec Visnudh. I, chaps. 13^* 196, 2^8, and so on. 

278 See Visnudh. Ill, chaps. 84. 77 and 75. 

279 Visnudh. I, 188. 7 and 9. 

280 .Visnudh. I. ,80. 8; 1 . 190. 19; 111. , ,8. 7; , .9. so on. 

281 .Visnudh. I. 38. 10-133 and 1. 172. 8-10. 

282 Sec Visnudh. I. 237 (pardy); II. 166-174 (Paitamaha-siddhanta); HI. 
chaps. 6, 18-19. 3^. ih, 95 (partly), 97-101. 109-117, 344 (partly), 346 (partly). 
350 (pardy). 352 (partly), and 355 (pardy). 



219 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 
3 . THE NARASIMHA-PURANA 

The present Narasimha-purina,*®* which is also called Nrsitnha- 
(or Narasimha-) purana, is one of the oldest and most important of 
the extant Vaisnava Upapuranas. It begins with a salutation to Nara- 
siinha and states that once, in the month of Magha, some Veda- 
knowing sages came with their disciples to Prayaga from different 

283 Edited by CJddhavacarya and published by Gopal Narayan & Co., 
Bombay. Second edition, Bombay 1911. 

This is a very careless edition based on three Mss which have been referred 
to simply as ^ and Td, but of which no information or description has been 
given by the editor. 

In this edition, the chapter immediately following chap. 10 is called eleventh 
at the beginning but twelfth at the end. As a matter of fact, chaps. 1 1 and 12 
hive been combined without any demarcation, though Ms 'll says that 
chap. 12 begins from verse 54. 

Though I am fully conscious of the fact that no serious chronological deduc- 
tion should be based on this worthless edition, the absence of any better, or 
even a second, edition of this Purana has compelled me to utilise it here. I 
have, however, consulted a number of Mss of this work and have not used any 
evidence which is not supported at least by most of these Mss. 

For Mss of this Purana see 
(i) Mitra, Notices, III, pp, 1*5, No. 1020. 

[This Ms, which consists of 63 chapters and was found at Navadvipa, is 
written in Bengali characters and dated 5 aka 1567, It begins as follows; — 
om namo nrsimhaya/ 

tapta-hataka'kesagra-jvalat-pavaka-Iocana/ 
vajradhika-nakha-sparsa divya-simha namo’stu te// 
nakha-mukha-vilikhita-diti-tanayor 3 h-paripatad-.i 5 rg-arunjkpa-gatrah/ 
himakara-girir iva gairika-gatro naraharir aharahar avatu sa hy asman// 
himavad-vasiuah sarve munayo veda-paragah/ 
trikalajha mahatmano naimisaranya-vasinah/ / 

&c &c 

It ends thus ; — 

nettair martanda-candais tribhir anala-sikha nyagvahadbhih pradiptah/ 
payad vo narasimhah kata-khara-nakharair bhinna-daityaf ciradyah / 
kim kim simhas tatah kim nara-sadrsa-vapur deva citcam grhita 
naivam dhik konvajived drutam upanayatam so’ pi satyam harisah/ 
capam capam nakhahgam jhauti daha daha karkafatvam nakhanam 
ity evam daitya-natham nija-nakha-kulifair jaghnivan yah sarosat/ / 



220 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


parts o£ India (viz., Himalaya, Naimisaranya, Arbudaranya, Puskara- 
ranya, Mahendra mountain, Vindhya mountain, Dharmaranya, Danda- 
karanya, Srisaiia, Kuruksetra, Kaumara-parvata, Pampa etc), had their 
hath in the holy Ganges, and saw Bharadvaja in his hermitage. When, 

iti srinarasimhapurane adye dharmartha-kama-moksa-pradayini para-brahma- 
svarupina idam ekam sunispannain dhyeyo narayanah sada naranyadevat param 
asti kimcit/ srinarasixnhapuranam samaptam/ / 6 -^ j j 

The list of its contents, as given by Mitra, shows that it lacks the story of 
Dhruva as occurring in chap. 31, verses 1-97 of the printed edition; the story 
of Prahlada as given in chaps. 40 (verses 6ob-6ib), 41-43 and 44 iverses 1-13) 
of the printed edition; the descriptioa of the characteristic evils of the Kali 
age as given in chap. 54, verses 8-6 1 of the printed edition; as well as chaps. 64 
(on the interlocution of Nuada and Pundarika on the glory of Narayana) and 
68 (on the glorification of the Narasimha-p.) of the printed edition. 

It also seems to lack the story of the Pandavas’ killing of the demohs 
Bahuroman and Sthulasiras on the bank of the Reva for carrying away Draupadi 
by force (as given in chap. 33, verses t5-85 and chap. 34, verse i of the 
printed ed.); and the story of Indra’s getting rid of his female form by mutter- 
ing the eight-syllabled mantra ‘om namo narayanaya’ (as found in chap. 63, 
verses io-ii9a of the printed ed.). 

It inserts a chapter oti the praise of holy places (tirtha-prasarnsa) in Ayo- 
dhya immediately after the chapters on Rama-pr^urbhava. ] 

(2) Aufrecht, Bod. Cat., pp. 82-83, Nos, *3®'‘39- 

[ (i) No. 138, which consists of 62 chapters and is written in Deva- 
nagari script, begins as follows : — 

narayanam namaskrtya etc. 
tapta-hataka-kesanta jvalat-pavaka-locana/ 
vajradhika-nakha-sparsa divya simha namo’stu te// 
patu vo narasitnhasya nakha-langala-kotayah/ 
hiranya-kasipo vraksa asrkkaddamamarunah/ / 
homabaddhagninah sarve munayo veda-pwagah/ 
trikalajna mahatmano naunisaranyavasinah// 

&c. 

but its end and final colophon arc not given by Aufrecht. 

Aufrecht s description of its contents shows that it not only lacks, like 
Mitra s Ms, the stories of Dhruva and Prahlada and the description of the 
characteristics of the Kali age, but also the topics on Yoga (as found in chap. 61 
of the printed ed.), and the enumeration of tirthas (as found in chaps. 65-67 
of the printed ed.). 

It also seems to lack the story of the killing of the demons Bahuromaa 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


221 


after mutual greetings, they were engaged in 'talks about Krsna’ 
(krsnasritah kathah), there arrived a Suta named Lomaharsana, who 
was a disciple of Vyasa and was versed in the Puranas (puranajna). 
After Lomaharsana had been duly received by the sages, Bbaradvaja 
thanked him for having narrated to them the Samhita named Varaha 
(i.c. the Varaha-purana) during the great sacrifice instituted by Saunaka 
and then wishing to hear from him the ‘Paurana-samhita named Nara- 
simha’ put to him the following questions tor detailed treatment: 

(1) Whence did this universe, with its moving and stationary 
objects, originate? Who preserves it? And where will it 
go after dissolution? 

(2) What is the extent of the earth ? 

(3) What acts please Narasimha? 

(4) How does creation begin, and how does it end? 

and Sthulasiras by the Pandavas, and the story o£ Indra’s getting rid of his 
female form by muttering the eight-syllabled mantra. 

The story of Rama-pradurbhava is given in this Ms in five chapters as 
against six (viz., 47-52) of the printed ed. (See also Dacca Univ. Ms No. 27 * 3 * 
described below, which also gives in five chapters the contents of chaps. 47*5^ 
of the printed ed.) . 

It docs not insert any chapter on the praise of holy places in Ayodhya. 

(ii) No. 139, which is written in Devanagari, is generally the same as 
the above Ms but contains chaps. 65*67 (nn tirthas) of the printed ed.] 

(3) Ind. Off. Cat., VI, pp. 121 i'i4. Nos. 3375'79- 

[(i) Of these five Mss, the first (Cat. No. 3375), which was copied in 
Devanagari script in 1798 A. D., consists of 67 chapters. It begins with the 
verses ‘tapta-hataka-kesagra’ and ‘nakha-mukha-vidalita- (v.l. -vilikhita-)-diti- 
tanayorah-’ (with slight variations in readings) and ends thus : 
nrsimhasya-mahadeva-pujite bhakta-vatsale/ 
loka-nathe prabhau tena trailokya-pujito bbavet/ / 
yo narasimha-vapur astbitab pura 
hitaya lokasya ditch sutain yudhi/ 
nakhaih sutiksnair vidadara vairinam 
divaukasam tarn pranaraami kesavam/ / 

iti srinr.simhapurane adye dharmartha-kama-moksa-pradayini nama sattirtha- 
vainano namadhyayah/ / 

It lacks chaps. 64 and 68 of the printed ed- 

As Eggcling does not give the contents of the chapters, it is not known 



222 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


(5) What are the four Yugas? How are these to be reckoned, 
and what are their characteristics? 

(6) What will be the condition of people during the Kali age? 

(7) How is Narasitnha to be worshipped, and what places, 
mountains and rivers are sacred to him? 

(8) How were the gods, Manus, Vidyadharas and others first 
created ? 

(9) Which kings were sacrificers, and who attained the highest 
success ? 

The Suta consented to narrate the ‘Narasimha Purina,’ Conse- 
quently, he saluted his teacher Vyasa, through whose favour he learnt 

definitely whether this Ms also lacks the stories of Dhruva and Prahlada, the 
story of the Pandavas’ killing of the demons Bahuromaii and Sthulasiras, the 
story of India’s getting rid of his female form by muttering the eight-syllabled 
muntra, and the description of the evils of the Kali age. It is also not known 
whether it inserts a chapter on holy places in Ayodhya. 

(ii) The next two Mss (Cat. Nos. 3376-77), which also are written in 
Devanagari and of which the second one lacks the first Adhyaya, are practically 
the same as the preceding Ms. Their concluding verses are (with some 
variations in readings) the same as those of the Ms noticed by Mitra, and their 
colophon is as follows : — 

iti srinarasimhapurane adye dharmartha-karaa-moksa-pradayini para-brahma- 
svarupini idam ekam sunispannarn dhyeyo narayanah sada/na vasudevat param 
asu kimcit/ /iti narasirnha-puranarn samaptam// 

(iii) The fourth Ms (Cat. No. 3378) is written in Devanagari by 
different hands. It was copied in about 1500-1600 A.D., its last five folios 
being supplied in 17^9 A.D. It begins with the verse ‘nakha-mukha-vilikhita- 
diti-tanayorah-’. In the modern portion of this Ms the story of India’s getting 
rid of his female form by muttering the eight-syllabled mantra (as found in 
chap. 63, verses 10-1193 of the printed ed.) and the interlocution between 
N^ada and Pundarika on the glory of Narayana (as occurring in chap. 64 
the printed ed.) are given. 

(iv) The fifth Ms (Cat. No. 3379 — on Rama-pradurbhava) is written in 
Devanagari and divided into six sections named after the six Kandas (ending 
with the Lanka-k^da) of the Ramayana, It is practically the same as chaps. 
47-52 of the printed ed.] 

(4) Shastri and Gui, Calcutta Sans. College Cat,, IV, pp. 29-30 (Ms 
No. 36) and pp. 184-5 (Ms No. 298). The second Ms has been numbered 
again as 304. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


223 


the ‘Puranas,’ and then began to deal with the five Purana-topics (viz., 
primary creation, secondary creation, etc.) by way of answering all the 

[(i) Ms No. 36 consists of 63 chapters and is written in Bengali 
characters. It is ‘not old’. It begins with the verses ‘tapta-hataka-kesagra’ 
and ‘nakha-mukha-vilasita-diti-tanayorah-’ and ends thus : 

prasanne deva-devese sarva-papa-ksayo bhavet/ 
paksinah papa-baddhas te muktim yanti param gatim/ / 
nakhaih sutiksnair vvidadara vairinain 
divaukasam tain pranamami kesavam/ / 

vyMrgbhudbhinnabhasvatprthulahtalatacchadita kintvamargah/ 
patalam prapta-padah prakharatara.nakha-srotaso narasiiphah// 
kara-khara-nakharaih bhinna-vrtyas ciram vah// 
kim kim siddhas tat kinvah sadrsa-vapumetava citrain grhito 
nevadhikah so’pi jivedratamapanayatam sopi nityam harisah/ 
capam ajasraganair dasarjaghnivan yah sa rosate// 
iti srinarasiinhapurane trisastitamo’dhyayah samaptam narasimha-puranam// 
Like Mitra’s Ms and like the Dacca Univ. Ms No. 2713 described below, this 
Ms lacks, besides chaps. 41-43 and 68 of the printed ed., the following portions 
of the latter: Nar i 5 . 76-16; 16. 1-43; 31. 1-97; 32. 2ob-zi; 33. i-4a and 
15-85; 3^. 1; 40. 6oh-6iai 44. 1-13; and so on. 

(ii) Ms No. 298 (or No. 304) is an old one written in Bengali script 
and consisting of 67 chapters. It begins with the verse ‘tapta-hauka-kesagra’ 
and ends with the chapter dealing with the 68 holy places sacred to Visnu 
(vaisnavastasasti=chap. 65 of the printed ed.). It lacks chaps. 41-43 and 
66-68 of the printed ed. and also many others like the immediately preceding 
Ms and the Dacca Univ. Ms No. 2713 described below.] 

(5) Shastri, ASB Cat., V, pp. 711-13, Nos. 407^-81. 

[(i) No. 4076. — It is written in Bengali script and dated Saka 1617, 
It consists of 64 chapters, of which the 63rd chapter is named ‘Tirtha-yatra- 
prafamsa’ (=chap. 66 of the printed ed.). The Catalogue gives us no informa- 
tion regarding the contents of the different chapters. 

(ii) No. 4076A. — It is written in Bengali characters and dated Saka 
1586, No information regarding the number of its chapters or their contents 
is given by Shastri. 

(iii) Nos. 4077-81. — Of these five Mss the first is written in Kashmiri 
and dated Sainvat 1898, the second is written in Nagata of the 18th century, 
and the remaining three are written in Bengali script. Of these remaining three 
Mss, the first is dated Saka 1623 and the third is dated Saka 1639. 

The numbers of chapters of these five Mss or their contents are not 
mentioned in the Catalogue.] 



224 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


questions with the narration of various relevant stories. So, the pre- 
sent Narasimha-p. deals with the following topics : — 

Glorification of Narasimha (also called Visnu, Hari, Vasudeva, 
Krsna, etc.) by identifying him with Narayana, the eternal Brahma. 

(6) Keith, Ind. 0 £E. Cat., Vol. II, Part i, p. 916 (Nos. 6616-18). 

[(i) No. 6616. — It is written in Grantha characters of about 1866-67 
A.D. and consists of 61 chapters. Its beginning is very defective, and it ends 
with the verse ‘yo narasitnham vapur asthitah pura’. Its colophon runs as 
follows : — iti srinarasitphapurane ekasastitamo’dhyayah/ srilaksmanarasimhar- 
panam astu//harih om/kara-krtatn aparadhain ksantiim arhanti santah/ 

(ii) No. 6617. — It is an incomplete Ms written in Bengali characters of 
about 1800 A. D. It begins with the same verses as those of Eggeling 
No. 3375. 

(iii) No. 6618. — It deals only with geography and is not divided into 
chapters. It corresponds to chaps. 30 and 31 (verses 98-1 12) of the printed 
ed. and lacks the story of Dhruva as found in chap. 31, verses 1-97 of the 
printed ed,] 

(7) Dacca Univ. Mss Nos. 2713, 323 and 284A. 

[(i) Ms No. 2713, which was collected from Vaidyavati in the district 
of Hooghly, is written in Bengali characters and consists of 98 folios, of which 
fol. I is damaged and fol. 2 is mutilated at the left side. It contains 63 chapters 
and is dated 5 aka 1567. It is fairly correct. Like Mitra’s Ms, it begins with 
the verses ‘tapta-hauka-kesagra’ and ‘nakha-mukha-vilikhita-diti-tanayorah- . 
and ends thus : 

prasanne deva-deveie sarva-papa-ksayo bhavet/ 
praksina-papa-bandhas te muktitn ySnti parain punah/ / 
yo narasitnham vapur asthitah pura 
hitaya lokasya diteh sutam yudhi / 
nakhaih sutiksnair vidadara vairinain 
divaukasain tarn pranamami kelavam/ / 

vyajrmbhad-bhinna-bhasvat-prthu-lalita-saacchaditarkendu-margah 

patala-prapta-pada-prakhara-nakha-prota'lesahi-bhogah/ 
netrair martanda-candais tribhir anala-iikham udvahadbhih pradiptah 
payad vo narasimhah kara-khara-nakbarair bhinna-daityas ciradyah// 
kim kim sirnhas tatah kim nara-sadria-vapur deva citram grhito 
naivam dhik ko nu jivet drutam upanayatam sopi satyam harisab/ 
capam capam na khadgam jhauti daha daha karkalatvam nakhanam 
ity evam daitya-natham nija-nakha-kuliiair jaghnivan yah sarosat/ / 
iti kinarasimhapurane adye dharmartha-kama-moksa-pradayini paraipbrahma- 
svarupini idam ekam sunispannam dhycyo narayanah sada/ na vasudevat pacam 



TiHE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 225 

Description oE the origin oE the cosmic egg (anda) Erom Brahma (i.e. 
Narayana) according to the Samkhya system; Visnu’s presence as 
Brahma in this egg Eor creation. Division oE time into nimesa, kastha, 
kala^ muhurta, ahoratra (day and night), paksa (Eortnight), masa 
(month), ayana, virsa (yeat), yuga and kalpa ; and measurement oE 


asti kimeit srinarasimhapuranam samaptam/' sri-rama-caktavartinah pustakatn 
idatn/ sri-gopala-sarmanah svaksaram idamj j subham astu sakabdah *567//, 
terikha 23 jyaisthah/ / asumyam ^ukla-pakse tu guru-vare saniaptaS cayam 
granthah/ / 

The corresponding chapters in this Ms and the printed ed. are the following : 


Ms Printed ed. 

Chaps. i-29=Chaps. 1-29 respectively. 

Chap. 30 =Chaps. 30 and 31 (verses 
98-113). 

Chap. 31 =Chap. 32. 

Chap. 32 =Chap. 33 (verses 1-14); 

chap. 34 (verses 2-55). 

Chaps. 33-37 = Chaps. 35-39 respecti- 
vely. 

Chap. 38 =Chap. 40 (except verses 
6ob-6ib') ; chap. 44 
(verses 14-43J. 

Chaps. 39-44 = Chaps. 45-50 respecti- 
vely. 

Chap. 45 = Chaps. 51-52. 

Chap. 46 (on holy place in 

Ayodhya) = x 

Chap. 47 =Chap. 53 

Chap. 48 =Chap. 54 (verses i-6). 


Ms Printed ed. 

Chap. 49 =Chap. 54, verse 7 ; 
chap. 55. 

Chap. 50 =Chap. 56, 

Chap. 51 (except about! 

25 additional verses on 

selection of flowers , 2 \ 

and leaves for Visnu- (''^tses 7). 


worship) 

) 


Chap. 52 

=Chap. 57 (verses 

00 

1 

0 

Chap. 53 

=Chap. 58 (verses 

1-16). 

Chap. 54 

=Chap. 58 (verses 

17-38). 

Chap. 55 

=:Chap. 58 (verses 39-115), 

Chaps. 56-59 = Chaps. 59-62 

rcspcc- 


tively. 


Chap. 60 

=Chap. 63 (verses 

1-9 and 


1 196-122). 



Chaps. 61-63 = Chaps. ^5-^7 respec- 
tively. 


The above table shows that this Ms lacks the following sections of the 
printed ed. : — 

chap. 31, verses 1-97 — — on the story of Dhruva; 

chap. 33, verses 15-85 » 1 story of the kilting of the 

chap. 34, verse i 


chap. 40, verses 6ob-6ib ; 
chaps. 4J-43; 
chap. 44. verses 1-13 

chap. 54, verses 8-6 1 


— on tnc story 01 tnc Kiiiuig ot me 
demons Bahuroman and Sthulaliras 
by the Pandavas; 

i — on the story of Prahlada; 

I 

— on the characteristic evils of the Kali 
age; 


29 



226 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


these divisions with respect to men. Piers, Manus, Brahma etc. 
Brahma’s origin from the lotus in Visnu’s navel; origin of Rudra from 
Brahma’s rage; Brahma’s creation of Daksa and his wife, from whom 
Svayambhuva Manu was born. ( — Chaps. 1-3). Origin of the ten 

chap. 63, verses lo-iiga — on the story of Indra’s getting rid of 

his female form by muttering the 
eight-syllabled mantra', 

chap. 64 — — dealing with the interlocution between 

Narada and Pundarika on the glory 
of Narayana; 

chap. 68 — — on the glorification of the Nara- 

simha-p. 

On the other hand, the printed edition lacks chap. 46 (on holy places in 
Ayodhya) and about 25 verses (on the selection of leaves and flowers for 
yisnu-worship) of chap, 51 of the Ms. 

This Ms deals with the story of Rama-pradurbhava in five chapters (viz., 
41-45) as against six (viz., 47-52) of the printed ed.. chap. 45 of the former 
consisting of chaps. 51-52 of the latter. 

The agreement between this Ms and that described by Mitra is very close, 
and as both these Mss were copied in Saka 1567, they are either based on the 
same original or derived from the same archetype. 

(ii) Ms No, 323, which was procured from Ula in the district of Nadia, 
is written in Bengali characters and consists of 13 1 folios, of which fols. 37-40 
(containing chaps. 19-27, and verses i- 16 of chap. 28 of the printed ed.) are 
missing and fol. 131 is wrongly numbered 139. It contains 64 chapters and 
is dated Saka 1588. 

It begins and ends with the same verses (though with occasional variations 
in readings) as the preceding Ms, and its final colophon (viz., iti sri-narasimha- 
purane adye dharmartha-moksa-pradayini parambrahma-svarupini idam ekam 
sunispannam dhyeyo narayanah sada/na vasudevat param asti kimeit narasunha- 
puranam samaptam/subham astu sakabdah 1588/hatayc namah govindaya 
namah/) also agrees very closely with that of the latter. (It should be mentioned 
here that the colophon of its final chapter, which is almost the same as its final 
colophon, runs thus: — iti sri-narasiinha-purane adye ... na vasudevat param 
asti kimeit prathamo’dhyayah / ). 

This \Is lacks the same sections of the printed ed. as the preceding Ms. It 
also contains, like the preceding Ms, a chapter (viz., chap. 47 on holy places in 
Ayodhya) and about 5° lines (on the selection of leaves and flowers for Visnu- 
worship) in chap. 52, which do not occur in the printed ed. 

Thus, this Ms seems to have been derived from the same archetype as the 



227 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

sages Marici, Atri, Angiras etc. from Brahma’s mind; Brahma’s crea- 
tion of Satarupa, who was given in marriage to Manu; creation by the 
sages except Narada who was given to nivrtti-dharma; creation by 
Rudra; creation by Daksa; descendants of Daksa’s daughters. ( — Chaps. 
4‘5)* Description of the satnsara-vrksa (tree of rebirths) which causes 
delusion of the mind; praise of jhana, Visnu-worship and meditation 
on Visnu-Brahma as the means of getting rid of all sufferings brought 
on by rebirths; method and praise of muttering the eight-syllabled 


preceding Ms. The diflEerence in the number of chapters in these two Mss is due 
to the fact that the story of Rama-pradurbhava is given in the preceding Ms in 
five chapters as against six (viz., chaps, 41-46) of the present one. 

(iii) Ms No. 284A, which was procured from Nalahan in the district o^ 
Burdwan, consists of 121 folios and is written in Bengali script. It is dated 
Saka 1 742 and contains 53 chapters, of which chaps. 1 4-53 are not numbered. 

It begins with the verses ‘narayanam namaskrtya’, ‘tapta-hataka-kesagra’ 
and ‘nakha-mukha-vilikhita-diti-tanayorah-’, and ends thus : — 

imam stavam yah padiate sa manavah prapnoti visnot amitatmakaip hi tat// 
to sri-narasitnha purane dharmattha-kama-moksa-pradayini param-brahma- 
svarupini vaisnavasta-sasti-namadhyayah/ / 

asya sri-rajasimhasya prakrtyalingito harih / 
radha-mohana-rayasya prito bhavatu sarvada/ / 
yugma-sruty-asva-candrahkita-saka-mite bhaskare taisa-yate 
natvalekhin murareh kajanu-yuga-samam pada-yugmam surarcyam/ 
sri-radha-mohanakhya-ksitipa-naraharer narasimham puranam 
gotrad evanvavaya-prabhava-krta-mahayatna-santana asu// 

In this Ms, chap. 53 consists of chaps. 57 (verses 8-20) and 65 of the 
printed edition. Inverses i-j6 of chap. 53 of this Ms (which correspond to 
verses 8-20 of chap. 57 of the printed ed.) king Sahasranika asks Markandeya 
to describe to him the duties of the four castes and orders of life (varnasrama- 
dharma). Consequently, Markandeya begins to report what Harita, being 
requested by some sages to speak on ‘varnasrama-dharma’, ‘yoga-fastra’ and 
‘visnu-tattva’ (cf. bhagavan sarvva-dhatmmajna sarvva-dharmma-pravarttaka/ 
varnanam asramananca dharmman prabruhi sasvat^/samuad yoga-sastantu 
yam dhyatva mucyate narah/visnu-tattvam muni-sre.s^a tvam hi nah paramo 
guruh/), said to them on these topics. But in these verses HSrita is found only 
to introduce his subject by briefly narrating the origin of the four castes and 
the place fit for their residence and to say nothing on Varnasrama-dharma etc. 
On the other hand, in verses lytf. of this chapter (which corresponds to chap. 
fiS of the printed ed.) Suta, being requested by Bharadvaja, names the 68 pUuxs 



228 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


mantra ‘om namo narayanaya’ for the purpose. ( — Chaps. 16-18). 
Enumeration of Aditya’s 108 names (including Sambhu, Tvastr, 
Kapila, Mrtyu, Hari, Hamsa, Pratardana, Tarani, Mahendra, Varuna, 
Visnu, Agni etc.) as mentioned by Visvakarman (chap. 20). ‘Short 
genealogical lists of the kings of the Solar and the Lunar race, the 
former ending with Budha (v.l. ‘Buddha’ in some Mss), son of Suddho- 
dana, and the latter with Ksemaka, son of Naravahana and grandson 
of Udayana and Vasavadatta (chaps. 22-23). Accounts of the past, 
present and future Manus and Manvantaras (chap. 24). History of the 
prominent kings of the Solar and the Lunar race (vamsanucarita), 
especially of those who worshipped Narasimha and performed sacrifices 

sacred to Visnu. Hence it is sure that in the original Ms from which our pre- 
sent one was copied, verses i-i6o£chap. 53 were followed by chapters on 
Varnairama-dharma, Yoga and Visnu-tattva, i.e. by chaps. 57 (verses 21-30 on 
the duties of Brahmins), 58-60 (on the duties of the Ksatriyas, Vaisyas and 
Sudras, as well as of the students, householders, forest-hermits and yatis), 61 (on 
Yoga), 62 (on the Vedic procedure of Visnu-worship) and 63 (verses 1-9 and 
ii9b-i22 — on the popular method of Visnu-worship) of the printed ed. It is 
most probably due to the inadvertence of the scribe that these intervening 
chapters and verses have been omitted in our present Ms. 

As, like the other two Mss, it lacks the following sections of the printed 
ed., viz., 

chap. 31, verses 1-97 
chap. 33, verses 15-85 

chap. 40, verses 6 ob- 6 ib; 
chaps. 41-43; 
chap. 44, verses 1-13 
chap. 54, verses 8-61 

we may assume that the story of Indra’s getting rid of his female form (as found 
in chap. 63, verses 10- 1 19a of the printed ed.) and the interlocution between 
Narada and Pundarika on the glory of Narayana (as given in chap. 64 of the 
printed ed.) were wanting in the original Ms from which our present one was 
copied. 

(It should be mentioned here that the corresponding chapters of the Dacca 
University Mss on the one hand and the printed ed. on the other, differ not 
only in readings but also occasionally in the numbers of verses. For instance, 
after verse 31 of chap. 5 the Dacca University Mss have 24 metrical lines which 
arc not found in the printed ed.).J 


— on the story of Dhruva, 

— on the story of the Pandavas’ killing of 
the demons Bahuroman and Sthulaiiras, 




■on the story of Prahlada, 


— on the characteristic evils of the 
Kali age. 



229 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

(chaps. 25-29). Geography of the earth (chap. 30). Glorification of 
performance of duties towards parents and husband (chap. 14). Glori- 
fication of Brahmins and of service rendered to them (chap. 28). 
Results of giving various articles (chap. 30). Method of worship of 
Gancsa (chap. 26). Glorification of Narasimha-worship as well as of 
the different kinds of service rendered to Narasirnha and his temple 
(viz., construction and sweeping of the temple and besmearing it with 
cow-dung; bathing the image with pure water, milk, curd, honey etc. 
or with mantra-, offer of various articles; recitation of hymns of praise; 
presentation of flags marked with the figure of Garuda; songs, musical 
concerts, or theatrical performances etc. held tor Natasiinha’s pleasure; 
removal of the flowers etc. with which Narasirnha has been worshipp- 
ed; and so on. — Chaps, 32-34). Sins arising out of crossing the flowers 

(8) Mitra, Bikaner Cat., pp. 207-8, No. 452. 

[This Ms is written in Nagara and consists of only 41 chapters (so far as 
their number, given by Mitra in connection with the description of their con- 
tents, shows). The corresponding chapters of this Ms and the printed ed arc 
the following: — 

Ms Printed cd. Ms Printed ed. 

Chaps. i-29=sChaps. 1-29 respectively. Chap. 33 =Chap. 35. 

Chap. 30 =Chaps, 30; 31 (verses Chaps. 34-41 = Chaps. 36*39 ; 4° (ex- 
98- 1 13). cept verses 6ob-6ib); 

Chap. 31 = Chap. 32. 44 (verses 14-43); 

Chap. 32 =Chaps. 33 (verses i-i 4 ); 45 ' 47 - 

34 (verses 2-55).- 

So this Ms, which ends after dealing with only a few of the ten incarnations 
of Visnu, is necessarily incomplete. It lacks the stories of Dhruva, Prahlada, 
and the Pandavas who killed the demons Bahuroman and Sthulasiras for carry- 
ing away Draupadi by force.] 

(9) P. P. S. Sastri, Tanjore Cat., Xy, pp. 7 i 5 *- 53 » Nos. 10548-53. 

[Of these Mss, the first (No. 10548) consists of 64 chapters and is written 
in Devanagari. It begins with the verse ‘tapta-hataka-kesantarjvalat- and ends 
with the verse ‘yo narasimhatn vapur asthitah pura’. Its colophon is as follows: 
iti srimannarasiinha-purane adye dhatmartha-karaa-moksa-pradayini para-btahma- 
svarupa-nitupane catuhsastitamo ’dhyayah. The contents of its different 
chapters are not given in the Catalogue. 

No information regarding the beginnings, ends and contents of the other 
Mss is given by Sastri.] 



230 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


etc. with which Visnu has been worshipped (chap. 28). The methods 
of performing laksa-homa and koti-homa for the good of the village 
or the town or the country in which these are performed (chaps. 
34-35). Method of consecration of images of Visnu (chap. 56). The 
Vedic and the popular (sarva-hita) method of Narasimha-(or Visnu-) 
worship (chaps. 62-63).^®^ Description of the evils of the Kali age 
(chap. 54).^*® Duties of the four castes and orders of life (varnasrama- 
dharma — chaps. 57-60).^®® Description and praise of ‘joga which is to 

(10) Chakravarti, Vahgiya Sahitya Parisat Cat,, p. 72, No. 1432. 

[It contains chaps. 1-60 and is complete,] 

(11) Stein, [ammu Cat., p. 202. 

[One of the two Mss is complete and is written in modern Kasmiri 
script, while the other deals with Laksmi-nrsimha-sahasra-nama.] 

(12) Benares Sans. College Cat., pp. 337 and 338. 

(13) Hiralal, Catalogue of Sanskrit and Prakrit Manuscripts in the Central 
Provinces and Berar, pp. 224 and 248. 

(14) Lewis Rice, Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in Mysore and Coorg, 

p. 72. 

(15) Burnell, Classified Index, p. 188. 

(16) Haraprasad Shastri, Catalogue of Palm-leaf and Selected Paper Manu- 
scripts in the Durbar Library, Nepal, p. 29. 

[This Ms is written in Maithila script.] . 

(17) Poleman. Census of Indie Mss, p. 51, No. 1084. 

(18) M. Rangacharya, Madras Cat., IV. ii, pp. 1612-14, Nos. 2345-47 
(complete in 62 chapters). 

284 The mediums of worship are the following: — fire, heart (hrdaya), sun, 
altar and image. (Nar. 62. 5-6. Some Mss read ‘apsv agnau’ for ‘ato’gnau’). 

285 Regarding the conduct of people of the Kali age this Purana says that 
there will be an intermixture of castes, women will become unruly and licentious, 
Brahmavadins will drink wine, the members of the higher three castes will 
disregard the rules of dharmc, serve the Sudras, enjoy widows and Sudra women, 
and take food from the 5 udras, people will decry Hari and will not care to 
remember his name, Sudras will become pseudo-ascetics (pravrajya-linginah) and 
preach religious doctrines, these Sudras as well as many flowers among the 
twice-born will turn Pasandas, Brahmins will be eager for receiving gifts, and 
the Bhiksus will teach their students with a view to earning their livelihood. 

286 In enumerating the duties of the members of the four castes and orders 
of life this Purana says that a Ksatriya king should try to attain victory through 
fair means, that the Sudras should serve the twice-born, follow agriculture for 
earning their livelihood, and hear the Puranas from Brahmins, that a tw.ice-born 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 


231 


be practised by one who belongs to the fourth order of life (chap. 6i). 
Enumeration and praise of rivers®*^ and holy places^®* sacred to Visnu 
(chaps. 65-66). Praise of certain qualities of the mind (chap. 67). 
Mention and praise of a few Vratas (viz., Eka-bhakta, Nakta, Saura- 
nakta, Agastyargha-dana, etc. — chap. 67). Praise of the Narasiinha- 

purana (chap. 68). 

In connection with these topics the following stories have been 
introduced in this Purina: 

The story of the birth of Vasistha and Agastya from Mitra and 
Varuna when the latter saw UrvasI in a lake called PaundarTka in a 
forest in Kuruksetra (chap. 6); the story of Markandeya who, being 
destined to die at the age of twelve, worshipped Visnu, according to 
Bhrgu’s advice, with the twelve-syllabled mantra (om namo bhagavate 
vasudevaya) at Bhadravata on the bank of the river Tuhga-bhadra, 
with the result that even Death had no influence on him, and when 
Death and his assistants went to Yama to report how, in their attempt 
to bring Markandeya to the abode of Yama, they had been beaten 
back by the Visnu-dutas, Yama reproached them for their conduct 
towards the Visnu-dutas, and praised Visnu (also called Vasudeva and 
Krsna) as the chastiser even of himself (chaps. 7-1*); tl>e story of 
Yama, who, though repeatedly tempted by his passionate sister YamI 
to incest, did not agree to her proposal and was thus able to attain 
divinity (chap. 13); the story of a Brahmacarin named Deva-sarman 
who turned a wandering mendicant after his father s death, began to 
live at Nandigrima in Madhyadesa after visiting numerous holy 
places, became proud of his occult power by being able to reduce to 
ashes, by an angry glance, a crow and a crane which were carrying 

should not put on red or blue clothes, and that a teacher should not teach his 
students during the Mahanavami, Bharani-dvadasi, Aksaya-tmya and Maghi 
Saptami. 

287 Viz., Vitasta, Kaveri, Payosni, Vipasa, Sivanadi, Gomati, Sarasvati, 
Carmanvati, Godavari, Tuhgabhadra etc. 

a88 Viz., Kokatnukha, Pandya-sahya, Salagtama, Gandhamadana, Kubjagara, 
Gandhadvita, Sakala, Sayaka, Puskara, Kasetata, Mahavana. Halahgara, 

Dalapura. Cakra-tirtha, Devadaru-vana, Kumara-tirriia. Adhya, Sukara, Mihis- 

mati, Gayi etc 



232 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


away his rag, chanced to meet Savitrl, the devoted, and consequently 
omniscient, wife of a pious and learned Brahmin named Kasyapa, and 
was reproached by her for his pride as well as for his neglect of duties 
to his mother and forefathers (chap. 14); the story of a learned 
Brahmin, who, after his wife’s death, visited numerous holy places, 
turned a yaii at the advice of Narasimha (who warned him that one, 
who does not belong to any order of life, is not favoured by him), 
and attained salvation after death (chap. 15); the stories of the birth 
of the Asvins and the Maruts, said to have been summarised from 
those told respectively by Vayu and by 5 akti-putra*®® (i. e. Parasara) 
in the ‘Vaisnavakhya Purina’ (chaps. 19-21); the story of Iksvaku, 
who, considering renunciation to be the best way of Visnu-worship, 
went to the hermitage of Galava and others after eulogising and 
worshipping Ganesa according to Vasistha’s instructions, practised 
severe penance there, and muttered the twelve-syllabled mantra ‘otn 
namo bhagavate vasudevaya’, with the result that Brahma revealed 
himself before king Iksvaku, told him how, being directed by a voice 
from the air, he himself could experience Visnu by worshipping this 
god as well as by performing his own duties, and gave instructions to 
Iksvaku, who accordingly returned to his capital, did his duties as 
a householder, worshipped the images of Ananta and Madhava given 
to him by Brahma, and attained the region of Visnu (chaps. 25-26); 
the story of Santanu who, though worshipping Narasiinha according 
to the method learnt from Narada, once passed over Narasimha- 
nirmalya (i. e. the followers etc. with which Narasimha was worship- 
ped) and was thus disabled from mounting his divine chariot but who 
regained his power by clearing the remnants of food of Brahmins for 
twelve years in Kuruksetra (chap. 28); the story of Indra’s son who 
used to steal flowers from the garden of a florist named Ravi and was 
disabled from mounting his chariot in consequence of passing over 

289 The printed ed. reads ‘sakti-putrena’ (see Nar. 19.5), but the Dacca 
Univ. Mss Nos. 2713 (fol. 27a) and 284A (fol. 34b) as well as a few others 
read ‘saktri-putrena’. In the Dacca Univ. Ms No. 323, the folios (37-40)* 
containing chaps. 19-27 and verses 1-16 of chap. 28 of the printed ed., are lost. 
The readings (‘iakta-putrena’ and ‘salpa-putrena’) given by the Sanskrit College 
(Calcutta) Mss are corrupt. 



233 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

Visnu-nirmalya, placed by the florist near the garden according to 
Narasimha’s instructions, but who got rid of his disability and went 
to his heavenly residence after clearing the remnants of food of 
Brahmins for twelve years in Kuruksctra (chap. 28); the story of 
Dhruva’s attainment of high position among the stars and planets 
through Narasiinha’s favour attained by means of Visnu-worship as 
well as by muttering the twelve-syllabled mantra ‘oin namo bhagavate 
vasudevaya’ . (chap. 3 1); the story of the demons Sthulasiras and 
Bahuroman, who disguised themselves as ascetics on the bank of the 
Reva with a view to carrying away Draupadi, and of whom the former 
was killed by Bhima, and the latter, when chased by Arjuna, took 
the form of a four-armed and yellow-robed being with a conch-shell, 
disc etc. in his hands and narrated to Arjuna how in his previous 
birth as a Brahmin of ill repute he swept the floor of a Visnu-temple 
and lighted a lamp there for enjoying the wife of a Brahmin, how 
being beaten to death by the city-guards he attained heaven and 
remained there for a long time, how he was reborn as king Jaya- 
dhvaja of the Lunar race and rendered service to the Visnu-temple, and 
how after death he enjoyed various pleasures in the regions of Indra 
and Rudra and was cursed by Narada ro become a demon on 
his way to the Brahma-loka (chap. 33); the stories of the ten 
incarnations of Visnu (viz., Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Natasimha, 
Vamana, Parasurama, Rama,**® Balabbadra,*®^ Krsna,*** and Kalki***) 
including the story of Prahlada (chaps. 36-54); the story of Sukra’s 

ago In connection with the Rama-story it is said that being ordered by 
Sugtiva the monkeys searched for Sita in difierent places, viz., Kasmira, the 
eastern countries, Kamarupa, Kosala, Sapta-kohkanakas, etc. (Nar. 50. 20-21), 
and that Rama, before his decisive fight with Ravana, muttered the Aditya- 
hrdaya mantra which was imparted to him by Agastya (Nar. 5*. 96 * 97 )* 

*9* Balabhadra, who is said to be none but Narasitnha’s white energy (sita 
sakd), is said to have killed Rukmina, king of Kalihga, by uprooting his teeth, 
ag^ f^tsna, who is the dark energy (krsna sakti) of Narasimfaa, is said to have 
killed Naraka and many other Daityas (such as Hayagriva) of Ptagjyotisa, 

*93 According to the Narasimha-p., Kalki would be born as the son of 
Visnuyasas in the great village (mahagrama) called Sunbhala and exterminate 
the Mlecchas with a sword by mounting a horse. 

30 



234 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

regaining his eye which was pierced by Vamana (chap. 55); the story 
of Indra, who muttered the eight-syllabled mantra and got rid of his 
female form that was brought on him by the curse of the sage 
Trnabindu for killing in his hermitage the demoness Dirghajahgha 
who, under the guise of an extremely beautiful woman, acted as a 
spy to Kuvera whose wife Citrasena was stolen by Indra (chap. 63); 
the story of a Brahmin named Pundarlka, who became a wandering 
mendicant without entering the second stage of life, settled at Sali- 
grama and became an attendant (parsada) of Narayana by muttering 
the eight-syllabled mantra (otn namo narayanaya), and meditating 
on the deity according to the instructions of Narada who introduced 
himself as a servant (dasa) of Vasudeva (chap. 6 ^'). 

From the contents of the present Narasiinha-p. summarised above 
It IS clear that this Purina is meant exclusively for the glorification of 
Narasimha who is identified with Narayana (or Visnu) as one of the 
forms (murti) of the latter*** and is thus called not only Narayana 
but also Visnu, Vasudeva, Hari, Madhava, Ananta, K^na,*** Damo- 
dara etc. So, Narasimha, though a form of Narayana or Visnu, is 
himself the principal god also. It is this supreme deity called Narayana 
(or Visnu or Narasiniha) who takes the forms of Brahma and Rudra 
for the sake of creation and destruction respectively; and for the work 
of preservation he takes the forms of (the inferior) Visnu, Narasimha 
etc.*** In creation he takes to maya.^*- Though in this Purina 
Visnu (or Narayana) is described as four-armed, yellow-robed, having 
a complexion like that of the cloud, and holding 3 conch-shell, a disc, 
a mace and a lotus in his hands, he is called nirvikalfa ^ nisfrafanca, 
advaita, sarvdtmaka, atma-caitanya-rufa, jyotih-svariij>a, avyakta-svarUpa, 
dnanda-riipa, cidatmaka etc.**® and is identified with Brahma of 
Vedanta and Purusa of Sainkhya.*?* 

294 Nar. 1. 30 ; r. 64-65. 

295 Nar. r. 10; 7. 37. 

296 Nar. 1.30; 2.1; I. 61-62 and 64-65; 39. lyb-iSb, 

297 Nar. 3. 28 — mayam adhisdiaya srjaty anantah. 

298 Nar. 17. 17-18, 24-25 and 27; i. 616-623; i. 31a; 53. ii; and so on. 

299 Nar. 1. 31a and 36-39; 3. 13; 17. 35a, 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVa UPAPURANAS 235 

It has already been said that the present Narasimha-p. is one of the 
oldest of the extant Vaisnava Upapuranas. It was translated into 
Telugu about 1300 A.D.*®“ and is profusely drawn upon by the 
commentators and Nibandha-writers both early and late. For instance, 
Gadadhara quotes verses from chap. 58 in his Kalasara; Nllakntha 
from chaps. 34 and 58 in his Acara-mayukha ; Gopalabhatta from 
chaps. 8, q, 18, 28, 32, 33, 34, 57 (as occurring in some Mss), 58 
and 66 in his Haribhaktivilasa; Anantabhatta from chaps. 34 and 35 
in his Vidhana-parijata, I; Narasimha Vajapeyin from chaps. 7, 8, 
28, 33, 34, 57 (as occurring in some Mss), 58 and 63 in his Nitya- 
cara-pradlpa; Raghunandana from chap. 62 in his Durga-puja-tattva 
and from chaps. 8, 18, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 57 (as occurring in some 
Mss), 58, 62, 63, 66 and 67 in his Smrti-tattva; Govindananda from 
chaps. 30, 34, 57 (as occurring in some Mss), 58, 62 and 67 in his 
Varsa-kaumudI, from chap. 58 in his 5 uddhi'kaumudl and Sraddha- 
kaumudl, and from chap. 30 in his Dana-kaumudi; Srinathacarya- 
cudamani from chap. 58 in his Krtya-tattvarnava; Rudradhara 
Upadhyaya from chaps. 30 and 67 in his Varsa-krtya; Vidyakara 
Vajapeyin from chaps. 8, 13,32, 58 20863 in his Nicyacara-paddhati; 
^ulapani from chap, 58 in his Dlpa-kalika; Vacaspati-misra from 
chap. 65 in his Tirtha-cintamani; Vidyapati Upadhyaya from chaps. 
30, 32 and 58 in his Ganga-vakyavali; Candesvara Thakkura from 
chaps. 30, 34, 58 and 67 in his Krtya-ratnakara, and from chaps. 55 
(as occurring in some Mss) and 38 in his Grhastha-ratnakara; Madha- 
vacarya from chaps. 38 and 60 in his commentary on the Parasara- 
smrti; 8ridatca Upadhyaya from chaps. 28, 32, 34, 53 (as occurring 
in some Mss) and 38 in his Acaradarsa [alias Krtyacara), and from 
chap. 67 in his Samaya-pradipa; Madanapala from chaps. 34, 57 (as 
occurring in some Mss) and 58 in his Madana-parijata; Hemidri from 
chaps. 26, 30, 38 and 67 in his Caturvarga-cintamani; Halayudha 
from chaps. 38 and 62 in his Brahmana-sarvasva; Vallalascna 
from chaps. 30, 34 and 58 in his Danasagara; Devana-bhatm 
from chaps. 30, 34, 57 (as occurring in some Mss) and 38 in his 
Smni-candrika; Apararka from chaps. 58, 60, 62 and 63 in his com- 

300 Farquhar, Outline of the Religious Literature of India, p. 249. 



236 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


mentary on the Yajnavalkya-smrti; and Laksmidhara from chaps. 17, 
26, 30, 55, 58, 59, 60,61, 62.65, 66 and 67 in his Krtya-kalpataru, 
Vols. I-III, V, VI, VIII and XIV. In his Smrci-tattva, II. pp. 84 and 
284 Raghunandana quotes Nar. 66. 45 and Nar. 30. 29-303 not 
direct from the Narasimha-p. but from the ‘Tirtha-kanda-kalpataru’ 
and *Dana-ratnakara’ respectively. Though Vallalasena is very parti- 
cular about the authenticity of the Puranas which he draws upon in 
his Danasagara,’®* he describes the present Narasirnha-p. as a work 

301 Interesting information about the Puranas is supplied by Vallalasena 
when, in his Danasagara, he refers to the contents of a few Puranic works by 
way of explaining why he rejected them partly or wholly. Regarding the Adi- 
purana he says that though it was well-known for its treatment of gifts divided 
according to the division of the year, it was slightly touched upon in the 
Danasagara, because its contents were already fully utilised in the Acara-sagara; 
the Bhagavata, the Brahmanda and the Naradiya-purana did not contain any 
chapter on gifts and were consequently set aside; the Linga-purana, whose 
volume was expanded by the chapters on big donations (mahadana) contained 
in the Matsya-purana and which was thus no better than a digest on gifts, was 
not drawn upon, because the substance of its contents was already obtained 
from other Puranas; the Bhavisya-purana was utilised upto the chapters dealing 
with the saptami (-kalpa), while those on the astami and navami (-kalpa) were 
rejected on account of their imbibing Tantric influence; the Visnu-rahasya and 
the ^iva-rahasya, which were famous among the people, were mere compilations 
and were consequently not utilised; and though the Bhavisyottara was famous 
for its customary laws (or was popularly followed) and did not contradict good 
customs, it was avoided in the Danasagara for want of sufficient evidence to 
prove its authenticity. 

Next, Vallalasena names a set of Puranas rejected by him as spurious, viz., 
Tarksya (i.e. Garuda), Brahma, Agneya, Vaisnava consisting of 23000 slokas. 
and Linga of 6000 flokas; and in connexion with their contents he says that 
these works, dealing with initiation, consecration, ways of salvation for the 
Tantriks, testing of gems, fictitious genealogies, lexicography, grammar etc, and 
containing irrelevant and contradictory statements, were used as means of decep- 
tion by Mina-ketanas (followers of Minanacha? ) and others, who are hypocrites, 
heretics and pseudo-ascetics. By his remark that due to its wide circulation the 
Skanda-purana existed in more parts than one, and that three of its parts dealt 
with the accounts (katha) of Paundra, Reva and Avanti, Vallalasena seems to 
include those three parts among the spurious Puranas. — ^See Danasagara, pp. 6-7 
(verses 55-68). 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 287 

dealing prominently with donations*®* and utilises it without the least 
shade o£ doubt as regards its authenticity, antiquity and non-Tantric 
character. These show that by the first half of the eleventh century 
A. D. the Narasimha-p. attained so much prominence that its authen- 
ticity as an ancient ‘Purina’ was not at all questioned. Hence this 
Purina must have been written not later than 850 A.D. 

The mention of a 'Varihakhya Samhiti’ or ‘Viriha’*®* in the 
Narasiinha-p. must not be taken to point to the extant Variha-p. and 
thus be used as an evidence in favour of the late date of the present 
Narasimha. In Nar. I. 14-15 Bharadvaja says, “O Suta, the Sarnhita 
named Variha has already been heard from you by these (sages) and 
ourselves during the great sacrifice of Saunaka; at present these sages 
and myself want to hear from you the Paurina-samhiti named Nira- 
sirnha”*®*, and in Nar. 31. lob-iia Suta says in connection with 
geography, “The region of Visnu is situated at a distance double in 
comparison with that of the region of Brahma; its glory has been 
described in the Variha by those who think over the (different) 
regions”.*®® From these it is clear that the Narasimha-p. speaks of a 

302 See Danasagara, p. 3 (verses labff.) — 

... ... kurtnapuranadipuranayoh/ 

uktany upapuranani vyakca-daaa-vidhini ca// 

adyatn puranatn sambatn ca kalikahvayam eva ca/ 

nandam aditya-satnjnam ca narasitpham tathaiva ca//etc. ^ 

303 H Nar. ij. 11 la the printed ed. reads ‘varahe’, but most of the Mss 
read ‘varahe’ in the corresponding line. See foot-note 305 below. 

3oq bharadvaja uvaca — 

saunakasya mah^atre varahakhya tu sarnhita/ 
tvattah sruta pura suta etair asmabhir eva ca / / 
sainpratatn narasimhakhyarn tvattah paurana-sainhitam/ 
srotum icchamy ahain suta srotukama ime sthicah// Nar. 1.1415. 

303 brahma-Jokad visnu-loko dvigunc ca vyavasthitah / 

varahe tasya mahatmyain kathitain loka-cintakaih// 

Nar, 31. iiob-iiia. 

Most of the Mss read ‘varahe’ for ‘varahe’, (Sec, for instance, Dacca Univ. 
Mss Nos. *713, 323 and 284A and Calcutta Sanskrit College Mss Nos. 36 
and 304). 



238 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Varaha-p. which was narrated hy Suta to the sages Bharadvaja and 
others during the great sacrifice of ^aunaka and which dealt, among 
other topics, with the praise of the region of Visnu. But in the present 
Varaha-p. there is no mention of 5 aunaka’s great sacrifice as the 
occasion for the narration of the Purana or of Bharadvaja as one of the 
interlocutors, nor does this Purana deal with the praise of the Visnu- 
loka. So, the Varaha-p., mentioned in the Narasiinha-p., must have 
been different from the extant Varaha, which was thus unknown to 
the present Narasimha-p. The original chapters of the extant 
Varalia-p. being written about 800 A.D., the date of the present 
Narasimha-p. must be placed earlier. 

The verses common to the Narasimha-p. and the present Varaha 
in their chapters on primary and secondary creation®*® need not be 
taken to prove the indebtedness of one of these two Puranas to the 
other. These common verses must have been taken by these two 
Puranas from the earlier Varaha-p. which is now lost. 

In chaps. 26, 33 (verses 1-14), 34, 35, 56, 62 and 63 (verses 1-9 
and 1 1 9- 1 22) the Narasimha-p. gives the method of Ganesa-worship, 
the Vedic and popular methods of Visnu-worship, the method of con- 
secrating the images of Visnu, and the procedure to be followed in 
the performance of laksa-homa and koti-homa. But neither in these 
chapters nor anywhere else in the whole Purana there is the slightest 
trace of Tantric influence. This Purana does not mention the Tantriks 
or the Tantras even for the sake of denouncement. So, it is evident 
chat this Purana was composed at a time when the Tantras did not 
begin to influence the people very seriously. Now, from an examina- 
tion of the Ndahapuranas we have seen that Tantric influence began 
to be imbibed by the Purinic works from about 800 A,D.®“^ Hence 
the Narasimha-p. must be dated not later than 700 A.D. 


306 Narasimha-p. Varaha-p. 

I, 17, 19-203, 23a =1.12-153. 
1.32-3; =2.3-4. 

I. 35-363 =2. 5-6. 

3. 1-93 =2. 13-30. 

307 Sec Hazra, Puranic Records, p. 260, 


Narasimha-p. 
3. lob 

3. 11-286 

4. 1-6 

5. 5a, 6b-8a 


Varaha-p. 
=2. 2ia. 

= 2. 23-4 1 a. 
= 2. 42-47. 
= 2. 49-50. 



239 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

Though in chap. 36 of the Narasimha-p. Markandeya promises to 
narrate the stories on the following (eleven) incarnations of Visnu, viz., 
Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha, Vamana, Parasurama, Rama,’“* 
Balarama, Krsna, Buddha and Kalki, he gives, in chaps. 37-54, the 
stories on all these except the Buddha and adds at the end, “I have 
spoken on the ten incarnations of (Visnu) the destroyer of (all) earthly 
sins. The devotee of Nrsirnha, who always listens to these, attains 
Visnu * (Nar. 54. 6). So, the only line ‘kalau prapte yatha buddho 
bhaven narayanah prabhuh’ (Nar. 36. 5a), which mentions the Buddha 
incarnation, is undoubtedly spurious. This line does not occur in 
most of the Mss of the Natasiinha-p. Thus the Narasitnha-p. knows 
the group of the ‘ten’ incarnations of Visnu but is quite ignorant of 
the Buddha incarnation. An examination of the different lists of 
incarnations of Visnu shows that the Buddha came to be regarded as 
an incarnation of Visnu not very much earlier than 500 A.D.*®* 
Hence the date of the Narasimha-p. is to be placed not later than 
about 500 A.D. 

According to the Narasiinha-p. Krsna embodies only a part of 
Visnu’s Sakti.®‘® It is for this inferior position of Krsna that Yama 
says in Nar. g. 3, “1 submit to the slayer of (the demon) Madhu; 
even Krsna is not able to restrain me of his own accord”. Hence the 
Narasiinha-p. is to be dated earlier than the present Bhagavata, in 
which Krsna is given a higher position and is even called the Bhagavat 
himself.*^^ As the present Bhagavata is to be dated in the sixth 


308 In the present ed. the verse (No. 7) on the Rama incarnation is placed 
before the line (No. ga) on Parasurama, but in most of the Mss this order has 
been reversed. 

3<>9. See Hazra, Puranic Records, pp. 41*42. 

310 See Nar. 53. 3ob-3ia ( avatirya mahitale/sita-k^e ca macchakti 

kainsadin ghatayisyatah/ /), 33a (presayamasa te sakd sita-krsne svake nrpa), 
and 66a (ittham hi sakti sita-krsna-rupc barer anantasya mahabaladhye). 

Jtt Cf. Bhagavata-p. I. 3. a8a — ete cainsa-kalSb puinsah krsnas tu bhagavan 

svayam. 



240 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


century A.D,,'"’*® the Narasirnha-p. is to be placed not later than 
500 A.D. 

Thus we get the lower limit of the date of this Parana. 

Again, in Narasimha-p., chaps. 47-52, a summary of the contents 
of the Ramayana is given in connection with the Rama incarnation of 
Visnu; Nar. 29. 3 mentions some of the notable incidents of the 
Mahabharata, viz., Arjuna’s receipt of the Pasupata weapon from 
Samkara and the assistance given by him to Agni in consuming the 
Khandava forest, the Pandavas’ residence incognito with Draupadi in 
Viratas capital, and so on; and in Nar. 25.6 Janamejaya is said to 
have ‘heard the entire Mahabharata from Vaisampayana, a student of 
Vyasa, in order to get rid of the sin arising out of killing a Brahmin 
(brahma-hatya) . Thus the Narasiinha-p. knows both the Ramayana 
and the Mahabharata. In Nar. 19. 5-6 Suta says to Bharadvaja, “O 
high-minded one, the origin of the Maruts has already been described 
elaborately by the son of Sakti (i.e. by Parasara) in the Purina named 
Vaisnava, and the creation of the twin gods Asvins has been narrated 
in minute details by Vayu. I shall speak to you briefly on this crea- 
tion, Listen to me.”*** Thus, the Narasimha-p. mentions two Puranas, 
of which the second is decidedly the present Vayu-p., which contains 

312 As there arc a few parallelisms in idea as well as language between the 
works of Sainkaracarya and the present Bhagavata-p., some scholars are inclined 
to date the Bhagavata after that great Vcdantist scholar. (Sec Bharatiya Vidya, 
II, pp. 129.139, and IHQ, XXVII, i95t, pp. 1381!.). But these scholars over- 
look the facts that the present Bhagavata, like the other Puranic works, has been 
revised and emended on more occasions than one, and that Sainkaracarya, 
Magha and others influence must be due to these revisions and emendations. 
On the other hand, there are evidences to prove the pre-Samkara origin of the 
earlier portions of the present Bhagavata. (See Hazra, Puranic Records, 

PP- 55 - 57 )- 

313 suta uvaca — 

marutam vistarenokta vaisnavakhye mahamate j 

purane s'akti-putrena purotpattis ca vayuna/ / 

asvinor devayos caiva srstir ukta suvistarat / 

samk^pat tava vaksyami srstim etarn fmusva me// Nar. 19. 5-6. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPARURANAS 


241 


the story of the birth of the Asvins in chap, 84 and is declared by 
Vayu,®^ but the information regarding the 'Vaisnavakhya Purina’ in 
which Sakti's son (Parasara) was the narrator of the story of the birth 
of the Maruts, does not tally fully with the present Visnu-p. which, 
though narrated by Parasara, does not contain this story. But this 
absence of the story of the birth of the Nlaruts m the present 
text of the Visnu-p. must not be taken very seriously, because 
It can be explained away by saying that the particular Ms or recension 
of the present Visnu-p. which was used by the Narasirpha-p, 
contained the above-mentioned story, and also because there are 
verses common to the Narasitnha and the Visnu-p.*’'® Hence the 
Narasimha-p. must be dated later than the present Vayu-p. and Visnu 
-p. That the Narasirnha-p. was composed later than the Visnu-p. is 
shown by another piece of evidence. In the Visnu-p. two hairs of 
Visnu, one black and the other white, are said to have been incarnated 
as Krsna and Balarama respectively Thus Krsna and Balarama arc 
incarnations of exceedingly small portions of Visnu. But in the Nara- 
simha-p. it is two Saktis of Visnu, one black and the other white, 
which appear in the forms of Krsna and (Bala-) Rama respectively 
for the destruction of Kamsa and others.®*^ So, the position of Krsna 
and Balarama as incarnations of Visnu is better in the Natasimha.p. 

3*4 This identity seems to be supported by the verses common to the Vayu 
and the Narasimha-p., viz., 

Vayu-p. 6. 60-65 — ct. Nar. 3. 23-28a, 

„ 9. 75£E. — cf. „ 5. 3®. 

3*5 For instance, 

Narasiinha-p. Visnu-p. 

3. 23-28a — c£. I. 5. 18-24. 

5. 3ff. = I. 8. ib-2; 7. 3££. 

25. 4ob-4ia =a I. 6. 39. 

316 See Visnu-p. V. i. 59-60 — 

evam satnstuyamanas tu bhagavan paramesvarah/ 
uJiaharatmanah ke£au sita-krsnau mahamune/ / 
uvaca ca suran etau mat-kesau vasudha-tale/ 
avatirya bhuvo bbva-klela-haniin karisyatah/ / 

3*7 Nar. 53. 3ob-3ia, 33-343 and 66. For the texts of these verses see 
foot-note 310 above. 

31 



242 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


than in the Visnu. Now, the present Vayu-p., with the exception of 
those of its chapters which were added later, being earlier than the 
present Visnu-p., and the Visnu-p. being to be dated about 300 A.D., 
the date of the Narasimha-p. should be palced not earlier than about 
400 A.D. This upper limit of the date of the present Narasimha-p. is 
supported by its mention of week-days (viz., Arka-divasa and Guru- 
vara) in chap. 67 (verses 8 and lo respectively), because the earliest 
epigraphic mention of a week-day is found in the Eran inscription of 
484 A.D.*“ 

Thus, the date of the f resent Narasimha^p.isto be f laced between 
400 and 300 A.D. It is highly probable that this Purana was written 
in the latter half of this century. 

The introductory verses of the Narasimha-p. do not throw any 
light on the date of this Purana. As all the Mss do not agree in this 
respect, some of these introductory verses may be later additions. 
Moreover, the date of these verses is uncertain. The verse *tapta-hataka- 
kesanta is the same as Visnudh. I. 1^6. iSb-i^a; and the verse ‘kim 
kim simhas tatah kim, being ascribed to Vyasa in the Kavindra-vacana- 
samuccaya (p. 13) and Sridharadasa’s Sadukti-karnamrta (p. 53), 
seems to have been taken from the Narasimha-p, 

That a Narasimha-p. was written at a fairly early date is shown 
not only by its mention in Alberunl’s work®^* as well as in all the lists 
of Upapuranas®*® except that conuined in the Ekamra-p.,®»* but also by 

318 Fleet, Gupta Inscriptions, pp. 88-89. 

3*9 1 ** his account of India Alberuni gives two lists of eighteen ‘Puranas’; 
and of these two lists the first, which was dictated to him, consists of the 
following ‘Puranas’ : — 

Adi-p., Matsya-p., Kurma-p., Varaha-p., Narasimha-p., Vamana-p., 
Vayu-p., Nanda-p,, Skanda p., Aditya-p., Soma-p., Samba-p., Brahmanda-p., 
Markandeya-p., Tatksya-p., Visnu-p., Brahma-p., Bhavisya-p.— See Sachau, 
Albcruni’s India, Vol. I, p. 130. 

320 For these lists and the approximate date of /ornumon of the group of 
‘eighteen JJpapuranas’, see Chap. I. 

321 rf its list of ‘Puranas’ the Ekamra-p. (chap, i) mentions the 
'Narasimha’ in place of the ‘Naradiya*. 

TheVanga. ed. of the Brhaddharma-p. (I. 25.20) wrongly mentions the 
‘Nrsimha’ as a Mahapurana in place of the Mahabhagavata. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


243 


the Matsya-p. (53. 59) which says chat the Upapura^as, viz,, Nara- 
sitnha, Nandl-purana, Samba and Aditya, were ‘well-established in 
society’ (loke sampratisthitah), thus testifying to a much 

earlier date of these Upapuranas, But it is very difficult to say whether 
our present Narasimha-p. is the same as that mentioned in these lists 
and in the Matsya-p. The commentators and Nibandha-writers arc, 
however, quite sure of the identity of the two. Of these, Narasitnba 
Vajapeyin even explains the shorter form of the present Narasitnha-p. 
saying, “As the number (of slokas) of the famous Narasiinha is not 
found to be 18000, it seems that a portion has been lost in course of 
time.”®** 

The above date of the present Narasimha-p, must not be taken 
to be that of the entire Putana as found in the printed edition, be- 
cause in the printed edition there are chapters and verses which arc 
decidedly later interpolations. In order to be able to find out these 
spurious portions a list of such chapters and verses as arc not found in 
all the Mss of the Narasimha-p. is given below with the mention of 
those Mss in which they occur and also of those in which they arc 
not found. 

Chafs. and verses of Mss, in which they are Mss, in which they 
the frinted ed. not found. occur. 

I. Chap. 31, ver- (i) Ms noticed by R. L. Mss ^ and ^ used 
ses 1-97. Mitra. in the printed cd. 

(On the story of (2) Aufrccht’s Mss. 

Dhruva). (3) Cal. Sans. Coll. Mss 

(Nos. 36 and 304).®*® 

(4) As. Soc. (Calcutta) Mss. 

(5) Keith’s Ms (Cat, No. 

6618). 

(6) Dacca University Mss 
(Nos. 2713. 323, a84A). 

322 Nityacara-pradipa, I, p. *8 — prasiddha-narasimhasya asudasa-sahasra- 
samkhya yady api nopalabhyate kirncit kala-kramat luptam iti pratibhati. 

323 It has already been said that the Calcutta Sanskrit College Ms No. 304 
of the Narasirnha-p. was originally numbered 298. 



244 STUDIES IN THE IJPAPURANA5 

Chafs. and verses of Mss, in which they are Mss, in which they 
the frinted ed, not found. occur. 

(7) R, L. Mitra’s Bikaner 
Ms. 

(8) Ms n used in the printed 
ed. 

Most probably also in 
(x) Eggeling’s Mss, and 
(2) Keith’s Mss (Cat. Nos. 

6616-17). 

2. Chap. 33, ver- (i) Ms noticed by Mitra. Mss ^ and ^ used 

scs 15-85; chap. (2) Aufrecht’s Mss. in the printed ed. 

34, verse i. (3) Cal. Sans. Coll. Mss 

(On the story of (Nos. 36 and 304). 
the Pandavas’ (4) As. Soc. (Calcutta) Mss. 
killing of the de- (5) Dacca Univ. Mss (Nos. 
mons Bahuroman 2713, 323, 284A). 

and Sthulasiras). (6) Mitra’s Bikaner Ms, 

(7) Ms XT used in the printed 
ed. 

Most probably also in 

(1) Eggcling’s Mss, and 

(2) Keith’s Mss. 

3. Chap. 34, ver- Mss % and ^ used in the All other Mss. 

scs 43-553. printed ed. 

(On laksa-homa 
and koti-homa), 

4. Chap. 36, verse (i) Cal. Sans. Coll. Mss Mss 9, and also 

(Nos. 36 and 304). used in the 

(On the Buddha (2) As. Soc. (Calcutta) Mss. printed ed, 
incarnation). (3) Dacca Univ. Mss (Nos. 

2713, 323, 284A). 

(Most probably also in the 
Mss of Mitra, Aufrecht, 
anti Keith ; other- 
wise the number of incar- 



245 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


Q^ha^s, and verses of lidsSt in which they are lidsSt in which they 
the printed ed, not found, occur, 

nations becomes 1 1 and 
not lo as mentioned in 
Nat. 54. 6 — dasavatarah 
kathitas tavaiva hater maya 
etc.). 

5. Chap. 40, vet- (i) Ms noticed by Mitra. Mss ^ and ^ used 

ses 60b - 6ib; (2) Aufrecht’s Mss. in the printed ed. 

chaps. 41-43; (3) Cal. Sans. Coll. Mss 

chap. 44, verses (Nos. 36 and 304). 

^■*3* ( 4 ) As. Soc. (Calcutta) Mss. 

(On the story of (3) Dacca Univ. Mss (Nos. 

Prahlada). 2713, 323, 284A). 

(6) Mitra’s Bikaner Ms. 

(7) Ms n used in the printed 
ed. 


6. Chap. 54, ver- 
8-6 1. 

(On the evils of 
the Kali age). 


Most probably also in 
(1) Eggeling’s Mss, and 
(a) Keith’s Mss. 

(1) Ms noticed by Mitra. 

(2) Aufrecht’s Mss. 

(3) Cal. Sans. Coll. Mss 
(Nos. 36 and 304). 

(4) As. Soc. (Calcutta) Mss. 

(5) Dacca Univ. Mss (Nos. 

^7*3- 323- 284A). 

(6) Mitra’s Bikaner Ms. 
Most probably also in 

(1) Eggcling’s Mss, and 

(2) Keith’s Mss. 

(i) Aufrecht’s Mss. 


(2) Mss ^ and ^ used in 
the printed ed. 


Mss ^ and *l 
used in the prin- 
ted ed. 


(1) Ms noticed by 
Mitra. 

(2) Cal. Sans. CoU. 
Mss (Nos. 36 
and 304). 


7. Chap. 61. 
(On yoga^. 



246 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Chaps, and verses 
the printed ed. 


8. Chap. 63, ver- 
ses 10- 1 iga. 

(On the story of 
Indra’s getting 
rid of his female 
form by muttter- 
ing the eight-syl- 
labled mantra). 


9. Chap. 6^. 

(On the interlo- 
cution between 
Narada and Pun- 
darlka on the glory 


of 


Mss, in which they are 
not found. 


Mss, in which they 
occur. 


(1) Cal. Sans. Coll. Mss 
(Nos. 36 and 304). 

(2) As. Soc, (Calcutta) Mss. 

(3) Dacca Univ. Mss (Nos. 
2713 and 323) 

(In the Dacca Univ. Ms No. 
28^ A chap. 57, verses 21- 
30, and chaps. 58-64 of 
the printed ed. do not occur 
at all). 

(4) Ms used in the prin- 
ted ed. 

Most probably also in (i) the 
Ms noticed by Mitra, (2) 
Aufrecht’s Mss, (3) Eggel- 
ing’s Mss, and (4) Keith’s 
Mss. 


(3) As. Soc. (Cal- 
cutta) Mss. 

(4) Dacca Univ. 
Mss (Nos. 2713, 
323, 284A). 

(5) Ms tr used in 
the printed ed. 
Most probably al- 
so in (i) Eggel- 
ing’s Mss, and 
(2) Keith’s Mss. 

(1) Eggeling’s Ms 
(Cat. No. 3378.-- 
In its compara- 
tively modern 
portion). 

(2) Mss ^ and ^ 
used in the prin- 
ted ed. 


(1) Ms noticed by Mitra. 

(2) Eggeling’s Mss. 

(3) Cal. Sans. Coll. Mss 
(Nos. 36 and 304). 

(4) As. Soc. (Calcutta) Mss. 


(1) Aufrecht’s Mss. 

(2) Eggeling’s Ms 
(Cat.N0.3378.- — 
In its modern 
portion). 



247 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

Chaps, and verses of Mss, in which they are Mss, in which they 
the printed ed. not found. occur. 

of Narayana). (5) Dacca Univ. Mss (Nos. (3) Mss ^ and 
2713 and 323). used in the 

(In Dacca Univ. Ms No. printed ed. 

28.(jA chap. 57, verses 21- 
30 and chaps. 58-64 of 
the printed ed. do not occur 
at all). 

Also in Keith’s Mss? 

to. Chap. 65. (i) Aufrecht’s Ms No. 138. (i) Ms noticed by 

(On the 68 holy (2) Mss 5 and ^ used in the Mitra. 
places of the Vais- printed ed. (2) Aufrecht’s Ms 

No. 139. 

(3) Eggeling’s Mss 

(4) Cal. Sans. Coll.. 
Mss (Nos. 36 
and 304). 

(5) As. Soc. (Cal- 
cutta) Mss. 

(6) Dacca Univ, 
Mss (Nos. 2713, 
323, 284A). 

(7) Ms »i used in 
the printed ed. 

Most probably also 
in Keith’s Mss. 

(1) Ms noticed by 
Mitra. 

(2) Aufrecht’s Ms 
No. 139. 

(4) Mss ^ and ^ used in the (4) Cal. Sans. Coll, 
printed ed. Ms No. 36. 

(5) As. Soc. (Cab 
cutta) Mss. 


navas). 


II. Chap. 66. (i) Aufreebt’s Ms No. 138. 

(On the praise of (2) Cal. Sans. Coll. Ms 
holy places). No. 304. 

(3) Dacca Univ. Ms No. 
284A. 



248 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Chaps, and verses of Mss, in which they are Mss, in which they 
the printed ed. not found. occur. 

(6) Dacca Univ. 
Mss Nos. 2713, 

323- 

^J') Ms n used in 
the printed ed. 
Also in Keith's Mss? 


12. Chap. 67. 

(i) Aufrecht’s Ms No. 138. 

(i) Ms noticed by 

(On the mental 

(2) Cal. Sans. Coll. Ms 

Mitra. 

tirthas, and the 

No. 304. 

(2) Aufrecht’s Ms 

praise of the Na- 

(3) Dacca Univ. Ms No, 

No. 139. 

rasiinha-p.). 

284A. 

(4) Mss efi and ^ used in 
the printed ed. 

(3) Eggeling’s Mss. 

(4) Cal. Sans. Coll. 
Ms No. 36. 

(5) Dacca Univ. 
Mss Nos. 2713, 

323- 

(6) Ms IT used in 
the printed ed. 

13. Chap. 68. 

(i) Ms noticed by Mirra. 

(i) Aufrecht’s Mss. 

(On the praise of 

(2) Eggeling’s Mss. (Cat. 

(2) Mss ^ and ^ 

the Narasirnha-p.). 

Nos. 3375-77). 

(3) Cal. Sans. Coll. Mss 

used in the prin- 
ted ed. 


(Nos. 36, 304). 

(4) As. Soc. (Calcutta) Mss. 

(5) Dacca Univ. Mss (Nos. 

2713, 323, 284A). 

(6) Ms *T used in the prin- 
ted cd. 

Also in Keith’s Mss? 

The above table shows that the following chapters, which are not 
contained in the older and better Mss, are undoubtedly spurious, viz., 
chap. 31, verses 1-97 — on the story of Dhruva, 

chap. 33, verses 15-85 — on the story of the Pandavas’ killing 

the demons Bahuroman and Sthuiasiras, 



THE MAJOR VAlSNAVA UPAPURANAS 


249 


chap. 36, verse 9a 
chap. 40, verses 6ob-6ib; 
chaps. 41-43; 
chap. 44, verses 1-13 
chap. 54, verses 8-61 
chap. 63, verses lo-iiga 




— on the Buddha incarnation, 
— on the story of Prahlada, 


chap. 64 — — 


chap. 68 — — 


chap. 61 
chap. 65 

chap. 66 
chap. 67 


— -on the evils of the Kali age, 

— on the story of Indra’s getting rid 
of his female form by muttering 
the eight-syllabled mantra, 

— on the interlocution between Narada 
and Pundarika on the praise of 
Narayana, 

— on the praise of the Narasitnha-p.; 
whereas the following chapters, viz., 
chap. 34 (verses 43-55*) — on laksa-homa and koti-homa, 

— on yoga, 

—on the 68 holy places of the 
Vaisnavas, 

— on praise of holy places, and 
— on the mental tlrthas, and the praise 
of the Narasitnha-p., 

though eliminated in some Mss, are genuine. 

The spurious character of the chapters and verses of the former 
group is also shown by their position, by the nature of their insertion, 
as well as by other evidences. For instance, the story of Dhruva in 
chap. 31, verses 1-97 is inserted so abruptly that none can have the 
slightest doubt regarding the fact that verses 98-1 13 of chap. 31 are 
direct continuations of the verses in chap. 30. As a matter of fact, 
chap. 30 and verses 98-113 of chap. 3X of the printed ed. form one 
single chapter in a large number of Mss (such as those of the Calcutta 
Sanskrit College, Calcutta Asiatic society, and Dacca University).®** 
Similarly, the story of the Pandavas’ killing of the demons Bahuroman 
and Sthulasiras in chap. 33 (verses 15-85) and chap. 34 (verse i) 
separates verses 1-14 of chap. 33 and verses zff. of chap. 34 of the 

3*4 As we have not been able to consult the other Mss of the Narasimha-p., 
we refer only, to those of these three institutions. 

32 



250 STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

printed ed. which deal with the results of offering different articles to 
Visnu and of rendering various kinds of service to this deity and which 
thus rightly form a single chapter in the above-mentioned Mss. 
Regarding the suprious character of verse 9a of chap. 36 much has 
already been said in connection with the determination of the date of 
this Purina. As to the chapters and verses on the story of Prahlada, 
they are placed between verses i-6oa of chap. 40 and verses i/jff. of 
chap. 44 of the printed edition which form one single chapter in the 
above-mentioned Mss as well as in the Ms used in the printed 
edition. In these Mss, those verses, which are separated, with modi- 
fications, by the chapters on the story of Prahlada in the printed 
edition, read, with slight variations, as follows : 

gacchadhvam adhuna devah svasthanam vigata-jvarah/ 
aham adya gamisyimi indrasyendratva-siddhaye/ / 
hiranya-kasipor naso bhavatam api vrddhaye/ 
yusmakam vijayayaiva ajayaya sura-dvisam/ / 
markandeya uvaca/ 

ity ukta visnuna deva natva visnum yayur nrpa/ 
bhagavan api deveso narasimham athakarot// 
bahu-yojana-vistlrnam bahu-yojanam ayatam/ 
atiraudram mabakayatn danavanam bhayamkaram / / 
mahanetratn mahavaktram mahadamstram mahanakham/ 
mahabahutn mahapadam kalagni-sadrsopamam / / 
krtvettham narasimhain tu yayau visnus trivikramah/ 
stuyamano muni-ganair hiranya-kasipoh purah// 
nrsimhas tatra gatva ca mahanadam nanada ca/^ 
tan-nada-sravanad daitya narasimham avestayan// 
tan hatva sakalams tatra sva-paurusa-parakramat/ 
babhanja ca sabham divyam hiranya-kasipor nrpa/ j 
etc. etc. 

How these verses have been changed in the printed edition in order to 
accommodate the chapters on the story of Prahlada will be obvious from 
a comparison of these verses with Nar. 40. 6off. and 44. The 

word ‘yayau’ in the line ‘krtvetthain narasimham tu yayau visnus 
trivikramah’, which has been retained in the printed edition, does not 
agree with what has been said to Visnu in the story of Prahlada. As 



251 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

regards the spuriousness of chap. 68 it can be said that the Narasiinha- 
p. really ends with chap. 67, which deals not only with the mental 
tirthas but also with the praise of the Purina, and of which lines 
2^^b-2^a say, “Having heard (the Purina topics) in company with the 
snitakas (i.e. the sages who took their holy bath in the Ganges), 
Bharadvija remained there after showing proper respect to Suta, but 
the (other) sages went away”. Further, though in several places of 
the Natasiinha-p. unswerving (acali, avyabhicirini) bhakti is mentioned 
and praised as the means of attaining the blissful state of existence,®*® 
it is only in some of those chapters which we have taken as spurious 
that there are mention and praise of dasya-bhakti.^-^^ It is also note- 
worthy that none of these spurious chapters is referred to by any of 
the remaining chapters, although there are numerous cross references 
in the latter.®— 

325 See Mar. 7. 33; 9. 6; 10. 49 and 51; ii. 56 and 60; 32, lO; and so on. 

326 C£. prahlado ’thabravid dhiman deva janmafttaresv api/ 

dasas tavabam bbuyasam garutman iva bbaktiman// 

Nar. 43, 78b-79a; 

daso’bam vasudevasya deva-devasya sarnginah/ 
ity ukto naradenasau bbakti-paryakulatmana/ / Nar. 64. 46; 
janmantara sabasresu yasya syad buddbir idrsi/ 
daso’bam vasudevasya deva-devasya sarnginab/ 
prayati visnu-salokyam puruso iiatra sarnsayab/ / Nar. 64. 94-933. 
Also cf. Nar. 64. 116-117. 

In Nar. 33. 31 tbe demon Baburoman says bow in one of bis previous birtbs 
as a Brabmin named Raivata, he was killed by the city-guards in a Visnu-templc 
and was taken to heaven in a car which was ‘prabhu-dasa-samanvita’. 

327 Nar. 6. 2 refers to Nar. 5. 2; Nar. 19, 4 refers to Nar. 5, 46-47; Nar. 
20. I refers to Nar. 19. 23; Nar. 24. 1 (pratbamain tavat svayatnbhuvain 
manvantarain tat-svaruparn kathitam) refers to Nar. 3. 8-9 and Nar. 5, 2off.; 

Nar. 24. 17c (purvoktas chayayam utpanno manuh ) refers to Nar. 19. 13 

and 15; Nar. 29. 9b (tasya caritam uparisted bhavisyati) refers to Nar. 32®.; 
Nar. 32. I refers to Nar. 29. 9; Nar. 32. 1-2 and 8 refer to chaps. 36®. on 
incarnations of Visnu; Nar. 35.2 refers to Nar. 34. 47 (on koti-hotna)', Nar. 36.1 
refers to Nar. 32. 1-2 and 8; Nar. 55. i refers to Nar. 45. 35-36; Nar. 62. 2 
refers to N 3 r. 58. 926-932. The words ‘ka vavastha kalau yuge’ in Nar. 1. 20a 
refers to Nar. 54. 1-6 and not to the section on ‘kali-yuga-laksana’ occurring in 
Nar. 54. 8-61. 



252 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


The above table further shows that there were distinct stages in 
the process of addition and elimination of chapters and verses. For 
instance, Ms n (used in the printed ed.) interpolates chaps. 36 
(verse 9a), 54 (verses 8-61) and 64, but eliminates nothing; Dacca 
University Ms No. 284A interpolates nothing but eliminates chaps. 
66 and 67; and Aufrecht’s Ms No. 139 interpolates chaps. 64 and 
68 and eliminates chap. 61. Aufrecht’s Ms No. 138 not only com- 
bines all the interpolations and eliminations of the Dacca University 
Ms (No. 284 A) and Aufrecht’s Ms No. 139 but also eliminates one 
chapter more, viz., chap. 65. Mss m and ^ (used in the printed ed.) 
go a step further not only by combining all the interpolations and 
eliminations of Ms rr and Aufrecht’s Ms No. 138 but also by inter- 
polating chaps. 31 (verses 1-97), 33 (verses 15-85), 40 (verses 60b- 
61b), 41-43, 44 (verses 1-13) and 63 (verses io-ii9a). 

Even among the chapters other than those which have been 
differentiated above as spurious, there are some which zte most probably 
comparatively late additions. Such chapters are especially Nar. 6 (on 
the story of the birth of Vasistha and Agastya as sons of Mitra and 
Varuna) and Nar. 7-18 (on the story of Markandeya, the stcry of 
Yama and YamI, etc. narrated by Vyasa to Suka). In Nar. 5. ^8ff. 
the names of those thirteen daughters of Daksa who were given m 
marriage to Kasyapa, are the following: — Aditi, Diti, Danu, Arisu, 
Svarasa, Svasa, Surabhi, Vinata, Tanira, Krodha-vasa, Ira, Kadru and 
Muni; but in Nar. 6. 4-8 the list of the names of the ‘thirteen 
daughters’ married to Kasyapa omits Arism and Tamra but adds Kala, 
Muhurta, Siinhika and Sarama, thus increasing the number to fifteen. 
Even in the Mss preserved in the Calcutta Sanskrit College, Asiatic 
Society (Calcutta), and Dacca University the names of these ‘thirteen 
daughters’ are different from those given in chap. 5.®** It is to be 

328 These names, as given in the Calcutta Sanskrit College and the Dacca 
University Mss of the Narasimha-p., are as follows : Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kala 
(Kali’ according to Dacca Univ. Ms No. 284A), Muhurta, Simhika, Muni, 
Vrata (‘Tamra’ according to Dacca Univ. Ms No. 2713), Krodha, Siarabhi, 
yinata, Surasa (Calcutta. Sans. Coll. Ms No. 304 — Svarasa; DacCU Univ. Ms 
No. 2713 — ‘Sarasa’ after marginal correction), Khasa (according to Cal. Sans. 
Coll. Ms No. 36 and Dacca Univ. Ms No. 2713), Kadru (or Kadru), Sarama, 



THE MAJOP VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


253 


noted that in Nar. 5. 43 Muhurti is said to have been given in 
marriage to Dharma, This disagreement between chap. 5 (which deals 
with fratisarga and cannot, therefore, be spurious) and chap. 6 seems 
to indicate the spurious character of the latter. In order to introduce 
this chapter the interpolator adds verse 2 (mitra-varuna-putratvarn 
vasisthasya katharn bhavet, etc.) of chap. 5. It is, however, not impro- 
bable that only verses 6-8 a (containing the names of the ‘13 daughters’) 
are spurious, and not the entire chap. 6. As to the chaps. 7-18 (on the 
story of Markandcya, etc.), their introductory verse is as follows: 
markandeyena munina katharn nirtyuh parajitah/ 
etad akhyahi me suta tvayaitat sucitam furaj j 
Though in chaps. 1-6 of the printed ed. there is no verse contain- 
ing the mention of Markandeya or of the way of his subduing Death, 
the expression ‘tvayaitat sucitam puta’ refers to the following verses 
(which occurred among those 12 verses which have been lost after 
verse 31 of chap. 5 of the printed ed. but are found in chap. 5 of 
the Calcutta Sanskrit College, Calcutta Asiatic Society, and Dacca 
University Mss) : 

bhrgoh khyatyam samutpanna laksmir visnu-parigrahah/, 
tatha dhata-vidhatarau khyatyam jatau sutau bhrgoh/ / 
ayatir niyatis caiva meroh kanye susobhanc/ 
dhatur vidhatus ca te bharye tayor jatau sucav ubhau// 
pranas caiva mrkandus ca markandeyo mrkandutah/ 
yena mrtyur jito vipra pura narayanasrayat/ / 

Hence the absence of the verse containing the mention of Markan- 
deya in chaps. 1-6 of the printed ed. is no cause for taking chaps. 
7-18 as spurious. These chapters are considered as interpolated, be- 
cause Nar, 15. 4 refers to Nar. 5. 46-47 ignoring the intervening 
chaps. 7-18 and because Markandeya, who is called the great-grandson 
of Bhrgu in the lost verses mentioned above, is mentioned as Bhrgu’s 
grandson in chaps. 7-12.”* Of these twelve intervening chapters 
(7-18), chaps. 7-12 (dealing with the story of Markandeya) differ 
from chaps. 13-18 in certain matters. In the former six chapters (7-1 2) 
the use of the twelve-syllabled mantra *om namo bhagavate vasudevaya’ 

329 See Nar, 7. 10-12, 25, 27 etc.; 8. 3 and 10; 9. 13; 12. 65. 



254 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


is prescribed more than once; the name ‘Krsna for Visnu (also called 
Narayana) is given on many occasions; and the names ‘Devaki- 
nandana,’ ‘Vasudeva’ etc. also are found. Once Yama says, 

“sugatim abhilasami vasudevad 

aham a pi bhagavate sthitantaratma/ 

madhu-vadha-vasago ’smi na svatantrah 

prabhavati sainyamane mamapi krsnah//’ 

Hence these chapters, though not recognising Krsna as the Bhaga- 
vat himself, have a Bhagavata tinge. On the other hand, chaps. 13- 
18 have a Pancaratra stamp, because in these chapters Narayana and 
the eight-syllabled mantra ‘om namo narayanaya are praised, and 
there is no mention of the name ‘Krsna’. That chap. 13 is a later 
addition is also shown by the absence of praise of Visnu or Vaisnavism 
in this chapter (dealing with Yama-yami-samvada) except in the line 
‘cittam me nirmalam bhadre visnau rudre ca samsthitam’ (spoken by 
Yama to YamI) which gives, unlike the other chapters, the same place 
to Visnu and Rudra. As the interlocutors 5 uka and Vyasa of chaps. 
13-18 are first introduced in chap. 7, these chapters are most probab- 
ly later than chaps. 7-12. 

From what has been said above regarding the addition and elimina- 
tion of chapters and verses in the present Narasimha-p., it is clear 
that this Purana has been revised on more occasions than one. A 
comparison between the texts of the same extracts as quoted by differ- 
ent Smrti-writers and occurring in the printed ed., also lends strong 
support ill this direction.’*® The verses and even large extracts, 

330 For instance, a comparison between Nar. 34. 6-12 and these very verses 
as quoted by Narasiinha Vajapeyiii in his Nityacara-pradipa, I, pp. 558-560, 
shows how single lines of the quoted passage have been expanded into verses in 
the printed ed. For example, the line ‘toyena bhaktya samsnapya visnu-loke 
mahiyate’ (in Nityacara-pradipa, I, p. 558)=the verse ‘snapya toyena payasa 
narasimhain naradhipa/ sarva-papa-vinirmiikto visnu-loke mahiyate//’ (Nar. 
34. 6); the line ‘snapya dadhna sakrd visnuni visnu-lokam avapnuyat’ (in 
Nityacara-pradipa, I, p. 558) = the verse ‘snapya dadhna sakrd yas tu nirmalah 
priya-darsanah/ visnu-lokam avapnoti pujyamanah surottamaih//’ (Nar. 34 - ?)’ 
and so on, Again, a comparison between the texts of the verses quoted from 
the Narasimha-p. in Madana-parijata, pp. 301-2, Smrti-tattva, I, p. 41 1 and 



255 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

quoted by Hemadri from the ‘Narasimha-p.’ on different kinds of 
Vratas®®^ and donations but not found in the present Narasimha-p., 
show that the text of this Purana as used by Hemadri was more 
extensive. Narasimha Vajapeyin explains the smaller bulk of the 
present Narasimha-p. saying, “As the number (of slokas) of the 
famous Narasimha is not found to be i8ooo, it seems that a portion 
has been lost in course of time.”’®* 

The mention of TulasI in chaps. 31 (verse 87) and 34 (verses ig 
and 23) and in the additional verses contained in the Mss (preserved 
in the Calcutta Sanskrit College, Calcutta Asiatic Society, Dacca 
University, etc.) in their chapters corresponding to chap. 57 of the 
printed cd., should not be taken to go against the above date of the 
Narasimha-p. This mention is certainly due to later revisions of the 
Purana; because, of the above-mentioned chapters containing the 
mention of TulasI, chap. 31 (verses 1-97) has been found to be spu- 
rious; and Nar. 34. 19 does not occur in the Ms if used in the 
printed ed. Moreover, in chap. 33, which deals with the results of 
various kinds of service rendered to Visnu and of offering different 
articles to this deity, there is mention of ‘bilva-patra’ but not of 
TulasI; nor is TulasI mentioned in chaps. 56 (on the method of 
consecration of the images of Visnu), 62 (on the Vedic method of 
Visnu-worship) and 63 (on the popular method of Visnu-worship). 

It is probably due to the repeated revisions of the present Nara- 
simha-p. that there are disagreements between a number of statements 
even in those chapters which cannot be taken as spurious. For 
instance, in Nar. 3. 8 Svayainbhuva Manu is said to have been the 
son of Daksa and bis wife born respectively from Brahma’s right 
and left thumbs, but in Nar. 5, 22 Svayainbhuva Manu is said to 
have given his daughter Prasuti in marriage to Daksa; in Nar. 3. 
3-5 Rudra is said to have been born of Brahma’s rage (rosa), but in 
Nar. 5. 4-5 it is said that when Brahma was thinking of some worthy 

Nityacara-pradipa, 1 , p. 617 shows that the texts of the Narasimha-p. used by 
Raghunandana and Narasimha Vajapeyin agree mote with that of the printed ed. 
than with the text used by Madanapala 

331 yiz., Narasimha-caturdasi-vrata, Hati-vrata, Patra-vrata, etc. 

332 Nityacara-pradipa, I, p, 18, 



256 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


son at the beginning oE the Brahma Kalpa, the blue-red (nila-lohita) 
Rudra is said to have appeared on Brahma’s lap as a child with a body 
halE male and halE female; in Nar. 4. 2-4 Brahma is said to have 
created from his mind ten sons (viz., Marici, Atri, Angiras, Pulaha, 
Kratu, Pulastya, Pracctas, Bhrgu, Narada and Vasistha), of whom 
Narada took to abstention (nivrtti-dharma), but in Nar. 5. 17-19 
Brahma is said to have created nine sons (Marici and others, except 
Narada) who were known as ‘nine Brahmas’; and so on. 

Though the Narasiinha-p. proposes to give ‘in brief’ (samksepat) 
the genealogies of kings which were ‘elaborately dealt with in the 
Puranas,’®** the defects, found in these genealogies, seem to be due as 
much to the carelessness of the people of later ages in maintaining 
the correctness of these dynastic lists in their respective Mss as to 
their attempt at abridgment. For instance, in chaps. 22 and 27, 
the printed edition as well as the Calcutta Sanskrit College Ms No. 
304 and Dacca University Ms No. 284A mentions Aja as the son 
of Dirghabahu, but the Calcutta Sanskrit College Ms No. 36 and 
Dacca University Ms No. 2713, chough following the printed ed. in 
chap. 27,. give the pedigree of Aja as ‘dirghabahor dillpah dillpad 
raghuh raghor ajah’ in chap. 22; in chaps. 22 and 27, the printed 
ed. as well as the Calcutta Sanskrit College Ms No. 304 and Dacca 
University Ms No. 284A makes Mindhatr the son of Asainhatasva 
(v. 1 . Asamkhyatasva in chap, 22 of the printed ed.), but in chap. 27 
they give a popular verse in which Mandhatr is called Yauvanasva (i.e. 
son of Yuvan^va); the latter pedigree of Mandhatr is supported by 
the Calcutta Sanskrit College Ms No. 36 and Dacca University Ms 
No. 2713 which mention Mandhitr as the son of Yuvanasva in chap. 
24 (yuvanasvan mindhata); after Nar. 27. i the Mss used in the 
printed ed. have lost an extract*®* which is found in a large number 
of Mss (such as the Calcutta Sanskrit College Mss Nos. 36 and 304 

333 Nar. 22. 2. Also see Nar. 23. i. 

334 The text of this extract, as reconstructed from the Cal. Sans. Coll, and 
Dacca Univ. Mss, runs as follows : 'tat-putro venas tasya prthus tasya prthasvah/ 
prthaivad asainhatasvah / te catvaro rajano bhuri-tejasah kramad rajyam krtva 
dharmato harim ananta-sayanam aradhya bhaktya kratubhis ceswa svarlokam 
gatah/' 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


257 


and Dacca University Mss Nos. 2713 and 284A); and so on. 
There are, ot course, a few cases in which the disagreements are either 
to be removed by referring to other better Mss or to be ascribed to 
the revisions to which the extant Narasiinha-p. was subjected. For 
instance, different pedigrees of Soma are given in chaps. 23 and 28 
of the printed edition as well as the Calcutta Sanskrit College Ms 
No. 36 and the Dacca University Mss; in chap. 22 Saudasa’s son 
is called Satrumdama in the printed edition as well as in the Calcutta 
Sanskrit College Mss Nos. 36 and 304 and Dacca University Ms 
No. 284 A, and Satrundana in the Dacca Uiiversity Ms No. 2713, 
but in chap. 27 he is called Satrasava in the printed edition and the 
Calcutta Sanskrit College Ms No. 304, Satresvara in the Dacca 
University Ms No. 284A, and Satyasrava in the Calcutta Sanskrit 
College Ms No. 36 and Dacca University Ms No. 2713; and 
so on. 

The disagreements m the names and pedigrees of some of the kings 
in chaps. 22-23 (on the genealogies of the kings of the Solar and 
Lunar dynasties) on the one hand and chaps. 27-29 (on vamsanu- 
carita, i. e. the accounts of the kings of these dynasties) on the 
other, are not real but are due to the editor of this Purana who has 
not used a sufficient number of Mss for his edition. For instance, in 
chap. 22 the name of Prthasva’s son is given as Asarnkhyatasva 
in the printed ed. and Asainhatasva in the Calcutta Sanskrit College 
Ms No, 304, but in the Dacca University Mss as well as in the 
Calcutta Sankrit College Ms No. 36 he is named as Samhatasva, 
while in chap. 27 he is called Asamhatasva in the printed cd. as well 
as in the Calcutta Sanskrit College and Dacca University Mss; in 
chap. 22 Mandhatr’s son is called Purukutsa in the printed ed. as 
well as in the Calcutta Sanskrit College Mss and the Dacca University 
Mss Nos. 284A and 2713, but in chap. 27 Mandhatr’s son is named 
Purukusya in the printed cd,, Kurupuccha in the Dacca University 
Ms No. 284A, and Purukutsa in the Calcutta Sanskrit College Mss 
and the Dacca University Ms No. 2713; in chap, 22 Dirghabahu’s 
father is named Anarana in the printed ed. and Anaranya in the 
Calcutta Sanskrit College and Dacca University Mss as well as in the 
Ms >r used in the printed ed., but in chap. 27 he is called Anarana 
33 



258 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


in all these sources; in chap. 22 Padma’s son is Anuparna in the 
printed ed. and Rtuparna in the Calcutta Sanskrit College Ms 
No. 30/J and in the Dacca Vniversity Mss, but in chap. 27 he is 
called j^tuparna in all these sources;’?® and so on. 

Though the Matsya-p.,?’® the Skanda-p.®’— and the Reva-mahat- 
mya”* attach the ‘Narasirnha-p.’ to the Padma-p. as a sub-division 
(upabheda) ot the latter, the present Narasimha-p. always calls itself 
a ‘Purana’?®* and never an ‘Upapurana’, nor does it attach itself to any 
Mahapurana for the sake of authority. As a matter of fact, in chap. 
I, verses 33-34 it speaks of the five characteristics of ‘Purina’, viz., 
sarga, fratisargd, vamsa, manvantara and vamsanucarita and proposes 
to deal with all these topics, and in chap. 67 verses 17-18 it says that 
it has dealt with the five topics, viz., sarga, fratisarga etc; but it 
betrays no knowledge of the Upapuranas. So, it is evident that 
though according to the later tradition the Narasimha-p. is classed as 
an Upapurana, it is really an independent 'Purina’ like the Viyu, 
Visnu etc. 

It has already been said that the present Narasimha-p, knows the 
extant Viyu and Visnu and the earlier Variha-p. Its mention of the 
word ‘Purina’ in the plural number on several occasions to mean 

335 Sans. Coll. Ms No. 36 names Padma’s son as Rtaparna in both the 
chapters (22 and 27). 

336 upabhedan pravaksyami loke ye sampratis^itah/ 
padme purane tatroktam narasimhopavarnanam / 
taccastadasa-sahasrain narasitnham ihocyate / / Mat. 53. 59. 

This verse is quoted ;by Hemadri (in his Caturvarga-cintamani, I, p. 533» 
and II. i, p. 21), Candeivara (in his Krtya-ratnakara^ p. 31), Narasimha 
Vajapeyin (in his Nityacara-pradipa, I, p. 18), )iva Gosvimin (in his commen- 
tary, called Krama-samdarbha, on Bhagavata-p. XII. 7. 17-22), and Mitra Misra 
(in his Viramitrodaya, Paribhasa-prakasa, p. 14). Candesvara and Mitra Miira 
do not quote the first line. 

337 VII (Prabh^a-kh.). i. 2. yqb-So (these lines are the same as Mat, 53. 59 
quoted above); V. iii (Reva-kh.), i. 48a. 

; 338 See Aufrecht, Bod. Cat., p. 65. The Reva-mahatmya claims to be a 
part of the J/ayu-p. 

339 See Nar. 1. 15; i. 24; 1. 29; 67. 17; 67. 21, 22 and 25. See also the 
chapter-colophons. In the Mss also, the Narasimha-p. is called a ‘Parana’. 



THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


259 


distinct Puranic works, shows that more Puranas than one came 
into existence before its composition.--® It is not known whether 
the Markandeya-p. or the Visnudharmottara is referred to in chap. lo 
(verses 54-55) which seems to be a later addition. 

A careful examination of the original and the spurious chapters of 
the present Narasimha-p. shows that this Purana was originally a work 
of the Pancaratra sect with remarkable Bhagavata inclination. The 
Pancaratras themselves added a few more chapters and extracts at a 
later date. It was then considerably changed by the Bhagavatas with 
further additions and alterations. 

The entire Narasimha-p., as we have it now, is not composed in 
verse. There are a few chapters and extracts which are written in 
simple prose. These are the following: — Nar. 19. 7-23 (on the 
birth of the Asvins); chap. 21 (on the origin of the Maruts); 22. 4-15 
(on the names of the kings of the Solar race); 23. 2-13 (on the names 
of the kings of the Lunar race); 24. 1-36 (on the Manvantaras); 27. 
r-i 2 (on the accounts of the kings of the Solar race); 28. 1-16 (on 
the accounts of the kings of the Lunar race); 29. 1-12 (on the 
accounts of the kings of the Lunar race); 30. 2-16 (except 5, which 
is a verse); 5,2. 25-31. A portion of chap. 9 is written in Puspitagra 
(also called Aupacchandasika). 

The language of the Narasitnha-p. contains numerous solecisms. 
For instance, it has ‘abhuvan’ for ‘abhavan’ (Nar. i. 62), ‘vyajayata’ 
for ‘vyajanayat’ (Nar. 5. 21), ‘jajhe’ for ‘janayamasa’ (Nar. 5. 29, 
31 and 35), ‘snayantl’ for ‘siiantl’ (Nar. 6. 26), ‘vedavidaih’ for 
‘vedavidbhih’ (6. 46) ‘susahgitavidaih’ for '-vidbhih’ (34. 36), ‘matr- 
pitarau’ for ‘mata-pitarau’ (7. 14), ‘viksayainisa’ for ‘viksamasa’ 
(14. 23), ‘vartatlrn’ for ‘vartamanain’ (19. 15), ‘manujam’ for ‘manu- 
janam’ (18. 12), ‘pravartatim’ for ‘pravartamanam’ (19. 17), and 
so on. 

Like the other Puranic works, the Narasimha-p. also tries to give 
itself a garb of great sanctity and high antiquity by tracing its descent 
from Brahma. In chap. 67, verses 19-22 it gives the following 

340 Sec Nar, 1. 24 (vyasa-prasadaj janami puranani tapodhanah); 22. 2 
(rajnam vamiah purwesu vistarena prakirdtah); 56. lob-iia; 58. 108. 



260 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


tradition o£ inheritance : — Brahma himself spoke out this Parana to 
the sages Marici and others; the next recipient was Markandeya, who 
then narrated it to a king of the Naga family;®^* Vyasa then received 
it through Narasimha’s favour. 

Nar. 57 (verses 8 to the end) and 58-61, which deal with the 
duties of the four castes and orders of life, are found printed word for 
word under the title Harlta-samhita in the Onavitnsati Samhita.®*® 
These chapters also appear as Laghu-harica-smrti in Jivananda Vidya- 
sagara’s Dharmasastra-satngraha (Vol. I, pp. 172 ff.). Now, the ques- 
tion arises as to whether it was the Harita-sarnhita (or Laghu-harlta- 
smrti) which was incorporated in the present Narasimha-p., or the 
above-mentioned chapters of the Narasimha-p. were given the charac- 
ter of an independent Smrti work under the title ‘Harita-sarnhita’ (or 
‘Laghu-harita-smrti’). An examination of the Harlta-samhita shows 
that it was the above-mentioned chapters of the present Narasiinha-p. 
which were taken off and given the form of an independent work 
under the title ‘Harita-sarnhita’ or ‘Laghu-harita-smrti’ which was deri- 
ved from the name of the original speaker Harita. The Harita-sarnhita 
begins as follows : 

ye varnasrama-dharmasthas te bhaktah kesavatn prati/ 
iti purvatn tvaya proktarn bhur bhuvah svar dvijottamah// 
vatrianam asramarrain ca dharman no bruhi sattama/ 
yena sarntusyate devo narasirnhah sanatanah/ / 
markarideya uvaca/ 

atraharn kathayisyami pura-vrttam anuttamam / 
rsibhih saha sainvadarn haritasya mahatmanahy / 

Of these verses, which are the same as Nar. 57. 8-10, the first 
shows that something has already been said, of which these verses 
form a continuation; and in tact the first verse points to Nar. 57. 2-7 

341 For the reading ‘rajno naga-kulasya ha’ of the printed ed., the Cal. Sans, 
Coll. Ms No. 36 reads ‘rajno vai nakulasya ca’ and the Dacca Univ. Mss 
Nos. 323 and 2713 have ‘rajno vai nakulasya ha’ and ‘rajno vai nahusasya ha’ 
respectively. 

342. Edited (with a Benga’i translation) by Pancanana Tarkaratna and 
published by the Vahgavasi Press, Calcutta. Second edition, 1316 B. S, 



TIHE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


261 


wherein Markandeya, being asked by king Sahasrinika, enumerates 
the characteristics of the devotees of Visnu thus: 

visnu-bhakta mahotsaha visnvarcana-vidhau sada/ 
samyata dharma-sampannah sarvarthan sadhayanti te// 
paropakara-nirata guru-susrusane ratah/ 
varnasramacara-yutah sarvesam supriyamvadah// 
etc. etc. 

Though from a perusal of the Harifa-samhita we understand that 
Markandeya reports to a king named Sahasrinika what Harlta said to 
the sages on the duties of the four castes and orders of life, nothing 
is said in the Harlta-samhiti either about the identity of these two 
persons or about the occasion, time or place in which they met each 
other. Even the name of the king is given as late as in chap. 7 (verse 
20). But it is the Narasimha-p. which tells us who king Sahasrinika 
was and how he met the sage Markandeya. We have already said 
that the Narasimha-p. is a work meant for the glorification of the 
worship of Narasimha. This character is betrayed by the Harlta- 
samhiti also.*** Moreover, none of the quotations made in their 
works by Visvarupa, Aparirka, Bhavadeva, Jimutavihana, Devana- 
bhatta and Aniruddha-bhatm from Harlta, Vrddha-harita, Laghu- 
harlta, Brhaddharlta and Svalpa-harlta is to be met with in our so- 
called Harlta-samhiti. On the other hand, some of the quotations 
made by Aparirka from the ‘Nrsimha-p.’ are traceable in the Hirlta- 
samhiti. For example, 

the verses quoted from the 'Nr- 

simha-p.’ in Apararka’s comment- Hitita-sainhiti 

ary on the Yijhavalkya-smrti, 


P- 79 
p. 125 

P- 153 

p. 189 
p. 965 

These show that the chapters. 


= 3. 12; 

= q. 18-20; 

= 4. 60-61; 

= 4. 71, 72a and 73a; 

= 6. iib-22. 

now known as Harlta-samhica or 


343 See its introductory verse quoted above; see also Harita-samhita 2. 9; 
4 . 75-763; 7. 19, 



262 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Laghu-hirita-smrti, originally belonged to the Narasimha-p. These 
chapters seem to be based on different Smrti works such as the Para- 
sara-smrti and the Harita-dharmasastra (as known to Devanabhatta); 
because Parasara-smrti 1.50 (vaisvadeve tu samprapte etc.) greatly 
resembles Nar. 58. loo-ioia (akrte vaisvadeve tu etc,), and the verse 
‘anena vidhina yo hi asraman upasevate etc.*, quoted from the ‘Harlta- 
dharma-sastra’ in Smrti-candrika, I, p. 174, slightly resembles Nar. 
58. 37 (evam yo vidhim asthaya etc.). 

Here we should like to say a few words on the contents 
of the Narasimha-p. as known to some of the Nibandha-writers. 
In his Smrti-tattva, I, p. 351 Raghunandana quotes from the 
‘Narasimha-p.’ twenty-four metrical lines on general maxims 
(naya), such as ‘One should give salurary advice to his friend 
in proper time, even though he may not be asked for it,’ ‘One, 
who believes the servants of the king or the bastards, do not 
live long’, ‘One should not allow the remaining part of the 
enemies, debt and fire to continue, because these increase again,’ ‘One 
should not begin any work which may create repentance in the end,’ 
and so on. He also quotes in Smrti-tattva, I, p. 827 a verse on 
the proper time for marriage. In his Smrti-tattva, II, p. 66 Raghu- 
nandana quotes from the same source a verse in which ‘Tulasl’ and 
‘Krsna-tulasP have been mentioned as pleasing to Hari. In his 
Vidhana-parijata, I, p. 451 AnantabhaKa quotes from the ‘Narasmha’ 
seventeen metrical lines on dressing a child with clothes for the first 
time. In his Caturvarga-cintamani, II, ii. pp, 41-49 Hemadri quotes 
a large extract of 173 metrical lines on a vow called Narasiinha- 
caturdasl which was given in the ‘Narasimha-p.’ in connection with 
the Narasimha-pradurbhava, In this extract Nrsiinha, being asked 
by Prahlada as to how he became devoted to Nrsimha and was blessed 
with good, says that in his previous birth Prahlada was a Brahmin 
named Vasudava and was addicted to a prostitute and that this Vasu- 
deva performed no other good deed than a Vrataof Nrsiinha. Prahlada 
again asked Nrsimha to narrate in details the whole story. Conse- 
quently Nrsiinha said that in the city of AvantI there was a famous 
Brahmin named Susarman who mastered all the Vedas and performed 
all his duties. This Susarman had a chaste and devoted wife named 



263 


THE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 

Susill, who gave birth to five worthy sons, of whom Vasudeva was 
the youngest. Unlike the other brothers, Vasudeva was addicted to 
prostitutes, became a drunkard, and stole gold for financing his evil 
deeds. Once he quarrelled with a prostitute and kept awake through- 
out the whole night without taking food. The prostitute also did so. 
Thus, Vasudeva unconsciously performed the Vrata of Nrsimha, 
Was born as Prahlada, and became devoted to Nrsimha. The prosti- 
tute became an Apsaras. Next, being asked by Prahlada to describe 
the Vrata in details, Nrsimha did so. Hemadri also quotes verses on 
Hari-vrata, Patra-vrata, and offer of different articles such as kaman- 
dalu, fruits, foot-wears, umbrella, clothes etc. to the Pitrs in sraddha 
ceremonies, ^ulapani quotes verses on sraddha in his Vrata-kala- 
viveka, Sraddha-viveka and Tithi-viveka. In his Caitanya-caritamrta, 111, 
pp. 67 and aSg Krsnadasa Kaviraja quotes from the ‘Nrsimha-p.’ 
three verses, in one of which it is said that even a Mleccha (i, e. a 
Muhammadan), who, being attacked by a boar, cries out ‘Harama’ 
‘Harama’ (‘Boar’, ‘Boar’), attains final emancipation.*— It is needless 
to say that none of these verses is found in the present Narasimha-p. 

In his Haribhaktivilasa, pp. 923-7 and 929-931 Gopalabham 
quotes, from the ‘Brhannarasitnha-p.’, 126 metrical lines on Nara- 
simha-caturdasl- vrata. As ail these verses are found ascribed to the 
‘Narasimha-p.’ in Hemadri’s Caturvarga-cintamani, II. ii. pp. 41-^9, 
it seems that either Gopalabhatta was wrong in his ascription of these 
verses or the ‘Brhannarasimha-p.’ derived some of its extracts and 
verses from the Narasimha-p. In the Ekamra-p. (chap.i) the ‘Brhan- 
natasimha-p.’ has been clearly distinguished from the ‘Narasimha’, 
the former being included among the Upapuranas and the latter 
among the principal Puranas. 

[(A). Many Mss of the Narasimha-p. (including those of the 
Calcutta Sanskrit College and the Dacca University) have the follow- 
ing verses after verse 3 r of chap. 5 of the printed edition : — 
prltyam pulastya-bharyayam dattolis tat-suto’bhavat/ 
tasya vai visravah putras tat-putra ravanadayah/ / 

344 damstri-damsua-hato mleccho haramed punah punah/^ 
uktvapi mukdm apnod kim punah &addhaya groan// 



264 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


raksasa bahavah prokta lankapura-nivasinah/ 
yesam vadhaya lokeso visnuh ksirodadhau pura/ 
bralimadyaih prarthito devair avataram ihakarot/ / 
karddamas catnbarTsas ca sahisnus ca suta-trayam/ 
ksama tu susuve bharya pulahasya prajapateh// 
kratos tu sannatir bharya balakhilyan asuyata/ 
sastis tani sahasrani rsTnam urdhva-retasam// 
ahgustha-parva-matranam jvalad-bhaskara-tejasam / / 
pracetaso’tha satyayain satyasandhas trayah sutah/ 
jatas tat-putra-pautras ca sataso’tha sahasrasah// 
urjayam ca vasisthasya saptajayanta vai sutah/ 
rajogatrordhvabahus ca sabaias canaghas tatha/ 
sutapah sukra ity etc sarve saptarsayo ’bhavan/ / 
bhrgoh khyatyarn samutpanna laksmir visnu-parigrahah/ 
tatha dhatr-vidhatarau khyatyarn jatau sutau bhrgoh/ / 
ayatir niyatis caiva meroh kanye siisobhane/ 
dhatur vidhatus ca te bharye tayor jatau sutav ubhau/ / 
pranas caiva mrkandus ca markandeyo mrkandutah/ 
ycna mrtyur jito vipra pura narayanasrayat// 
tato vedasira jajne pranasyapi suto’bhavat/ 
dyutiman iti vikhyatah sanjayas tat-suto’bhavat// 
tato vamso mahabhaga bhargavo vistaram gatah// 

See, for instance, chap, 5 of Calcutta Sanskrit College Mss Nos. 
36 (fol. ya-b) and 304 (fols. bb-ya) and Dacca University Mss Nos. 
284 A (fols. 8b-9b), 323 (fols. 9b-ioa), and 2713 (fol. ya-b). There 
are some variations in readings in these Mss, which need not be noted 
here. 

(B) After verse 7 of chap. 57 of the printed edition, many Mss 
including those of the Calcutta Sanskrit College and the Dacca 
University) have the following verses: 

puspair aranya-sambhutaih patrair va giri-sambhavaih/ 
aparyusita-nischidraih proksitair jantu-varjitaih// 
atmaramodbhavair vapi puspaih sampujayeddharim / 
puspa-jati-viscsais tu bhavet punyam viscsatah// 



265 


TIHE MAJOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

tapah-slla-gunopeta-patre vcdasya parage/ 
dasa dattva suvarnani yat phalam labhate narah/ 
tat phalam labhate martyo harau kumuda-danatah/ / 
drona-puspe tathaikasmin madhavaya nivedite / 
dasa dattva suvarnani yat phalam tad avapnuyat// 
evam puspa-visesena phalam tad adhikam nrpa/ 
jneyam puspantatenaiva yatha syat tannibodha me// 
drona-puspa-sahasrebhyah khadiram vai visisyatc/ 
kl.adirebhyah sahasrcbhyah sami-puspam visisyate/ / 
saml-puspa-sahasrebhyo bilva-puspam visisyate/ 
bflva-puspa-sahasrebhyo vaka-puspam visisyate/ / 
vaka-puspa-sahasraddhi nandyavartam visisyate/ 
nandyavarta-sahasrebhyah karaviram visisyate/ / 
karavira-sahasrebhyah svetatn tat puspam uttamam/ 
karavira-sveta-puspat plalasam puspam uttamam / / 
palasa-puspa-sahasraddhi kusa-paspam visisyate/ 
kusa-puspa-sahasraddhi vanamala visisyate// 
vanamala-sahasraddhi campakam puspam isyate/ 
campakanam puspa-satad asokam puspam uttamam// 
asokanatn sahasraddhi samantl-puspam uttamam/ 
samanti-puspa-sahasraddhi kubjakam puspam uttamam// 
kubja-puspa-sahasranarn malati-puspam uttamam/ 
malaci-puspa-sahasraddhi sandhyaraktatn taduttamam// 
sandhyarakta-sahasraddhi trisandhyasvetam uttamam/ 
trisandhyasveta-sahasiat kunda-puspam visisyate// 
kunda-puspa-sahasraddlii satapatrarn visisyate/ 
satapatta-sahasraddhi mallika-puspam uttamam// 
mallika-puspa-sahasraj jati-puspatn visisyate/ 
sarvasam puspa-jatlnam jati-puspam ihottamam// 
jati-puspa-sahasrena yo malam nityaso dadet/ 
visnavc vidhivad bhaktya tasya punya-phalain srnu/ / 
kalpa-koti-sahasrani kalpa-koti-satani ca/ 
vased visnupure sriman visnii-tulya-parakramah// 

sesanam puspa-jatlnam yat phalam vidhinoditam/ 
tat-phalasyanusarena visnu-loke mahlyatc/ / 


34 



266 STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

patrany api supuspani hareh pritikarani ca/ 
pravaksyami nrpa-srestha srnusva gadato mama// 
apamarga-patram prathamam tasmad bhrngarakam param/ 
tasmac tu kbadiram srcstham tatas ca sami-patrakam// 
durva-patram tacah srestliam tato’pi kusa-patrakam/ 
tasmad amalakam srestham tato bilvasya patrakam// 
bilva-patrad api hares tulasl-patram uttamam// 
etesam tu yatbalabdliaib patrair va yo’rcayeddharim/ 
sarva-papa-vinirmukto visnu-loke mahlyate/ / 
evam hi rajan narasitpha-murteh 
priyani puspani taveritani/ 
etais ca mtyam harim arcya bhaktya 
naro visuddho harim eva yati// 

See, for instance, chap. 51 of Calcutta Sanskrit College Mss Nos. 36 
(fols. yya-ySa) and 304 (tols. 82b-83b) and Dacca University Mss 
Nos. 284A (fols. Ii8a-ii9a), 323 (fols. 1143-1153) and 2713 (fols. 
868-878). There are many variations in readings in these Mss, 
but these need not be noted here. 

Many of these verses are the same as Bhav. I. 163. 57!?. From 
the position of these verses in the Narasimha-p. it seems that the 
Narasimha-p. is the borrower. As Gopalabhatta, Narasirnha Vajapeyin, 
Raghunandana, Govindananda, Madanapala and Devanabhatta quote 
many of these verses in their respective works, it is sure that these 
venes have been occurring in the Narasimha-p. from a time earlier 
than Devanabha^.] 



CHAPTER IV 

THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

Besides the Vaisnava Upapuranas examined in the immediately 
preceding Chapter there were many others which dealt with the cult 
of Visnu and belonged to comparatively late dates; but of these, only 
a few have come down to us, the rest appearing to have been extinct 
on account of their importance being restricted to particular localities 
or times. As, due to various inconveniences, I could not get access to 
the manuscripts of all those of these extant Upapuranas which have 
not yet been published, my treatment of these works could not be 
expected to be exhaustive. I should, however, point out that the 
minor Vaisnava Upapuranas, left out of consideration here, are very 
few (being about two or three in number) and come from very late 
dates. 

From our examination of the Upapuranas below we shall see that 
many of these works were compiled in eastern India, especially in 
Bengal, under varying circumstances created by the spread of the here- 
sies, mainly Buddhism, and the Tantric cults. A study of the history 
of Vaisnavism shows that this religious faith, being more closely con- 
nected with the Vedas than Saivism, Saktism etc., has been used in 
different ages as a corrective of social indiscipline caused and encour- 
aged by the heresies and the popular cults. Moreover, there were 
changes in the ideas, rites and customs of the Vaisnavas with the 
progress of time, and these also must have given them impetus to 
compile new Upapuranic works for the guidance of the people. 

I. THE KRIYAYOGASARA* 

In the chapter-colophons of its printed editions as well as of its 
Mss this work claims to belong to the Padma-p. Hence it has been 
regarded as one of the Khandas of the latter and printed accordingly 


I The Vahga ed. of this work consists of 26 chapters and is practically 
the same as that published with the Vchkau ed. of the Padma-p. 



268 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


in the Vehkat. ed. of the Padma-p. with the words ‘atha kriyayogasara- 
khandani arabhyate’. But really it is a distinct and independent work 
attached, most probably at a later date, to the Padma-p. for the sake 
of authority. It begins like other independent Puranic works and 
styles itself ‘Upapurana’ in its concluding verse;^ and nowhere in the 

For Mss of this work see 

(1) Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat.. VI, pp. 1224-25, No. 3898 (complete in 
25 chapters and ending with the words 'saniaptafp cedam iipapuranam iti’). 

(2) Aufrecht, Bod. Cat,, p. 14, No. 55 (complete in 25 chapters), and 
p.- 1 5, No. 56 (incomplete). 

(3) Shastri, ASB Cat., V, p. 195, No. 3458, and pp. 199-202, 
Nos. 3464-69. (Of these Mss, No. 3465 begins from chap. 3 of the printed 
ed., consists of 24 chapters, and is dared Saka 1618; Nos. 3466 and 3469 are 
incomplete; and the rest are complete in 25 chapters each). 

(4) Mitra, Notices, III, pp. 113-6, No. 1162 (complete in 25 chapters). 

(5) Shastri and Gui, Calcutta Sans. College Cat., IV, p. 185, No 299 
(complete in 25 chapters). 

(6) Keith, Ind. Off. Cat., II. i, p. 919, No. 6625 (containing 24 chapters, 
of which the last deals with ‘atitlii-mahatmya’ and is the same as chap. 25 of 
the printed ed.). 

(7) Benares Sans. College Cat., p. 328, No. 2140 (incomplete). 

(8) Chakravarti, Vahgiya Sahitya Parisat Cat., pp. 72-73, Nos. 29-31 (of 
which the first is incomplete, and the last two consist of 25 chapters each), 

(9) List of Sans., Jaina and Hindi Mss, p. 145. 

(to) Dacca Univ. Mss Nos. 189B, 282A, .-4a, 641, 920, 996, to62D. 
* 399 > • 4 ^ 4 > *670, 1724, 2102, 2107E and F, 2791, 3232, 4042, 4095, 4212, 
and 4242 (of which. Nos. 189B, 920, 1062D, 1399, 1724, 2107E and F, 4042 
and 4242 are incomplete; No. 996 consists of 24 chapters, of which the last one 
is the same as chap. 25 of the printed edition; and the rest are complete in 25 
chapters each). 

Chap. 5 of the Mss mentioned above has been split up into chaps, 5-6 in 
the Vchkay and Vahga. editions. 

It is to be noted that all the Mss of the Kriyayogasara, hitherto discovered, 
are written in Bengali script. 

(11) A. Weber, Die Handscriften yerzeichnisse De Koniglichen Biblio- 
thek (Berlin, 1853), p. 13 1, No. 456 

2 Kriyayogasara 26. 55 — 

idam atisaya-guhyam nihsrtam vyasa-vaktrad 
ruciram upapuranam pritidam vaisnavanam/ 
etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


269 


body of its text there is any reference to its connection with the 
Padma-p. In some of the chapter-colophons of two of its Mss® it 
does not claim to belong to the Padma-p. The Naradlya-p. (I, 53) 
also, though giving the names and contents of the different Khandas 
of the Padma-p,, makes no mention of the Kriyayogasara. The inde- 
pendent character of this work is shown definitely by the Brhad- 
dharma-p. (I. 25.24) which names this work in its list of eighteen 
Upapuranas. 

The Kriyayogasara begins with three verses containing salutations 
to Hari, ‘lord of Laksml’, who is said to have assumed various forms 
including that of Vyasa, the author of the Puranas. It then states 
that once Suta came with his pupils to Naimisaranya where the sages 
were holding a meeting tor the good of the world. One of these sages, 
Saunaka by name, referred to the evils of the Kali age and requested 
Suta to tell them how people could be highly devoted to Hari. Conse- 
quently, Suta reported to the sages what Vyasa had said to Jaimini on 
‘kriyayoga-sara’ (i.e. ‘the essence of yoga by work’), which was furni- 
shed with various stories as well as with discourses on Narayana, Thus 
the topics of the Kriyayogasara have been introduced in chap, i . The 
contents of the remaining chapters as are follows. 

Chap. 2. — Description of the first creation of the universe. — 

Mahavisnu’s appearance as Brahma, Visnu and Rudra, who were 
created respectively from the right, left and middle parts of his body; 
and his Adya Prakrti’s assumption of the forms of Brahmi, Laksml and 
Ambika in order to urge and help Brahma, Visnu and Rudra respec- 
tively in their works. Brahma’s creation of the five elements as well 
as of the different lokas including the earth. 

Geography of the earth (with its continents, oceans and mountains). 
Position of Bharatavarsa, which is said to be bounded on the north by 


In our Venkan and Vanga. editions as well as in some of the Mss of the KriyS- 
yogasara the reading ‘ruciratara-purananT is found in place of 'ruciram upapura- 
nam’ occurring in the great majority of the Mss mentioned above. Mitra’s Ms 
reads ‘sarasatara-puranam’ (see Mitra, Notices, III, p. i >4). 

3 See Dacca Univ. Mss Nos, 282A and 1464. 



270 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


the Himalayas and on the south by the Vindhya mountain.* Praise 
of Bharatavarsa as the ‘karma-dhumi’ (place of work) for the Vaisnavas 
(called Bhagavatas). Praise of Vaisnavas. 

Story of Visnu’s killing of the demons Madhu and Kaitabha, 

Visnu’s enumeration of the characteristics of Vaisnavas, who are 
to look upon Brahma, Visnu and Rudra as equal, to wear garlands 
made of Tulasi wood and Dhatrl fruits, to mark their limbs with the 
figures of sankha, cakra, gada and -padma, to bathe regularly in the 
waters of the Gahga, to study the Bhagavata (sastram bhagavatam), to 
construct new V'isnu-temples or repair old ones, to plant Pippala 
(Asvattha) trees, to serve cows and superiors, to have no regard for the 
Pasandas, to be devoted to Siva, to worship Visnu, and to do various 
other works. 

Chap. 2- — Praise of ‘kriya-yoga’ over ‘dhyana-yoga’. Kriya-yoga 
consists of (i) worship of Gahga, Sri and Visnu, (ii) donation, (iii) devo- 
tion to Brah.mins, (iv) observance of the Ekadasi-vrata, (v) regard for 
Dhitrl trees and Tulasi plants, and (vi) hospitality to guests.® 

Jaimini’s request to Vyasa to describe the benefits of the pious acts 
constituting ‘kriya-yoga’. Vyasa’s consequent praise of the Gahga 
(which is said to be specially sacred at Gahga-dvara, Prayaga and 
Gahga-sagata-sahgama) by narrating the story of a vulture which des- 
cribed to king Manobhadra of the Lunar race its experience of the 
benefits of bathing and dying in the waters of the Gahga and the out- 
come of ignoring one’s parents. 

Chaps. 4-g. — Praise of the Gahga continued. — Glorification of the 
waters of, and bath and death in, the Gahga especially at Prayaga and 
Gahga-sagara-sahgama; and narration of various relevant stories® includ- 

4 Kriyayogasara 2. — 

hemadri-daksinam yad vai vindhyadrer uttaram tatha/ 
alms tad bharatam varsani subhasubha-phala-pradam// 

5 Kriyayogasara 3. 4-5 — 

gahga srir visnii-puja ca danani dvija-satt.inia/ 
biahmanaiiam tatha bhaktir bhaktir ekadasi-vrate/ / 
dhatri-tul.isyor bhaktis ca tatha catithi-pujanam/ 
kiiya-yogahga-bhutani proktaniti samasatah/ / 
t> Such as those of (i) a sinful fowler named Dhaniirdhvaja, who, being 
0.1a iioured of Radmavatl, wife of a merchant naiued Pranidhi. drowned himself 



271 


THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

ing the highly interesting love-story of Madhava and Sulocana (both 
of royal descent), in which there are poetic touches at several places.' 

(For mention of the images of Visnu and Karttikeya at Gahga- 
sagara-sahgama, see verses 104-106 of chap. 4 and verses 16 iff. of 

Benefits accruing to those deceased persons whose bones are thrown 
into the Gahga. 

Method and praise of Gahga-yatra. 

Chap. 10. — Praise of worshipping Visnu (especially with Campaka 
flowers) and of doing various other pious acts during the month of 
Magha. 

Chaps. 11-14. — Daily duties which a Vaisnava must do after 
leaving bed in the morning. Method and praise of worshipping Visnu 
with the offer of different articles and of rendering various kinds of 
service to him during the months of Phalguna, Caitra etc. Praise of 
Visnu-padodaka. Glorification of Asvattha trees by identifying them 
with Visnu. Story of a Brahmin named Dhananjaya who learnt from 

at the confluence of the Gahga and the Yamuna according to the abvice of Pad- 
niavaci’s friends, became a second husband to Padmavati, passed to Visnu s 
region, and attained a form similar to that of Visnu himself (chap. (a) a 
Raksasa named Brhaddhvaja, who, while abducting a married woman named 
Keiini with an evil motive, died at Gahga-sagara sahgama and was consequently 
taken by Visnu-dutas to Vaikuntha (chap. 4) ; ( 3 ) a Brahmin named Dhar- 
masva, who, by sprinkling a dying sinner with the waters of the Gahga and by 
placing a Tulast leaf on his body, enabled him to escape the hands of Yama- 
dutas and attain the region of Visnu (chap. 7 ); and so on. 

7 See, for instance, the following verses : — 
vanam parityajya krsanu-bhitya 
jalain pravista nalini sukhartham/ 
sarndahyate tatra himanalena 
yad yasya karma na tad anyatha syat// 

(Kriyayogasara 5. 155). 

nisavafista nalini himakare 
durikrte candakarena bhasvata/ 
sugandha-puspa-prakaratisundari 
napnoti kim bhrhga-varasya samgamam// 

(Kriyayogasara 5. 194). 




272 


SlUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Visnu that by cutting the branch of an Asvattha tree he hurt Visnu 
himself. 

Praise of painting the figures of sahkha, cakra etc. on the different 
parts of the body. Results of worshipping Visnu with different kinds 
of flowers and leaves. Story of a pious Bralimin who learnt from Siva 
how, in his previous birth as a Savara, lie acquired merit by supplying 
a lotus to a Brahmin for Visnu- worship. 

Chaps. 15-I7- — Glorification of Visnu (Narayana). Results of 
uttering the name of Rama and of muttering the six-syllabled mantra 
‘om namo ramaya’. Praise of Hari-bhakti. Glorification of the 
twelve-syllabled mantra ‘om namo bhagavate vasudevaya’. Enumera- 
tion of the io8 names of Krsna (17. 58-117). Narration of relevant 
stories, one of which (given in chap. 1 7) is clearly based on the story 
of the attachment of Bilvamahgala (author of the Krsnakarnamrta) 
towards a courtesan named Cintamani. 

Chap. t8. — Praise of Purusottamaksetra. — Praise of the place; 
praise of food {anna) which is offered to Visnu and is said to be 
acceptable to the members of the higher castes even if it is touched 
by a Candala;® worship of Jagannatha, Balabhadta and Subhadra; 
praise of bath in the Indradyumna-saras, Matkandeya-hrada, Sveta- 
gahga etc. and of visiting Svetamadhava, Hamimat, the Aksaya-vata 
tree etc.; praise of receiving cane-strokes until blood comes out in 
profusion;® performance of dola-yatra, mahasnana, ratha-yatra and 
Gundicamandapa-yatta; and so on. 

8 ciindalcnapi satnsprsain grahy.iin tatrannam agrajaih/ 
saksad visniir y.itas t.Ttra candalo dvija-sattania/ / 

Kriyayogasara 18. 7. 

9 tatra vetra-praharen.i sarirani yasya lohitam/ 

tarn vandante dvija-srcstha devah sakradayo ’khilah// 

kada vetra-praharena ksetre sripuriisottame/ 
bhavisyanty asmadiyani lohitani vapuinsi ca// 
vasavadyah surah sarve tasmin ksetre varaprade/ 
sada vctra-praharains ca vanchanti dvija-sattama/ / 

Kriyayogasara 18. 24-28. 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 273 

Chap. 19.— Praise of revering Visnu and dedicating various kinds 
of food to him. Praise of Visnu-naivedya. Narration of the stories 
of Urvlsu (who, although a robber, dedicated to Visnu a cart made of 
guda and was consequently favoured by the deity) and a Brahmin 
named Sarvajani (who, in his previous birth, got rid of his birdliood 
by taking Visnu-naivedya). 

Qualifications of persons with whom Visnu is satisfied. 

Chaps. 20-21. — Praise of giving food, water, land, cows, sesamum, 
gems, horses, elephants, Salagrama stone, etc. Denouncement 

of a kanya-vikrayin (verses 128-132). Qualifications of Brahmins 
who are worthy recipients of gifts. Narration of relevant stories. 

Chaps. 22- 23.— -Praise of Ekadasi-vrata ; and the rules for its 
observance. Narration of relevant stories including that of Papa- 
purusa (a being made of sins) who is to reside in food on the EkadasI 

Tithi. 

Chaps. 24-25.— -Praise of a TulasI plant which is said to be 
capable of conferring on its devotees the four ends of life. Results of 
rendering various kinds of service to it. 

Praise of Dhatrl trees, which are said to be as sacred as TulasI 
plants. Praise of hospitality to guests. 

Narration of relevant stories. 

Chap. 26. — Conduct of people during the different "jugns, espe- 
cially the Kali-yuga. 

The above contents of the Kriyayogasara show that this work is 
to be valued mainly from the religious point of view. It is a 
Bhagavata document on the praise of Visnu-worship. It conceives of 
Mahavisnu as identical with Paratman and states that this Mahavisnu 
appears as Brahma, Visnu and Rudra for the sake of creation, and his 
Adya Prakrti, being the cause of the universe, assumes the forms of 
Brahml, Laksml and Ambika to urge and help Brahma, Visnu and 
Rudra respectively in their works. It advocates bbakti, lays special 
stress on dasya-bhakti,** and believes that by devoutly worshipping 

10 Cf. tvad-dasa-dasa-dasatvain dasasya dchi me prabho/, 

(Kriyayogasara 11. 113b). 
tvad-dasa-dasa-dasanaffl dasatvenapi mam vrnu/, 

(Kriyayogasara 17. 250b). 


35 



274 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 

Visnu one can attain sariipya, salokya and kaivalya. It is o£ opinion 
that. a Candala, who is devoted to Visnu, is really superior to a Brah- 
min who is not so.“ It rarely uses the name ‘Krsna,’ but its mention 
of Balarama instead of Krsna in its lists of incarnations (including 
Buddha and Kalkin) shows that it looks upon Krsna as identical with 
Mahavisnu himself. It recommends the study of the Bhagavata-p., calls 
the Vaisnavas ‘Bhagavata,’ and preaches the equality of Brahma, Visnu 
and Siva.*^ The sectarian mantras mentioned in it are the following 
‘om namo narayanaya,’ ‘om namo bhagavate vasudevaya’ and ‘ont namo 
ramaya.’ 

That the Kriyayogasara is a work of Bengal, H and most probably 
of its eastern part, can be shown by the following pieces of evidence, 
(i) Mss of this work are found in Bengal in large numbers, but they 
arc very rare in other provinces. (2) All of the numerous Mss of this 
work, hitherto discovered and preserved in different places in and out- 
side India, are written in Bengali script. (3) That this work was very 
popular in Bengal is shown by the fact that it was translated into 
Bengali by different authors at different times. In the Dacca University 
collection there are several Mss of Bengali translations of this work by 
different writers, viz., Ananta Datta, Ramesvara Nandi, Prana-nata- 
yana and Siva-narayana.** (q.) It was the writers of Bengal who first 
recognised the Kriyayogasara as an authoritative work. The Brhad- 
dharma-p., which is the first and most probably the only work to in- 
clude the Kriyayogasara among the ‘eighteen’ Upapuranas, belongs 


II barer abhakto vipro’pi vijilcyah sv-ip-icadbikab/ 
bari-bbaktab svapako’pi vijiicyo biahnianadbikab//j 

Kriyayogasara 16. 3. 

la C£, brahma- visiiu-mahcsaiiain madbye ye bliedakarinah/j 

••• tesam rusto’smy abain sada/ 

Kriyayogasara 19. io3b-io^a. 

13 In his Essays Analytical, Criiical and Philological (p. 82) JVibon says 

that the Kriyayogasara 'is most probably the work of a Brahman of Orissa, or 
Bengal and that it ‘does not appear to be known in the South of India'. 

14 See Dacca Univ. Mss Nos. 4153, 662 and K507 (author — Ananta 
Datta), No, 134* (author— Ramesvara Nandi), No. K23 (author — Prana- 
narayana), and No. K206 (author — Siva-narayana). 



275 


IWE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

decidedly to Bengal. (5) Although the Kriyayogasara says that the 
Gahga is specially sacred at three places, viz., Gahgidvara, Prayaga 
and Gafiga-sagara-sangama, it gives more attention to the praise of the 
last one. (6) The fruits and flowers, mentioned in the Kriyayogasara, are 
very common in Bengal. (7) The description of Madhava’s marriage 
with Sulocana, as given in chap. 5 of the Kriyayogasara, Includes 
certain rites which are peculiar to Bengal. These rites are (a) the per- 
formance of adhivasa of the bride on the day immediately preceding 
that of marriage, and the tying of Durva grass to her hand with a few 
folds of thread on this occasion,*® (b) the sounding of conch-shells 
before marriage,*® and (c) the taking of the bride, seated on a flat scat 
(pitha — popularly called tfifsT In Bengal) of 'Gambharl wood,’ by her 
paternal blood-relations to the bridegroom in the marriage-panda 1 at 
the time of marriage.*^ It is to be noted that Gambharl wood is very 
commonly used for making seats, boats etc. in Eastern Bengal and 
Assam (especially in the districts of Mymensingh, Sylhet, Tipperah 
etc.). In the vernacular works of mediaeval Bengal, there ^are numer- 
ous references to the use of ‘Gamarl’ or ‘Gambharl’ wood for the con- 
struction of various things such as boats and flat seats (popularly called 
'fife and meant for use especially in marriage), and so on.*® (8) Some 
words have been used in the same peculiar meanings as they arc 
found to carry in present-day Bengal. — (.a) The word ‘prastava’ has 
been used in the sense of ‘story,’ ‘account’ etc. in Kriyayogasara 6. 
125 (sulocanayah prastavam kath.iyamasa bhutalc). It should be men- 
tioned here that this word is found to be used in the above-mentioned 

13 Kriyayog.isara 5. 97; 5. 112 (adyadhivasanam karma fvo vivaho mama 
dhruvam); 5.198 (adhivasana sutrani sadurvani bhuje mama); and 6. 129 
(achadhivasanam karma svo vivaho mama dhruvam), 

16 Ibid., 5. 149. 

17 Ibid., 5. 152 — 

gambhari-kascha-racitam pitham aruhya sundari/, 
jhatibhir vestita yata vara-sthanam sulocana/ /, 

18 See, for instance, Bhavananda’s Harivamsa, p. 50 (lines 2058-59 — 

WT ^ i ^ *113? tr 11 ) 

and Mukundarama’s Kavi-kankana-candi. p. 395 ( ) 

It is needless to say that both these works are written in Bengali. 



276 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

sense in Eastern Bengal only, (b) The word ‘nikata’ has been used 
in the sense o£ ‘to’ or ‘near’ in Kriyayogasara 5. I2i (gatva tannikate 

) and 160 (asau duhkhagata kanya varasya nikate ’dhuna). (c) 

The word ‘sadhu’ has been used in the sense of ‘merchant’ in Kriyayoga- 
sara^j,5o (tam sadhu-patnim adaya yayuh...). This word has been used 
in the above-mentioned sense in the Hitopadesa, which is, in all pro- 
bability, a work of Bengal, (d) The word ‘kallola’ has been used in 
the sense of ‘rinsing’ in Kriyayogasara 10.21 (kuryad dvadasa vipren- 
dra kallolani jalair budhah) and 22. go (kallolair mukha-suddhim tu 
kuryad dvadasabhir budhah). This word seems to be the Sanskritised 
form of the word as used in Eastern Bengal to mean ‘rin- 
sing.’ It has also some resemblance with the word (meaning 

‘rinsing’) used in western and other parts of Bengal, (e) The root ‘nl’ 
has been used in the sense of ‘grah’ (to take) in Kriyayogasara 6. 148 
(vipattyain yena hastcna nayet pada-rajah khalu/sirah krntati tenaiva 
svaminah prapya sampadam//). (g) Some expressions have been formed 
in imitation of those in Bengali. As an instance we may cite 
Kriyayogasara 6. loo-ioi — kanyaya dusanarn nisti nasti vidyadharasya 
va/ mamaiva dusanarn sarvam yato hinasya sahgabhak / / (Cf. Bengali — 
'IT?* ). ( to ) The method of carrying 

water in pitchers, as referred to in the verse ‘ityalocya vararoha savya- 
kacche ghatam tatah/^ krtva palayane bhitya manas cakre f j’ 

(5.28), is very common with the women of Bengal. 

The Kriyayogasara is not a very early work. It is quite familiar 
with the names of the zodiacal signs,’® praises the TulasI plant on 
many occasions, mentions the Buddha incarnation in two places,®- and 
recommends the study of the Ramayana, the Mahabharata (bharatam 
vyasa-bhasitam) and the Bhagavata-p.®i In chap. 17 it contains a 
story which is clearly an imitation of that of Bilvamahgala. Hence 
the Kriyayogasara cannot be dated earlier than 700 A.D. Again, a 

19 Kriyayogasara 4. 6, 10. 15 etc.; 13. 75. 

20 Ibid., 6. 188; and 11.94, 

21 Ibid., 2.94 ('salagrama-iila yesam grhe vasati sarvada/ iastrain 
bhagavatam caiva jneyas te vaisnava janah//); and 22. 137 (ramayanain 
bhagavatam bharatam vyasa-bh 3 sitain/. anySni ca puranani pathyani hari- 
vasare//). 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 277 

Ms of this work is dated 1556 Saka**; and the Brhaddharma-p.i 
which was written in Bengal cither in the latter half of the thirteenth 
or in the former half of the fourteenth century A.D.,^- mentions the 
Kriyayogasara in its list of Upapuranas and thus recognises this work 
as highly autlioritative. Hence the Kriyayogasara must have been 
written at least two centuries earlier, i.e. not later than the eleventh 
century A. D. The facts that the Kriyayogasara has very little 
Tantric influence and that, unlike the Mahabhagavata and the 
Brhaddharma-p.j it pays no attention to Tantric Saktism, show that 
it is to be dated earlier than the Mahabhagavata®* also. It is highly 
probable that this work was written towards the end of the ninth cr 
the beginning of the tenth century A.D. 

The mention of ‘Yavana’ m the line ‘ahanan nisitaih khadgair 
nisayam yavanopamah’ (7-62) need not be taken to assign the 
Kriyayogasara to a date posterior to that of Muhammadan conquest 
of Bengal, As there is no second mention of Yavanas in this work, 
it seems that the Muhammadans were still outside Bengal and that 
the author of the Kriyayogasara had no direct knowledge of the evils 
of Muhammadan rule. 

A study of the Kriyayogasara shows that at the time of composi- 
tion of this work there was a great spread of the ‘Pasandas who 
disregarded Visnu® - and encouraged people to neglect the Vedas and 
the Puranas, ®- to dispossess Brahmins of their landed property, - to 

22 See Dacca Univ. Ms No. i6yo, 

23 The questions o£ date and provenance of the Brhaddharma-p. will be 
discussed fully in another Volume of the present work. 

24 The Mahabhagavata was written about the tenth or eleventh century 
A. D, For the date of this work see Vol. II of the present work. 

25 Cf, pakhandanam samipe f na kuryad dvija pujanam//,— 

Kriyayogasara 14. 3. 

vasudevasya mahatmyatn Irutva. / pakhanda na hi trpyanti......//j 

pakhandanam samipe tu visnu mahatmyam / na vaktavyam... //, 

Kriyayogasara 19. 3 4. 

26 Cf. na vedadhyayanarn cakre puranani ca saryalah/ 

tatyaiottama-samjnam ca pakhanda-jana sangamat// 

Kriyayogasara 17. ii. 

27 Cf. pakhanda-jana-vakyena maya bhumir dvijanmanah/, langliiti 

■ ... 1 1 — Kriyayogasara 6. 22. _ _ 

pakha^air bodhtto ’yam tu iahira dvija-iasanam.— Kriyayogasara 6.27. 



278 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


punish honest men,*® and to do various other acts of violence. It 
should be mentioned here that by the term ‘Pasanda’ the Kriyayogasara 
means those people, especially the red-robed Buddhists, who were 
regardless of the Vedic injunctions and followed the non-Vcdic rites 
and customs.®® As the spread of these Pasandas was unfavourable 
to the Varnasramadharma and Visnu-worship, the Kriyayogasara 
advised people not even to speak with these Pasandas®®. It decried 
those who took beef,®^ and preached the Vedic rites as lawful 
(dharmya).?® It prescribed the use of only the Vedic and the Puranic 
mantras,^^ encouraged the study of the Vedas and the Puranas, 
praised the performance of the ‘five great sacrifices’ (panca-mahayajna),®® 
and added great importance to the observance of the Vedic rules of 
castes and orders of life. It should be noted that in trying to 
popularise his religious faith as well as to establish the Vedic rules of 
life and conduct, the author of the Kriyayogasara, like those of the 
Mahabhagavata and the Brhaddharma-p., utilised the river Ganga, 
which he regarded as much sacred as Visnti.®- Although this river 
played a very prominent part in the religious and cultural life of the 
Hindus, no importance was attached to it by the followers of the 
heresies. Aryadeva’s Cittavisuddhi-prakarana clearly shows how much 
the Buddhists denounced the Brahmanical practice of bathing in the 

28 Cf. pakhandi-raantrinara vakyair vina dosair api dvija/, 

• •• ... dandy ante sadh.avo janah// — 

Kriyayogasara 10. ijo. 

29 Kriyayogasara 17. 77 (ye veda-sarnmatatn karyain tyaktvanyat karma 
kurvate/, nijacara-vihiaa ye pakhandas te prakirtitah//); and 26, 2ob-2ia 
(pasanda-sangha-baddlias ca bliavisyanti kalau yuge/ raktambara bhavisyanti 
brahmanah iudra-dharminah / /). 

30 Kriyayogasara 9. 16 (pakhanda-sangam eva varjayet); 17. 67 

(tyaja pasanda-sainsargain); and 22. 129 (na pakhandajanalapah kartavyah 
/ pakhandalapa-matrena sarva-dharmo vinasyati //). 

31 Kriyayogasara 4. 83; and 7. 60. 

32 Kriyayogasara 7. 78 (karyain veda-nisiddharn yat tat patakam iti 
smriam/ yad veda-samoiatain karyarn tad eva dharmyam ucyate//). 

33 Kriyayogasara ii. ygfE. 

34 Ibid., 22. 136; 17. 70®. 

35 Ibid., 7. 79 — yatha visniis tatha ganga gangaiva sarvapapaha. 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA URAPURaNAS 


279 


Gaiiga to remove sin and acquire merit.®* So, the authors of the 
Puranas spared no pains to establish the sanctity and divinity of this 
river and to connect it with the Vedic ideas on the one hand and 
their respective deities on the other. 

2. THE ADI-PURANA 

An Adya- or Adi-purana is mentioned in most of the lists of 
eighteen Upapuranas and has been drawn upon extensively by almost 
all the Nibandha-writers. We have also got an Adi-purana preserved 
in Mss®- and published by the VehUatesvara Press, Bombay, and by 
Navlna-krsna Laha (with a Bengali translation), Calcutta. We shall see 
below that these two Adi-puranas arc quite distinct in character and 
belong to different dates. 

36 In the Cittavisuddhi-prakarana Aryadeva says : “If salvation could be 
attained by means of Ganges water, then fishermen would all attain salvation, 
and more particularly the fishes, which are in the Ganges day and night,” 
(Winternitz, History of Indian Literature, yol. II, p, 351). 

37 For Mss of the Adi-p. see 

(1) Mitra, Notices, II, pp. 18-20, No. 553. 

[This is an undated Ms written in Bengali characters and consisting of 25 
chapters. It begins with verse i (jayati yasoda-sunuh etc.) of chap. 5 of the 
printed eds. and ends with the concluding verse (idatn maya te kathitatn 
mahadbhutam etc.) of the latter. Its contents, as given by Mitra, agree 
generally with those of chaps. 5-29 of the printed eds.] 

(2) Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat., VI, pp. ii8'I-85. 

[No. 3335. — ^Ihis is a complete Ms written in Dcvanagaii script and copied 
ill 1799 A.D. It consists 0152 chapters, but its 52nd chapter, which deals 
with Katnsa-vadha, is called the 5tst in the final colophon (iti fii-adi-putane 
narada-saunakadi-samvpde kamsa-vadho namaikapancasattamo’dhyayah samap- 
tah). It begins, like Mitta’s Ms, with verse i of chap, 5 of the printed 
eds. but contains a second introductory verse (na khalu bala-vilasa” etc.) 
which is not found in the printed eds. Its first 25 chapters have general 
agreement, as regards contents, with Mitra’s Ms and with chaps. 5"*9 
printed eds. Of the remaining chapters, chap. 32 deals with Dhenuka-purva- 
janma-kathana, chap. 39 with Rasa-krida-vilasa, chaps. 42-44 '''“h the descrip- 
tion of different kinds of nayakas and nayikas, chap. 45 with nama-m^atmya, 
and the rest with the different deeds and exploits of Krsna. 

No. 3336. — ^Jhis Ms also is written in Devanagati script. It wa| copied in 



22,0 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPUMNAS 

(I). Tlie Adi-p., published by the Venkatesvara Press, Bombay, and 
by Navina-krsna Labi, Calcutta, consists of 29 chapters, of which the 

1804 A,D. According to Eggeling, it is ‘evidently a reproduction of the pre- 
ceding Ms with all its mistakes and an additional supply of its own’.] 

(3) Shastri, ASB Cat., V, pp. 708-9. 

]No. 4 ° 7 ** — This is a complete Ms written in Nagara script and dated 
Sanivat 1869, For a ‘full description’ of this Ms, Shastri refers to the Ind. Off. 
Cat., VI. No. 3335. 

No. 4073. — This Ms also is complete. It is written in Nagara script and 
dated Samvat 1708. It consists of 51 chapters, of which the last one deals with 
Kamsa vadha. Its last colophon ends with the words ‘saniaptas cayatn putva* 
khandah’.] 

(4) Adyar Library Cat., Parti, p. 157. 

(5) List of Sans,, Jaina and Hindi Mss, p. 185. 

(6) Stein, Jammu Cat,, p. 199, 

(7) Benares Sans. College Cat,, pp. 329 and 337. 

(8) Bhandarkar, Report, p, 10. 

(9) Poleman, Census of Indie Mss, p. 48, No. ioz 6 . 

For short Mss of Stava, Mahatmya etc., claiming to be parts of the Adi-p., 
see 

(1) Shastri. ASB Cat., y, pp. 709-710. 

[No, 4074 (Ms No. 3355), — This is a complete Ms dealing with yisnu- 
nSma-mahatmya. It consists of 7 folios and is written in Bengali characters of 
•the early nineteenth century’. It is quite different frim chap. 45 (on nama- 
mahatmyajof Ind. Cff. Cat.. VI, No. 3335 and ASB Cat., V, No 4072. Its 
colophon runs as follows : ity fidi-putane frikrsnaijuna-satnvade srivisnor nama- 
mahatmyam samaptam. 

No. 4®75 (Ms No. 4022). This is another Ms of the .Visnu-nama-maha- 
tmya claiming to belong to the Adi-p., alihough in its colophon the title of 
the woik is given as ‘yaisnavamrta’. Jhis Ms also is written in Bengali charac- 
ters ‘of the nineteenth century’, begins with the same verse as that of the imme- 
diately preceding Ms (of ihe Visnu-nama-mahatmya), contains an interlocution 
between Krsna and Arjuna, deals with Visnu-nama-maliatmya, and has die same 
text as that of the immediately preceding Ms.] 

(2) Keith, Ind. Off, Cat., II, Part i, p. 505 (Citrakuta-mahatmya) and 
pp. 905-6 (Vitasta-stava). 

(}) Stein, Jammu Cat., p. 199, 

(4) JVinternitz, Cat. of South Indian Sans. Mss, pp. 267-9, No. 198 
(Madhyama-bhiga of the Hemakuta-khanda cf the Bharadvaja-samhiia of the 
Adi-mabapurana). 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 281 

first four are found neither in the Ms of the Adi-p. noticed by R. L. 
Mitra nor in those described by H. P. Shastri and Eggeling. It ends 
with the chapter on yamalarjuna-bhanga (breaking of the pair of 
Arjuna trees), an exploit of the infant Krsna at Vrndavana. A 
comparison of this printed Adi-p. with Shastri and Eggeling’s Mss 
shows that the former does not represent the entire Adi-p. but contains 
only a part of it. This fragmentary character of the printed edition 
IS also shown by its chap. 6 which mentions the different incidents 
connected with Krsna’s life from his birth to his exploits at Mathura 
and Dvaravatl. It is highly probable that Shastri and Eggeling’s Mss 
also do not comprise the whole work known under the title ‘Adi-p.’, 
because these Mss end with Krsna’s exploits at Mathura and record 
none of the incidents at Dviravatl, and in the second of the two 
complete Mss of the Adi-p. described by H. P. Shastri, the final 
colophon ends with the words ‘samaptas cayam purva-khandah’. Of 
the Uttara-khanda of the Adi-p. we know nothing at present. It seems 
to have dealt with Krsna’s exploits at Dvaravatl. 

The printed Adi-p., which calls itself the essence of all the 
Puranas,®* begins with the verse ‘rajojuse janmani sattva-vrttaye’, the 
first two quarters of which are the same as those of the first introduc- 
tory verse of Banabhatta’s Kadambarl. This introductory verse as 
well as a few others which follow it contains salutations to Visnu and 
Vyasa, of whom the former is described as ‘cinmatra-rupa’ and 
‘paramatma-rupin’ and is called Brahma, when consisting of pure 
consciousness, and Mayesvara, when taking the human form,®* while 
the latter, who is a form of Visnu, is said to have divided the original 
Veda and given it to his disciples, to have composed a Purana-samhita 
after collecting the anecdotes (itihasa) from the Veda, and to have 
written the Brahma-sutra in order to elucidate the meaning of this 
Purana-sainhita, the Bhagavata-p. as a commentary on the Brahma- 

38 See the chapter-colophons (of the Vehkat ed.), in most of which this 
Purana is called ‘sakala-purana-sara-bhuta’. 

It should be mentioned here that our reference in the following pages are 
generally to the Vehkat. ed., unless otherwise mentioned. 

39 Adi-p, I. 2a — brahmeti yasya nigamair vivrtal cidamso maye^varah 

purusa-cupa-dharo yadamsah / 

36 



282 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


sutra, and the present Adi-p. to embody the essence of all these 
works/® Next, after praising the Naimisa forest as the Visnu-vana 
(forest of Visnu) and the best of all holy places, this Parana states 
that once Suta came to the hermitage of Saunaka in this forest during 
a twelve-year sacrifice instituted by the latter and was duly received 
by the sages. ( — Chap. i). When Suta took his seat, Saunaka praised 
his presence as productive of immense good, asked him to take rest, 
and retired to the fire-sanctuary (agni-grha) to perform his own 
evening duties. ( — Chap. 2). When, after taking rest, Suta returned 
to Saunaka in company with the sages, the latter described the evils 
of the Kali age*^ and requested the former to tell them how people 
could get rid of these evils and to describe, in connection with Krsna 
the lord of cowherdesses’, the essence of the Puranas, Itihasa, 
Dharmasastras and the work of Badarayana (i.e. the Brahmasiitra). 
( Cfiap* 3). The other sages also requested Suta to speak on the way 
of attaining devotion to Hari. Consequently, Suta saluted Krsna 
(whom he described as ‘cidanandamaya’ and ‘trimurtika’) and Vyasa, 
and consented to reproduce the Adi-purana which he had heard from 
his teacher Vyasa and which was the essence of all Sastras. ( — Chap. 4). 

In chap. 5 we arc told that Vyasa heard from Narada this Adi-p. 
which was proclaimed originally by Sanatkumara.*® It is said that 
once, in course of his wanderings, Narada came to Vyasa’s hermitage 
on the bank of the Sarasvati and was warmly received there by Vyasa ’s 
pupils, and that being requested by these pupils to speak on the means 
of getting rid of Visnu-maya which steeps the whole creation in 
nescience, Narada spoke about Krsna, who is one of the incarnations 
of Visnu and of whom he had heard from Kumara.*® 

40 Adi-p. I. 8-13. 

41 Speaking of the bad effects of the Kali age the Adi-p. says that people 
will become non-believers and look upon the Salagrama as a piece of stone 
meant for measurement of weight, and that one’s wife’s brothers will be one’s 
best advisers (Adi-p. 3. 7 and 19), 

42 sanatfcumaroktara idain purSnam yato na kimeit param asti purvam/, 
maya s'rutam naradato badaryam waddhaluna cadipurana-sainjnam// 

Adi-p. 5. 2. 

43 Adi-p. 5. 3-13. 



283 


the minor VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 

Thus the topics of the present Adi-p. have been introduced in the 
printed edition. The Mss of the Adi-p., on the other hand, make 
no mention of Suta or Vyasa but simply say that once, in course of 
his wanderings, Narada came to Naimisaranya in order to see Saunaka 
and others and had a warm reception from the sages living there. It 
was at their request to speak on the means of getting rid of Visnu- 
maya that Narada narrated the contents of the present Adi-p. 

That the present beginning of the printed edition is due to a 
change made at a later date by the addition of its first four chapters, 
is shown not only by Shastri and Eggeling’s Mss of the Adi-p. but 
also by the mention of Narada and Saunaka as interlocutors in the 
colophons of all the chapters from chap. 5 of the printed edition. It is 
to be noted that in chap. 5 of the printed edition Narada speaks to 
Vyasa and his pupils, and not Saunaka. 

Though the beginning of the printed Adi-p. is different from those 
of the Mss, it deals, like chaps. 1-25 of the latter, mainly with the 
story of Krsna — the legendary account of the birth of Krsna as well as 
of Baladcva, Vasudcva’s eulogy of Krsna and his removing of the new- 
born child to Nanda’s house, the merry-makings in Nanda’s house on 
the occasion of Krsna’s birth, the ceremony of naming Krsna and 
Baladeva as performed by Garga, and the incidents connected with 
Krsna’s infancy, viz., his killing of the demoness Putana and of the 
demon Trnavarta, his breaking of a cart, his childish sports with his 
foster-mother Yasoda as well as with other cowhcrdcsses (such as those 
of his stealing milk, curd and butter and sharing these with his asso- 
ciates, his breaking of utensils, his escape on more occasions than one 
from the midst of cowherdesses who tried to capture him, his passing 
the night with all the gopikas separately in their respective houses, and 
so on), his defeat in a wrestling competition with Baladeva, and his 
breaking of a pair of Arjuna trees when he was tied by Yasoda to a 
mortar. 

In connection with this story, the following topics have been dealt 
with in the printed editions: — The benefits of worshipping Krsna by 
forsaking all contact with women; characteristics of the devotees of 
Hari; description and praise of Mathura-mandala, in which Vrndavana 
is situated; praise of Vpdavana, which is called the most favourite 



284 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


place and the eternal abode of Krsna and in which Krsna s sports and 
exploits are always to be experienced through love and devotion; 
characteristics of a love-messenger (duti); description of the Kali age; 
a summary of the Ramayana; and Yasoda s seeing the universe in 
Krsna’s mouth. 

In order to glorify Krsna, a few subsidiary stories have been intro- 
duced; viz., Narada’s -meeting with Visnu in 5veta-dvlpa and the 
latter’s narration of the story of ten sages who meditated on Krsna 
(the delighter of gopikas — gopika-ramana) of Vrndavana in order to 
experience his sports; Narada’s bath in the Manasa lake, his conse- 
quent attainment of an extremely beautiful female form, and his expe- 
rience of Krsna’s allaying the jealous anger of Radha as well as of his 
Rasa-llla and other sports at Vrndavana with the gopis, especially with 
Radha, the daughter of Vrsabhanu; Narada’s attainment of a male 
body by bathing in the Krsna-gahga and his experience of Krsna s 
Vraja-llla, which is ‘nitya’ (permanent) and in which Krsna tends cattle 
with his friends and associates and is received in the evening by his 
foster-mother and other cowherdesscs ; Visnu’s narration to Brahma of 
the story of his taking the form of a bee and describing the love-sport 
(prema-lila) of the love-smitten (srngara-rasa-vihvala-manasa) Krsna at 
Vrndavana with innumerable gopis who are called the images of his 
own image (viz., Radha)**, with the mention of the lineage of Nanda 
and Radha*® as well as the names of the eight principal female friends 
of Radha, the principal gopis** who attend upon Krsna, and Krsna s 
associates (including Radha’s four brothers named Vrsavrdhnu, Manah- 
saukhya, Stokakrsna and Sudaman) who play and tend cattle with him 
and never grow old or die; rebirth of Carumatl, daughter of the sage 

44 Adi-p. 10. 35-36 (...svabimbapratibimbeQa kridate vipine ’nisam). 

45 Nanda, the foster-father of Krsna, is said to be the youngest son of 
Citrasena, who, again, was the youngest son of Kalamedu, the great-grandson of 
Abhirabhanu, the lord of gopas, of Mahavana. Radhika was born of Manavi 
by Vrsabhanu, the great-grandson of Asisena (Arsnsena?), the Mahagopa, of 
the village Arsu'grama. (See Adi-p., chap, la). 

46 The long list of the names of these principal gopis includes the follow- 
ing: — Malati, Madalasa, Citra, yetravati, Kalavati, Sunanda, yifakha, Sarika, 
Madhavi, Candravali, Bbadravali, Campavati, Tilottama, Alayi and Taravali. 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 285 

Kalabhitu, as the demoness Putana due to the curse of her husband 
Kaksivat, who was offended with Carumatl on account of her illicit 
connection with a Sudra; rebirth, in the form of the demon Trnavarta, 
of the Bhagavata king Visvaratha of Dravida who gave trouble, under 
suspicion of thieving, to a Brahmin Vaisnava who was returning at 
night after attending a ‘kirtana;’ and so on. 

In Shastri and Eggeling’s Mss of the Adi-p., the story of Krsna 
further continues up to the killing of Kamsa at Mathura and includes 
the following incidents: — Krsna’s killing of Vatsasura, Bakasura, 
Aghasura, Dhenuka, Pralamba and others, and his chastisement of the 
serpent Kallya; Brahma’s experience of Visnu-maya; Krsna’s uplifting 
of the mountain Govardhana, and his Rasa-krida; and so on. In these 
Mss there arc also chapters on the praise of gopis, the different kinds 
of nayakas and nayikas (including a section on ‘svaklya-bheda-varnana ), 
the glory of the name of Krsna (nama-mahatmya), the description of 
the seasons Vasanta, Grisma, Sarat and Hemanta, and so on. There 
are also a few subsidiary stories such as that of the previous birth of 
the demon Dhenuka. 

From the contents of the present Adi-p. indicated above, 
it is clear that this Purina is solely dedicated to the promulgation 
of faith in Krsna, who, unlike the other gods; is kind to both 
friends and foes. In this work Krsna is regarded not only as an 
incarnation of Visnu but as the Bhagavat himselP' and the eternal 
Brahma, He is the individual and the Supreme Soul,** and is 
both one and many. Though, in his supreme state, he is formless 
and has no beginning or end, he manifests himself in different 
forms through gttna. Being ‘rasakrsta,’ he sports permanently, 
at Vrndavana with gopis, especially with Radha who is called his Para 
Vidyi, Para Sakti, and HladinI Sakti** and who docs not seem to be 
his wedded wife, but no male can experience these sports unless he 
turns a female.®* Krsna’s Vraja-lila, on the other hand, is said to be 

47 Adi-p. 12. 13-163; and also 6.7, 9.58, and so on. 

48 Ibid., 17. 74. 

49 Ibid., 13. 57-58. 

50 C£. Ibid., 13. 52-53 — 

navalokayituin iaktah pumstvena puruMt^bha/ 
atas tavadhikaio’sti sttirupasya varanane / / 



286 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


open to his male devotees. People are advised to devote themselves 
solely to the worship o£ Krsna®^ and to look upon women as obstacles 
in the way of their spiritual development. They are to practise love 
and devotion in such a way that they should always be ready to do 
good to others and should not be affected in the least or try for a 
remedy, even if they are insulted, oppressed, beaten, or killed by 
others.** According to this Purana, ‘bhajana’ (i.e. klrtana), based on 
prema and hhakti, is the best way of Krsna-worship and is superior to 
yoga, dana etc.; and all the members of the four castes without dis- 
tinction of age or sex, as well as Antyajas, Pulkasas and Mlecchas are 
entitled to worship Krsna.** 

The present Adi-p., as its contents show, can never claim an early 
origin. None of the numerous verses, ascribed to the ‘Adi-p.’ by 
Laksmidhara, Apararka, Aniruddhabhatta, Vallalasena, Hemadri, 
Madanapala, Madhavacarya, Sulapani, Kullukabhatta, Slnathacarya- 
cudamani, Govindananda, Raghunandana, Narasimha Vajayeyin, 
Anantabhatta, Gadadhara and many other Nibandha-writers in their 
respective works, is found in the printed Adi-p. In the Haribhaktivilasa 
(of Gopalabhatta),®* Laghu-bhagavatamrta (of Sanatana Gosvamin)*® 

51 Adi. 26. 3811, ^ 

52 Adi-p. 8. 16 - 18 — 

ksiptavamanica dhvastas taditah pidita api/ 

na vikriya prabhavati pratikaram na kurvate/ / 

hitam kurvanti sarvesam karuna dina-vatsalah/ 

titiksavo'lpavaco hi mahanto loka-pavanah/ 

te priyah sriharer bhaktah prema-madhvika-maksikah// 

53 Adi-p. 28. 52 — 

sarve’dhikarino varna airamah sisavah striyah / 
antyajah pulkasa mieccha yc canye papa-yonayah / / 

54 O’’ P’ 5^4 bis Haribhaktivilasa Gopalabhatta quotes from an Adi-p. 
nine verses on the praise of devotees of Krsna, and on pp. 612, 634, 678 and 
683 he quotes from the same source thirteen more verses on Krsna-nama maha- 
tmya. In quoting some of these verses he uses the words ‘adi-purane srikrsn- 
arjuna-samvade’. But none of these verses occurs in the chapter (viz., chap. 45) 
on ‘nama-mahatmya’ contained in the Mss of the Adi-p. described by Eggeling 
in his Ind. Off. Cat., VI, pp. 1184-85, Nos. 3335-36, and by H. P. Shastri in 
his ASB Cat., V, pp. 708-9, Nos. 4072-73. 

55 The Laghu-bhagavatamrta quotes from the 'Adi-p*. nine verses in which 



287 


THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

and a few other works of the later Vaisnava writers of Bengal a number 
of verses has been quoted from an ‘Adi-p.’, and in these quoted verses 
Krsna speaks to Arjuna on the praise of the name and devotees of 
Visnu (Krsna). Although some of these verses have been ascribed by 
Gopalabhatta definitely to a ‘Srlkrsnarjuna-satnvada in the Adi-purana’ 
(adi-purane srikrsnarjuna-sainvade) and a number of them occurs in the 
manuscripts of the Visnu-nama-mahatmya®“ consisting of a ‘Srlkrsna- 
rjuna-samvada’ and claiming to belong to the Adi-p., we are not sure 
that the Adi-p., of which this Visnu-nama-mahatmya claims to be a 
part, is the same as that found in the printed editions and the Mss 
mentioned above. On the other hand, Mitra Misra, though not 
quoting any verses from the present Adi-p., must have been quite 
familiar with this work; because, alter giving two lists of Upapuranas 
from the ‘Kurma-p.’ and the ‘Brahmavaivarta-p.’, Mitra Misra 
quotes Matsya-p. 53. 59b'63 in support of the view that the 
Upapuranas originated from the major ‘Puranas , and then exemplifies 
this view by naming the Nandikesvara-p., Adi-p. and Devl-p., which, 
he says, were recognised as Upapuranas by great men (mahajana-pari- 
grhltani) and of which the first and the third arc not mentioned in any 
of the two lists of Upapuranas given by Mitra Misra. Hence it is 

Krsna speaks to Arjuna on the praise of the votaries of Krsna. of the devoted 
gopikas, and of Yrndavana, and one of which is the same as a verse quoted 
from the Adi-p. in Haribhaktivilasa, p, 5*4. 

The Laghu-bhagavatamrta, which consists of two Khandas— Purva and 
Uttara named as Krsnamrta and BhaktSmrta respectively, must be the same as 
the ‘Bhagavatamrta’ which Krsnadasa Kaviraja ascribes to Sanatana and from 
which he learnt •bhakd-tattva’ and *krsna-tattva’. See K^nadasa Kaviraja’s 
Caitanya-caritamtta. Ill, p. m— sanatana kaila grantha bhagavatamrte/ bhakti- 
tattva krsna-tattva jani yaha haite/ /). But in the introduction to their edition 
of the Laghu-bhagavatamrta Balai Chand Goswami and Atul Krishna Goswami 
say that this work was written by Rupa Gosvamin. 

56 For the verses ascribed to the 'Adi-p.' in Haribhaktivilasa. p. 524. 
p. 612. p. 634. p. 678, and p, 683 see Visnu-nama-mahatmya (ASB Ms 
No. 3355). fol’s. 2a (lines 2. 4. 8-9), 2b. etc., fol. 5a (lines 3-4). fol. 4a 
1-3). fols. 6a (line 9), 6b (lines 3. 6), fols. 2b (line 4), 4a (lines 2, i. 7-9), 6a 
(lines 7-8) and 5a (line 8). 

The verses ascribed to the ‘Adi-p.’ in Laghu-bhagavatamrta, pp. 177. 
182-3 and 184 do not occur in the Visnu-nama-mahatmya. 



288 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

sure that the ‘Adi-p.’ also (which Mitra Misra recognised as an 
Upapurana, because it was recognised as such by great men) must be 
different from the first Upapurana which is mentioned in the lists with 
the words ‘adyam sanatkumaroktam,’ and ‘adyam sanatkumaram ca 
respectively. A comparison between the printed Adi-p. and the present 
Brahmavaivarta-p. shows that the story of Krsna, as given in the latter 
work, is decidedly of a later date. On the other hand, the present 
Adi-p. holds the TulasI plant in high esteem and seems to have known 
the tyranny of the Muhammadans in India. Hence this Purana 
should be dated between 120^ and 1525 A. D. 

Though a late work, the printed Adi-p. does not attach itself as a 
part to any Mahapurana, but claims to be the same as the earlier Adi-p. 
which was spoken out by Sanatkumara. It is needless to say that this 
claim is wholly untenable. Even the verse, in which this claim has 
been put forth by the printed editions, occurs in Shastri and Eggeling s 
Mss in a quite different form** without any mention of Sanatkumara 
or of the earlier Adi-p. 

In the present Adi-p. there is mention of the use of bracelets of 
conch-shell by women,*® of a proverb in the line ‘adau ca sakhi hrtva 
gain vinayo na virajate’,*® of the word ‘gall’ used in the sense of ‘re- 
proach’ on several occasions,*^ of marking a child on the forehead with 
collyrium for saving it from the harmful effect of others’ sight, and of 
tying a tiger-nail and a hymn of Rama to a child’s neck for saving 
it from the influence of evil spirits.** These, as well as the fact that 

57 Adi-p. 14. 139-140 — 

asura yavanamfesu jati lokopatapinah/ 
aniti-niratah sarve saingrahe ca prabuddhayah// 
palayamanas tesarn hi prajah syur api piditah/ 
prapur desantaram capi kvacin na sukhitabhavag// 

58 Viz., idam puranam paramadtbhutain yato na kimeit param asti purvam/ 

srinaradenabhihitaoi tu naimise sraddhalave bhirgava-faiinakaya/ / 

(see Ind. Off. Cat., VI, p. 1 184). 

59 Adi-p. 26. 3 and 5. 

60 Adi-p. 14. 14. 

61 Adi-p. 16. 17; 25. 33 and 57. 

62 C£. Adi-p. i8. 130 — 

drs^dosa-nivaraya bhale kajjalakam kuru / 

kanthe vyaghra-nakham caiva rama-namahkitain stavam/ / 



289 


THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 

some of the ideas and practices®^ of Caitanya of Navadvipa and tenets 
of Caitanyaism are found mentioned in the present Adi-p., tend to 
create the impression that this Purina, like the chapters on Mathuri- 
mahatmya of the Varaha-p., was written in Bengal by a disciple of 
Caitanya; but we have already seen that the Haribhaktivilasa and the 
Laghu-bhigavatamrta quote verses from a part claiming to belong to 
an ‘Adi-p.’ which cannot be said definitely to be different from the 
present Adi. 

(II). Quite different from our present Adi-p. was the earlier 
Adya- or Adi-p. which is mentioned in most of the lists of eighteen 
Upapuranas*® and in which Sanatkumara was the speaker. It seems 
that Sanatkumara reported to a king, most probably to Yudhisthira,*® 
what he had heard from Vyasa.®® That the earlier Adya-p. and Adi-p. 
were identical, is shown by the following facts : (i) the Brhaddharma-p. 
(i. 25. 23) names the first Upapurana as ‘Adi-p.’;®- (2) while enume- 
rating the works used in writing his Danasagara and Adbhutasagara 
Vallalasena names an ‘Adya Purana’,®® but when thisPuranais referred 
to or drawn upon by him, it is mentioned as ‘Adi-p.’; (3) in a parti- 
cular work the same verses are sometimes found ascribed to the ‘Adi-p.’ 
in some Mss and to the ‘Adya-p.’ in others;**- (4) in some of the long 
citations from the ‘Adi-p.’ in the Caturvarga-cintamani, Sanatkumara 
appears as the speaker;-® and (5) in their commentaries on Raghu- 
nandana’s Malamasa-tattva Kasirama Vacaspati and Radharamana 

63 See Adi-p. 8. 16-18 and 19-23; 10, 35-36; and so on. 

64 For these lists see Chap. I. 

65 In a verse of the ‘Adi-p.’ quoted in Madhavacarya’s com. on the 
Parasara-smrti, I. ii, pp. 326-7 the speaker addresses the hearer as ‘Bharata’, and 
in the verses ascribed to the same Purana in Devanabhatta s Sm^-candrika, V, 

pp. 1^4-201 the hearer is addressed as ‘rajendra*, ‘maharaja , ‘Kuru-nandana 
and ‘Yudhisthira’. See also Sulapani’s Sraddha-viveka. p. 137 (adi purane— 
yeyam dipanvita rajan etc.). 

66 In ^uddhi-kaumudi, p. 40 and Haralala, p. 1 17. verses have been quoted 
from the ‘Adi-p.’ with the words ‘adipurane vyasah’. 

67 adav adipuranam syad adityakhyam dviciyakam. 

68 See Danasagara, p. 3 (verse 13), and Adbhutasagara, p. 2. 

69 See, for instance, Apararka’s com. on the Yaj., p. 870. 

70 Caturvarga-cintamani, II. ii, pp. 518 and 763-8. 

37 



290 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Gosvami-bhattacirya take the ‘Adya Sanatkumarokta’ (Purana), men- 
tioned in a list of Upapuranas derived by Raghunandana from the 
‘Kaurma’, to mean the ‘Adi-p.’” This Adya- (or Adi-) purana 
was also called ‘Sanatkumara’?*, ‘Sanatkumara’” and ‘Sanatkumariya’— 
and also perhaps ‘Sanatkumarokta’-® or ‘Sanatkumara-prokta’^® from 
the name of its chief interlocutor. 

The earlier Adya- (or Adi-) purana occupied a very exalted 
position among the Upapuranas, so much so that it is assigned the 
first place in almost all the lists of eighteen Upapuranas as well as in 
that list of eighteen ‘Puranas’ which AlberunI committed to writing 
from dictation.^-- Alberunl’s list (which consists partly of Maha- 
puranas and partly of Upapuranas, viz., Adi, Narasiinha, Nanda, 
Aditya etc.) shows that by the end of the tenth century A. D. the 
Adi-p. not only attained the position of being included in the list of 

71 Malamasa-Cattva (ed. Candicarana Smrtibhusana), p. 213 — sanackuma- 
roktam adipuranam (Kasirama Vacaspati); adyam adi-puranatn (Radhatatnana 
Gosvami-bha^carya). 

72 See Dbh I. 3. 13, and the ‘Brahmavaivarta-p.’ as quoted in the yirami- 
trodaya, Paribhasa-ptakasa, p. 14, wherein the first (prathama, adya) Upapurana 
is called Sanatkumara. It is to be noted that in the great majority of the lists 
of eighteen Upapuranas the first Upapurana is the ‘Adya declared by 
Sanatkumara'. 

A ‘Sanatkumaropapur^a’ is drawn upon in the Sivarcana-dipika which is 
later than the first half of the seventeenth century A.D. (See Shastri, ASB 
Cat., Ill, p. 866, No. 2853). 

73 See Gopaladasa's Bhakti.ratnakara (Miua, Notices, IX, p, 32). 

74 See Nityacarapradipa, I, p. jp, wherein Narasiinha Vajapeyin gives a 
list of eighteen Upapuranas on the basis of that contained in the Kurma-p. but 
names the first Upapurana as ‘Sanatkumariya’, and not as ‘Adya’ like the 
Kurma-p. See Chap. I (p. 4) above, 

75 See the lists of Upapuranas (as given in Chap. I), in most of which the 
first Upapurana is mentioned with the words ‘adyam sanatkumaroktam’. See 
also foot-note 72 above. 

76 A good number of verses on Ekadasi is ascribed to a work called ‘Sanat- 
kumara-prokta in Gopalabhatta’s Haribhaktivilasa, p. 773 and Hemadri’s 
Caturvarga-dntamani, II. i, pp. 993-995, 998, 999 and iooi-2 and III. ii, 
pp. 149, 160, 178, i8i and 184. 

77 Sachau, Alberuni’s India, I, p. 130. 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 291 

eighteen 'Pura^as’ but also became prominent enough to be named first 
of all. Hence the Adi-p. must have preceded AlberunI by a fairly 
long time. The Vayu-p. (chap. 104) mentions an ‘Adika-p.’ in a list 
of eighteen Puranas including the Brahma-p. (which also is sometimes 
called Adi-p.); Gahgadhara, in his commentary on the Dharma-samhita, 
quotes from ‘Padma-purana, chapter 19’ a metrical line which includes 
the Saiva, Adi-p. and Devl-bhagavata among the Upapuranas;-* and 
the present Saura-p. is said in its chap. 9 as well as in the Reva-khanda 
and the Rcva-mahatmya to have formed the latter part of a complete 
work, of which the former part was declared by Sanatkumara— and 
which was, according to the Reva-kh. and the Reva-mahatmya, also 
widely known under the title ‘Sanatkumara’.*® These, as well as the 
first position of the Adya- (or Adi-) purana in all the comparatively 
early lists of eighteen Upapuranas, point to a still earlier origin of this 
Purina. Hence this Adya- (or Adi-^ purana must be dated earlier 
than 700 A. D. As in some of the verses quoted from the earlier 
Adi-p. there is mention of the law-giver Manu, as well as of the names 
of risis and week-days,*' this Purana should not be placed before 500 
A. D. It is probable that this work was written during the sixth 
century A, D. This early origin of the Adi-p. is supported by its 
non-Tantric character which is unmistakably indicated by the quota- 
tions made from it in the different Smrti Nibandhas on vrata, puf*t 
ddna, etc. 

As not even a single Ms of the earlier Adya- (or Adi-) purana has 
been found up to the present time, we shall try to give here some idea 
of its Smrti contents on the basis of the verses quoted from it in the 
commentaries and Nibandhas. An examination of these verses shows 
that this Purana dealt, among other topics, with the following 

7 ^ ‘saivam adipuranam ca devibhagavatam tatha’. — Shastii, ASB Cat., 
y, p. 289. 

79-80 See under Saura-p. in Vol. HI of the present work. 

81 See the verses ascribed to the ‘Adi-p.’ in Madhavacarya s com. on the 
Parasara-smrti. II. ii, p, 321, Smrti-tattva, 1, p. 844 , Smm-candrika, IV, p. 
*87, Varsa-kaumudi, p, 9, and so on. Sec also the verse ascribed to a work 
called ‘Sanatkiumara-prokta’ in Catutvarga-cintamani, II. i> P- 99 ®* 

Manu is mentioned in a verse quoted in Madana-parljata, p. 45 ®* 



292 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 

Selection of countries which are habitable to the members of the four 
castes; good customs and usages; marriage; cremation; funeral 
ceremony; periods of impurity due to miscarriage, births and deaths; 
methods of purification; donations; Vratas; and omina and portenta. 

In his Smrti-candrika, I. pp. 18-23 Devanabhatta quotes from the 
earlier Adi-p. fifteen verses on the selection of a habitable tract of land. 
These verses show that this Purana spoke of two kinds of countries, 
dharma-desa and adharma-desa. The former was distinguished by the 
presence of antelopes, barley and Kusa grass as well as of the four 
castes and orders of life and was to be resorted to by the wise, while 
the latter was to be shunned by them, because the twice-born could 
derive no benefit even by performing hundreds of sacrifices there ; but 
the tract of land which lay along the banks of the Ganges was the 
most sacred of all. A person born in Aryavarta, no matter whether he 
was a twice-born man or not, was not allowed to go beyond the rivers 
Narmada (in the south), Sindhu (in the north and west) and Karatoya 
(in the east).®* Any twice-born man, who crossed the boundary of 
Aryavatta for reasons other than visiting the holy places, was to purify 
himself by observing the Candrayana-vrata. The people of KancI, 
Kosala, Saurastra and Devarastra, of the two countries known by the 
name Kaccha,*® and of Sauvira and Konkana were very much condem- 
ned (nindita bhrsam); and an Arya was advised not to reside per- 
manently in those tracts of land which were watered by the ‘five 
rivers’ and were known by the name Aratta. People, who went 
beyond the Narmada, Sindhu and KasI®- and to the western side of 

82 aryavarte samutpanno dvijo va yadi vadvijah/ 
narmadam sindhu-param ca karatoyam na lahghayet/ / 
aryavartam atikraniya vina tirtba-kriyain dvijali/ 
ajnam caiva tatha pitror aindaveua visiidhyati / / 

(ascribed to ‘Adi-p.’ in Smrti-candrika, I, p. 20). 

T he Karatoya is a river in Northern Bengal and flows through the districts 
of Rangpur, Dinajpur and Bogra. 

83 These were most probably Marukaccha (modern Cutch) and Kausiki- 
kaccha (the district of Purnea). 

8i} The text of the ‘Adi-p.’, as given by Devanabhatta in his Srorn- 
candrika, I, p. 22, reads ‘narmada-siiidhu-kasinitn paratn padmasya pascunam , 
Though we know that ‘Kasi’ was the name of the country, of which Benares was 



THE MINOR VAiSNAVA UPAPURANAS 293 

Padma ( ? param padmasya pascimam) and lived there for a period 
longer than that required for visiting the holy places, were sure to 
visit the hells after death. No marriage or funeral ceremony, nor any 
sacriHce was to be performed in Ahga, Vahga, Kalihga, Vindhya and 
Malavaka, in the countries lying on the south of the Narmada, as well 
as in those on the north of the Sindhu, and in Paundra, Suraspra, 
Caidya, Kerala and Magadha. If a twice-born man chanced to go, 
out of his own accord and not for visiting holy places, to Saurastta, 
Sindhu, Sauvira, Avantya, Daksinapatha, Kalihga or other bordering 
countries, he was excommunicated and was to be purified by sacraments. 
These and other impious countries (papa-desah) were inhabited by 
impious people; so, a twice-born man, who went to these countries, 
became equally impious. 

Going to deal with good customs and usages which were to be 
followed by the people, this Purana said that the people of the Kali 
age, being given to sinful acts, were not fit for practising that dharma 
(law and custom) which was meant for the people of the Krta age. 
Hence a twice-born man of the Kali age waste avoid the following : — 
Practice of celibacy (as a student) for a long period, carrying a kama- 
ndalu (as a forest-hermit or as a wandering mendicant), slaughter of 
cows (in sacrifices), performance of human and horse sacrifices, drinking 
of wine, sexual union with his own brother’s wife, division of paternal 
property by allotting the largest share to the eldest son, and marriage 
with a girl belonging to the same gotta as that of himself or having 
sapinda relationship with his mother or married to another person be- 
fore.*® He was to take his meal after his dependants, who consisted 

the capital, it seems that the original reading for ‘ kasinain was kosinain . 
The river Kofi or Kausiki formed the western boundary of Pau^dravardhana. 
Cf. the verse ‘himavat-kausikarn vindhyam parain padmasya pasciiuain/ tirtha 
yatram vina gatva punah satnskaram arhati/ /'quoted from the Adi p. in Smra- 
candrika, I, p. 23. 

85 For the relevant verses of the Adi-p, see Sinrti-candrika, I, pp- *9 
221. The verse ‘udhayah punar udvahain jyesthamsain govadhaip tatha/ ^ 
panca na kurvita bhratr-jayarn kamandalum//’ is ascribed to the A i p. 
Smrti-candrika, I, p, 221 but to the ‘Aditya-p.’ in Madhavacarya s com. o 
Parasara-smrti, I. ii, p. gi. 



294 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

of the poor blood-relations on his father’s and mother’s side and of 
other helpless persons living under his care. In taking his meal he was 
to observe certain rules,*® viz., he was not to take his meal by sitting 
or lying on his bed, or from a different seat, or in the morning, 
midday or evening, or with wet clothes on, or with the wet head, or 
without the sacred thread, or with his feet placed on a machine 
{^antrd), or with his wife, or in a deserted house, a temple or a fire- 
sanctuary. A Brahmin might take his meal with his Brahmin wife on 
his way (to a distant place), but if he took his meal with his wife of 
a lower caste, he was degraded from his caste.*? If, at a dinner party, 
any of the persons rinsed his mouth without leaving his seat, others 
were to leave their meals at once and wash their hands and mouths. 
A Brahmin was advised not to take his meal by taking his seat in the 
same line with other Brahmins or even with his own relatives, because 
he could not be sure that the latter were not guilty of patakas. 

As regards marriage,** it has already been said that the earlier 
Adi-p. disallowed the remarriage of a girl, no matter whether she was 
a widow or not. A person, who had such a girl as his wife, was always 
considered impure. This Purina was of opinion that the father, who 
allowed his daughter to be married according to the Gandharva form or 
who married his daughter to a suitable bridegroom by accepting 
money from the latter, attained the region of the Gandharvas after 
death.** 

86 For the relevant verses of the Adi-p. see Smrti-candrika, II, pp. 617-618, 
and \ladana-parijata, p. 333, 

87 brahmanya bharyaya sardham kvacid bhunjita vadhvani/ 
adho-varna-striya sardhatn bhuktva patati tatksanat// 

This verse is ascribed to the Adi-p. in Smm-candrika, II, pp. 617-8, but to 
the Aditya-p. in Madhavacarya’s com. on the Paraiara-smrei, I. i, p. 425. 

88 For the verses of the Adi-p. on marriage see Smrti-candrika, I, p. 221, 
Haralata, p. 15, and Dana-kaumudi, p. 80. 

89 gandharvena vivahena yas tu kanyam prayacchati/ 
gandharva-lokam vrajati gandharvaih pujyate narah/ / 
iulkena dadyad yah kanyain varaya sadrsaya ca/ 
kirnnaraih saha giyeta gandharvam lokam eti ca// 

These two verses are ascribed to the Adi-p. in Dana-kaumudi, p. 80, but to 
the Aditya-p. in yarsa-kaumudi, p. 575. 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 295 

A large number of verses on cremation of a dead body has been 
quoted in Aniruddha-bhatta’s Haralata, Apararka’s commentary on the 
Yajnavalkya-smrti, Devanabhatta’s Smrti-candrika (Part V), Govinda- 
nanda’s Suddhi-kaumudi, and Raghunandana’s Smrti-tattva. These verses 
state that when a twice-born man was on the point of death, he was 
taken out of the house in which he was lying. He was then bathed, 
dressed with a sacred piece of cloth, and laid down on the ground with 
his head turned towards the south. The place, at which he was thus 
laid, was already strewn over with Kusa grass. When he breathed his 
last, his body was bathed, dressed with a piece of cloth, adorned with 
flowers, garlands etc., scented with perfumes, and furnished with a 
piece of bell-metal, gold, gem or coral placed in its mouth. It was 
then taken out of the house by its eastern, northern or western gate 
according as the deceased person was a Brahmin, a Ksatriya, or a 
Vaisya, and carried by the deceased person s relatives or other 
twice-born people to the burning ground, which was generally 
situated on the bank of a river, or near water. But if there was no 
water or snow near the burning ground, the persons accompanying 
the dead body were to talk about water or call out ‘Snow, snow . 
While the dead body was carried to the burning ground, a great 
noise was produced by means of four kinds of musical instruments. • 
At the burning ground the dead body was laid down with care, 
bathed, covered with a piece of cloth, and placed on a funeral pile 
by the deceased person’s blood-relations on his father s side or by 
his kinsmen or other relatives, with its feet turned towards the 
south.*? In the case of a male, the dead body was placed on the 
funeral pile with its face turned downwards, but in the case of a 
female, it was placed on its back. It was then set on fire by the 


90 sma^na-bbuniiin netavyah ••• .j 

caturvidhena vadycna kuryuh kolahalam mahat/ /, 

Haralaa, p. 125 and Suddhi-kaumudi, p. no. 

9x This method of placing a dead body on the funeral pile was followed 

by Brahmins other than the followers of the Sama-v«la. 

The Sama-vedi Brahmins placed the dead body wtth tts head turned towards 

the south. 



296 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

proper person. When the dead body was mostly consumed by fire 
and only a small portion of it remained unburnt, the person, who set 
fire to it, took in his hand seven pieces of fuel of prescribed lengths, 
went seven times round the fire by keeping it to his right, and 
threw those pieces of fuel, one by one, into the fire after each com- 
plete circumambulation. He, as well as each of his companions, 
then gave with an axe seven strokes on the burning fuel by pronounc- 
ing the mantra ‘kravyadaya namas tubhyam etc. After that, all 
of them went to the adjoining river without looking to the funeral 
pyre, took their bath there, and offered libations of water to the 
departed soul by facing the south. They then returned to the village 
and waited outside the house until tlie person who set fire to the 
dead body went to a neighbouring pool with a club in his hand,** 
took his bath, brought water in an earthen pot, cooked rice with it 
in the north-eastern side of the house, and offered balls of rice in the 
prescribed manner to the departed soul at the gate of the house. 
The person, who thus offered pindas (balls of rice) to the deceased 
person on the first day of his death, was to offer these in the same 
way during the remaining nine days also. 

If an ahitagni twice-born man went abroad after leaving his wife 
in charge of his fire and died there, his body was preserved until it 
was brought home and cremated with his own fire. If his body was 

92 The text of the Adi-p. is as follows : 

mrntnayam bhandam adaya navani snatah susamyatah/ 
lagudam sarva-dosaghnam grhitva toyam anayet/ / 

(See Haralata, p. 164, Suddhi-kaumudi, p. 128, and Smrti-tattva, II, p. 3 ^’)‘ 
But Aniruddhabhatta explains the second line thus : 

lagudam grhitveti agragami-purusantara-hastena lagudam 
grhitvetyarthah/ ‘toyartham tu tato gacched grhitva 
purusam purah/ grhita-lagudam yatnat sarva-dusta- 
nivaranam/ /’ iti govindaraja-likhita-vrddhapraceto- 
vacanat/ tena laguda-hastam purusam agre krtva pinda- 
rtham mrnmaya-bhwdena jalam anetavyam/ (Haralata, p, 166). 

So, according to Aniruddhabhana the club was borne not by the person who 
was to fetch water from a neighbouring pool for offering pindas to the departed 
soul but by another member of the party who was to lead the former to the 



297 


THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

not available, his bones were brought home, soaked with ghee, covered 
with wool, and burnt in the above-mentioned manner along with 
his implements o£ sacrifice. In the absence of bones, an effigy was 
made with leaves of Sara (reed) and Palasa, covered with an antelope- 
skin, tied with a thread of wool, besmeared with finely powdered 
barley mixed with water, and burnt. If a person, whose effigy was 
thus burnt by his relatives by taking him to be dead, returned home, 
he was to kindle the sacred fire afresh and a sacrifice was to be per- 
formed for giving him a long life. If a piece of bone was received 
after his effigy had been burnt, it was burnt with the fire produced 
by means of those half-burnt pieces of fuel which remained after the 
burning of the effigy. If no such fuel was available, the piece of bone 
was thrown into deep water. If, of a twice-born couple who maintained 
the sacred fire, one died before the other, the body of the former 
was burnt with the three kinds of fire, viz., Srauta, Smarta and 
Laukika, while that of the latter was cremated with the Laukika 
fire only.*® 

The bones of a dead person were collected from the burning 
ground generally on the fourth, fifth or sixth day according as this 
person was a Brahmin, a Ksatriya, or a Vaisya. According to local 
customs, his bones could be collected earlier by a day. But if the 
period of impurity consisted only of three days, the bones could be 
collected on the second day; and in case of impurity ending imme- 
diately (sadyah-sauca), the collection could be made just after the 

93 ahitagnyos ca dainpatyor yas tvadau mriyate bhuvi/ 

tasya dehah sapindaii ca dagdhavyas tribhir agnibhih/ 
palcan mrtasya dehas tu dagdhavyo laukikagnina/ / 

(Adi-p. quoted in Haralata, p. tqa). 

These lines have been explained by Aniruddhabha^ as follows : 

If, of a twice-born couple who maintained the sacred fire, the husband died 
before his wife, his body was cremated with the three kinds of fire, viz., Srauta, 
Smarta and Laukika: and the wife, who died after her husband, was burnt with 
the Laukika fire only. But if the wife died before her husband, she was burnt 
with the three kinds of fire, and the husband was to kindle the sacred fire afresh. 
If he did so, he was burnt with the three kinds of fire after his death. But if 

he died before kindling the sacred fire afresh, his body was cremated with the 

Laukika fire only. (See Haralata, pp. 143-4). 

38 



298 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


burning of the dead body. During this rite of collection of bones 
(asthi-samcayana) ^amkara and the carnivorous deities residing in the 
burning ground were worshipped in the prescribed manner** with the 
offer of various kinds of food, drinks, fruits, scents, flowers etc. The 
bones of the head were then taken by means of pieces of branches of a 
sacrificial tree, sprinkled with the five products of a cow (panca-gavya), 
covered with a piece of silk-cloth, placed in an earthen vessel furnished 
with a lid, and buried at a sacred place in a forest or at the root of a 
tree. In opportune times these bones were taken out, placed in a 
lump of earth together with a piece of gold as well as with honey, 
ghee and sesamum, and thrown into the Ganges by the deceased per- 
son’s descendants or by his relations on his father’s or mother’s side. 

In case of death of a child aged less than two years, the dead body 
was adorned by its relatives with ornaments, flowers, scents, garlands 
etc., placed in an earthen pot, and buried underground in a sacred 
place outside the village. 

In the case of a dying Sudra, removal from the house was not 
compulsory even when he was breathing his last. But when, after his 
death, the dead body was taken out, all the earthen wares of the house 
in which he died were thrown away. The dead body of a Sudra was 
to be removed to the burning ground through the southern gate of the 
house. As Sudras had no Srauta fire to maintain, the method of 
cremation was necessarily simpler in their case. No Brahmin was 
allowed to burn a Sudra, even if the latter was his friend, and if he 
did so through mistake, he was to purify himself by taking his bath, 
touching fire, drinking ghee, and observing fast for three consecutive 
nights. The rite of collection of bones of a Sudra was to be performed 
after the tenth day. It might also be performed on the tenth day, if 
local customs demanded so. 

Regarding the methods of disposing of the dead body as prevailing 
among the Magas and Daradas of those days, there are a few lines 
quoted in Aniruddhabhatta’s Haralata. These lines inform us that 
the Magas buried their corpses underground. The Daradas, on the 

94 For the method of worship see the verses of the Adi-p. quoted in 
Haralata, pp. i86£E. and Suddhi-kaumudi, pp. 145-6. 



299 


THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

othct hand, kept their dead bodies suspended from the branches of 
such trees as stood far away from human habitations and were leafy 
enough to protect these dead bodies from rain. After the expiry of 
a complete year these dried up corpses were brought down from those 
trees, bathed with the waters of the Ganges, and burnt.*® 

A large number of verses of the earlier Adi-p. is found quoted in 
the Nibandhas in connection with the determination of the period of 
impurity to be observed by the deceased person’s relatives and 
others. The periods of impurity were determined by various factors 
such as the nature of relation of the persons with the deceased, their 
occupation, their caste, their motive in cremating a dead body, the 
caste, age, sex or character of the deceased person, the nature of death, 
the nature of help the person to be deemed impure rendered in cre- 
mating the dead body, acceptance of remuneration for carrying the dead 
body or cremating it, and so on. Even if a Brahmin, who was not a 
relative of a deceased Brahmin, lamented with the latter’s relatives be- 
fore the rite of collection of bones had been performed, he was to take 
his bath and sip water after the performance of the rite ; if he did so 
for a Ksatriya or a Vaisya, he was to bathe with all his garments on 
and became pure on the second day; but by lamenting for a Sudra, 
he was to bathe with his clothes on and remain impure for three days. 
Lamentation for a deceased person after the collection of his bones 
caused impurity to a Brahmin for a day and a night. In the case of 
the members of other castes, lamentation necessitated bath with all 
the garments on, if this lamentation was made before the collection of 
bones, but if it was made after the collection, they required simple 
bath for attaining purity.*® 

Impurity was also caused to certain relatives by births and mis- 
carriage, and its period varied under different conditions. A man, who 

95 See Hualata, p. 126 — 

maga bhumau nikhanyante daradas ca mrtan sada/ 
asadya vrkse gacchanti luptrakas ca svabandhavam/ / 
ghana-cchaye sugupte tu tiro varsani varsati/, 
tatah satnvatsare purne sarva-sambbara-satnbhrtah/ / 
suskam tarn jabnavi-toye praksipya pradabanti ca / / 

96 For the relevant verses of the Adi-p. see Haralata, p. 91 and pp. 63-64. 



300 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


had as his wife a woman previously married to another person, was 
always deemed impure.®- 

The numerous verses quoted from the ‘Adi-p.’ in the SmrtiNiban- 
dhas in connection with sraddha show that this Purina dealt elaborate- 
ly with the various points connected with this topic, viz,, persons 
eligible for performing it under different circumstances, the method 
of its performance, the method of offering pindas, the number of 
Brahmins to be fed on this occasion, the proper day for performing 
the sraddha ceremony of those who committed suicide by starting on 
a long journey, or fasting, or hanging, or by means of a weapon, fire 
or poison, enumeration of persons who deserved no sraddha ceremony 
(viz., those who were killed by others while abducting the latter’s 
wives or were killed in a fight with the Candalas or such other people, 
or administered poison, or set fire to others’ houses, or were Pasandas, 
or committed suicide out of anger, and so on), the method of perfor- 
ming the sraddha ceremony at Gaya, and similar other matters. A 
Brahmin was forbidden to perform the sraddha ceremony of persons of 
lower castes, even if the latter were his own sons. If he did so out of 
passion, greed, fear or affection, he was degraded to the caste of that 
person whose sraddha ceremony he performed. Sons, born of Ksatriya, 
Vaisya or Sudra mothers, were advised to perform the sraddha cere- 
mony of their deceased Brahmin father. In case of death of these sons, 
their own mothers were to perform their sraddha ceremony, and vice 
versa. 

Though the verses quoted from the * Adi-p,’ in connection with 
donations are not many,** this Purina was certainly not very poor in this 
topic. In his Danasigara Vallalasena says that various kinds of dona- 
tions were dealt with in the Adi-p. according to their subdivisions (or, 
in accordance with the divisions of the year in which these were to be 

97 anyapurva yasya gehe bharya syat tasya nityasah / 
asaucaip sarva-karyesu dehe bhavaci sarvada/ 

danam pratigrahah snanam sarvam tasya bhaved vrtha// 

(see Haralata, p. 1 5). 

98 For the verses on donations see Apararka’s com, on the Yaj., p, 397 
(on Kapi!a-dana), Danasagara, pp. 276 and 280-286, Dana-kaumudi, p. 40 (on 

^ bhumi-dana), and so on. 



301 


THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

made?), and that in his Danasagara he quoted from this Purina only a 
few verses on donations because he fully utilised its sections on dana 
in his Acarasagara.*® 

The earlier Adi-p. contained chapters on Vratas and festivals also. 
In Smrti-tattva, I, p. ^7 two verses on Krsna-janmastamI are quoted 
from the earlier Adi-p. In his Caturvarga-cintamani, II. ii, p. 518 
Hemadri quotes nine metrical lines on Yugadi-vidhi (which required 
the gift of barley and the performance of homa and Visnu-worship 
with it), and on pp. 763-8 he quotes 30 verses on pradipa-vidhi. 
According to these last-mentioned verses the pradipa-vidhi was observ- 
ed for one month from Asvina-paurnamasI to Karttika-paurnamasl. At 
the end of this period, the Dipa-mahotsava was performed for three 
days, during which lamps were lighted in the evening in the houses of 
the poor as well as in other places, viz., burning grounds, temples, 
banks of rivers, roads, caityas etc. Gifts of gold, silver, land, cows, 
paddy, fruits, beds etc. were also made to Brahmins on this occasion. 

For the large number of verses on tirthas (especially Gaya and 
Vrddha-tirtha) see Smrti-candrika, V, pp. 194-201. Madhavacarya’s 
com. on the Parasara-smrti, I. ii, pp. 307-8, and Apararka’s com. on 
the Yaj., pp. 878-g. The chapters on Gayi of the earlier Adi-p. 
seem to have formed the basis of chaps. 105-1 12 (on Gayi-mahatmya) 
of the present Vayu-p. in which Sanatkumara speaks to Narada on 
Gaya and which mentions an Adika-p. in chap. 104 and has retained 
a few verses from the former.^®® 

99 Danasagara, p. 6 (verse 56) — 

srutany adipurane tu danany anuvibhagatah/ 
acarasagaroktatvan na kirtyante’tra krtsnasah/ / 

(For ‘anuvibhagatah’ the India Office Ms reads ‘abda-vibhagatah’). 

See also p. 3 (verses 12-14) — 

tatha kurmapuranadipuranayoh// 
uktany upapuranani vyakta-daoa-vidhini ca/ / 
adyam puranam iambam ca kalikahvayam eva ca/ 
nandam aditya-satnjnaip ca narasimham tathaiva ca/ / 

«oo For instance, Vayu-p., chap. 110, verses 2-3 and chap. 1 1 1, verse i are 
the same as the verses ascribed to the Adi-p. in Smni candrika, V, p, 194- 



302 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Ten verses on omens and portents have been ascribed to the Adi- 
p. in Adbhutasagara, pp. 546, 548, 550 and 552-6, Of these, one 
(in Adbhutasagara, p. 546) is ascribed to the Aditya-p. in many of 
the Mss of the Adbhutasagara. The remaining nine verses also might 
have been taken from the Aditya-p. At least the metrical similarity 
between these verses and those quoted from the Aditya-p, in the 
Adbhuta-sagara tends to create such an impression. 

It should be mentioned here that a good number of verses of 
the Adi-p. has been wrongly ascribed to the Aditya-p., or vice versa. 
For instance, in Caturvarga-cintamani, II. ii, pp. 348-9 Hemadri 
ascribes to the ‘Aditya-p.’ an extract of 29 lines dealing with Sukha- 
supti-vrata^®^ and Dyuta-pratipad and having Sanatkumara as the 
speaker; the verse ‘sanmasabhyantaram yavat’ is ascribed to the Adi-p. 
in Suddhi-kaumudi, p. 43 and Kullukabhatta’s com. on Manu-Smrti 
V. 66, but to the Aditya-p. in Smrti-tattva, II, p. 260; the verse 
‘vivaha-yajnayor madhye’ is ascribed to the Adi-p. in Suddhi-kaumudi, 
p. 67 and Haralata, pp. 105-6, but to the Aditya-p. in Kalasara, p. 
272; and so on. On the other hand, the verse ‘madhukara rama- 
tham caiva’ is ascribed to the Aditya-p. in Apararka’s com., p. 554, 
Smrti-candrika, IV, p. 205, Madhavacarya’s com. on the Parasara- 
smrti, I. ii, p. 370, Sraddha-kaumudI, p. 18, and Smrti-tattva, I, 
p. 226, but to the Adi-p. in Madana-parijata, p. 552 and Madhava- 
carya’s com. on the Parasara-smrti, I. ii, p. 373; the verse ‘api 
datr-grahitros ca’ is ascribed to the Aditya-p, in Nityacara-pradipa, I, 
p. 105 and Kalasara, pp. 255 and 271 but to the Adi-p. in Suddhi- 


loi The component parts of this Vrata, which was to be observed on the 
Karttiki Amavasya, were the following: — Fast at day-time (in case the worship- 
per was not a child or an invalid); worship of Laksmi in the evening; illumina- 
tion at temples, crossings of roads, burning grounds, pastures, etc.; decoration of 
market-places with light, clothes, flowers, etc.; feeding of Brahmins and the poor; 
dining with friends and relatives after wearing new clothes and ornaments; and 
so on. On the Karttiki Sukla-pratipad the worshipper was to play at dice in the 
morning, dine with friends at noon, hear songs and musical concerts after wear- 
ing ornaments and using perfumes, decorate the bedroom with light, garlands 
etc., pass the night with beloved women, and in the morning honour Brahmins, 
friends and relatives with new clothes. 



303 


THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

kauniudi, p. 68; and so on. Even in the same work a particular 
verse is ascribed to the Adi-p. in some Mss and to the Aditya-p. in 
others. 

The earlier Adi-p. must have been a Vaisnava work. In a verse 
ascribed to the Adi-p. in Smrti-tattva, II, p. 512, all-pervading Visnu 
is said to have made a rule, according to which the gods did not 
reside in their respective images under certain conditions;^®*- Apa- 
rarka and Govindananda quote from the Adi-p. a verse which states 
that the donor of land of the measurement of even a go-carma be- 
comes free from all his sins and attains the region of Visnu.*®* 
Visnu is mentioned on many occasions*®* and Visnu-wotship is pres- 
cribed in many of the quoted verses;*®® Samkara is spoken of in a 
verse as a deity residing in the burning ground;*®- and so on. 

3. THE KALKI-PURANA“» 

This is one of the late Upapuranas. It claims to be a 
continuation of the Bhagavata-p. and to deal with future 

102 See Madhavacarya’s com. on the Parasara-smrti, I. ii. p. 23, Kalanir- 
naya, p, 215, Kalasara, pp. 361 and 541, Adbhutasagara, p. 546, and Apararka’s 
com., p, 1225. 

103 khandite sphutite dagdhe bhraste sthana-vivarjite/ 
yagahine pasu-sprste patite dusm-bhumisu/ / 
anya-mantrarcite caiva patita-sparsa-dusitc/ 
dasasv etesu no cakruh samnidhanam divaukasah/ / 
iti sarva-gato visnuh paribhasam cakara ha/ 

104 See Apararka’s com., p. 1225, and Dana-kaumudi, p. 40. 

105 See Apararka’s com., p. 879 (yatha visnur visokaya tatha cirtham 
anamayam) and p. 879 (sarnkarsanam vapur visnos candagni-bhavadahakam). 

106 See Danasagara, p, 619 (ghrtena snapitum visnuin saktya sampujayet 

tatah), and Caturvarga-cintamani, II. «, p. ( yavair visnum 

samarcayct). 

107 Haralata, p. 186. 

108 Besides Jivananda Vidyasagara’s edition which wc have used in the 
following pages, there are many more editions, two of which arc die 
following : — 

(1) Jaganmohana Tarkalamkara’s edition published by Kedar Nath 
Banerjee, Calcutta 1873; and 

(2) Pancanana Tarkaratna’s edition published with a Bengali translation 
by the Vahgavasi Press, Calcutta, * 3*5 B. S, 



304 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


events.*®* As a matter o£ fact, it describes the deeds of Visnu to be 
performed at the close of the Kali-yuga, when he will be born as 
Kalki, son of Visnuyasas and Sumati of Sambhalagrama. It is divided 
into three Amsas or parts, of which the first two consist of seven 
chapters each and the third of twenty-one chapters. The contents 
of these chapters are as follows. 

Ainsa I. 

Chap. 1. — Salutation to Vighnesa, who is adored first of all in the 
Vedic, Tantric and other scriptures. Invocation of Kalki, who is 
Hari himself. 

Saunaka and others of Naimisaranya requested Suta to speak on 
the origin and exploits of Kali. Consequently, Suta referred to the 
tradition of inheritance of the Bhagavata-dharma and narrated how he 
had heard that portion of the topics of the Bhagavata-p. which Suka 
had spoken out to Markandeya and others after the death of king 
Visnurata (Parlksit) and which was concerned with future events. He 
then spoke on the following topics : — 

Brahma’s creation of Adharma from his back. Adharma’s 
descendants. Birth of Kali in the family of Adharma. Description 
of Kali. Kali s descendants. Degradation of people during the 
reign of Kali. Gods’ approach with the Earth to Brahma for redress. 

Chap. 2 . — Brahma’s approach to Visnu, and the latter’s assurance 
that he would manifest himself in the house of Visnuyasas at Sarnbhala 

For Mss ot this work see 

(1) Eggeling, Ind. Off. Cat., VI, pp. 1188-89, No. 3338 (complete; 
written in Bengali script ; not divided into Amsas, all its chapters being 
numbered continuously), 

(2) Shastri and Gui, Calcutta Sans. College Cat., IV. pp. 8-9, No. 11 
(complete ; written in Bengali script ; not divided into Aipsas ; chapters 
numbered continuously). 

(3) Dacca University Mss Nos. 234 (complete ; written in Bengali script) 
and 4090 (complete ; written in Bengali script ; dated Saka 1726). 

109 See the chapter-colophons, which run as follows : — iti sri-kalki-purane 

anubhagavate bhavisye In chap, i there are several indications 

of its claim to belong to the Bhagavata-p. and to deal with future events. 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS :^5 

and that Laksml would be born as Padmi, daughter of king Brhadratha 
of Ceylon. Visnu’s request to the gods to be born on earth. 

Visnu s birth and assumption of a two-handed form. Naming of 
new-born Visnu as Kalki. Kalki’s determination to free the earth 
from the influence of Kali. 

Chap. 2" Kalki s study of tlic Vedas and the various sciences 
(including Dhanurveda) with Bhargava Rama. His worship and 
eulogy of Bilvodakesvara-siva, with the result that he received a horse, 
a ^uka bird and a sword from the latter. His return to ^ambhala- 
grama, establishment of Varnasrama-dharma, and meeting with 
Visakhayupa, king of Mahismatl. 

Chap. 4. — Kalki’s speech to king Visakhayupa on the origin of 
the universe from himself as well as on the characteristics of Brahmins 
(who should practise Varnasrama-dharma and have Tilaka marks). 

Return of the Suka bird from Simhala with the information that 
Padmavatl, daughter of king Brhadratha, received a boon from Siva 
that she would have Narayana as her husband. 

Chap. 5. — The Suka’s further statement that the kings who 
attended the ‘svayamvara-sabha* arranged by Brhadratha, turned 
females as soon as they looked amorously at Padmavatl, and became 
her attendants. 

Chap. 6.— The Suka’s return to Simhala at the request of Kalki 
and meeting with Padmavatl, who told the bird everything about her 
ambition. 

Chap. 7.— Padmavati’s description of the method of worshipping 
Visnu with the mantra ‘om namo narayanaya’. Method of Visnu- 
dhyana. 

Ainsa 11 . 

Chaps. 1-3. — PadmavatTs description of the method of Visnu- 
worship— continued. 

The Suka’s return to Kalki, who then met Padmavatl in Simhala 
and married her. 

The transformed kills’ regaining of malebood by bathing in die 
river Revi. Their culc^y of Visnu by mentioning the names of his 
ten incarnations including the Buddha. 

39 



306 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

Chaps. 4-5. — Kalki’s instructions to the kings on Varna- 
srama-dharma. 

Appearance oE sage Ananta before the kings at Kalki’s wish. 
Ananta’s description of his own experience of Visnu-maya at Puru- 
sottama; and his praise of Kalki as being capable of giving ‘nirvana’. 

Chap. 6. — Kalki’s return to Sambhala with Padmavatl and living 
in a house built for him by Visvakarman. Birth of two sons, named 
Jaya and Vijaya, to Kalki. Kalki’s going to the city of Kikata with a 
huge army for chastising the Buddha; and his meeting with the ‘Jina’ 
who came out of the city with a large number of his followers. 

Chap. 7. — Kalki’s fight with the Bauddhas led by the ‘Jina’. The 
Jina’s defeat and death in the fight. The Bauddhas’ futile attempt to 
defeat Kalki with the help of the Mlecchas. 

Atnsa III. 

Chap. I. — Kalki’s victory over the Bauddhas and the Mlecchas, 
and his instructions on hhakti~yoga, karma-yoga and jnana-yoga to 
the latter’s wives, who were up in arms against him. 

Chap. 2. — Kalki’s return from Kikata and meeting with the 
Balakhilya sages at Cakra-tirtha. His going to the Himalaya at the 
request of these sages and killing of the demoness Kuthodarl and her 
son Vikanja. 

Chap. 3. — Kalki’s meeting, on the Himalaya, with kings Maru 
and Devapi of the Solar and the Lunar race respectively. Maru’s 
mention of the names of the descendants of Iksvaku down to Rama. 

Story of the birth and deeds of Rama, son of Dasaratha. 

Chap. 4. — Names of Rama’s descendants including Maru, who 
was also called Budha and Sumitra and who was waiting at Kalapa- 
grama for Visnu’s incarnation at the close of the Kali age. 

Devapi s mention of the names of the kings of the Lunar race from 
Budha downwards. Kalki's determination to place Maru and Devapi 
on the thrones of Ayodhya and Hastinapura respectively after killing 
the Mlecchas and the Pukkasas of those places. His advice to these 
two kings to marry the daughters of Visakhayupa and Rucirasva res- 
pectively and help him in re-establishing the Krta-yuga. His giving 
of two divine chariots to Maru and Devapi. 



307 


THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

Chap. 5. — Krta-yuga’s arrival in the Eortn o£ a ‘maskdrin. His 
account of the fourteen Manvantaras. Kalki’s decision to fight with 
Kali in the city of Visasana. 

Chaps. 6-7. — Kalki’s start with Maru, Devapi and others in his 
train, and meeting with Dharma, who was driven out of Visasana by 
Kali. His decisive war against Kali and his allies, viz., Khasas, 
Kainbojas, Savaras, Varvaras, Clnas, Pulindas, Colas, Nisadas and 
others. Kali’s defeat and escape to another varsa, Kalki’s killing of 
Koka and Vikoka. 

Chaps. 8-13. — Kalki’s arrival at Bhallata-nagara which was ruled 
by a Vaisnava king named Sasidhvaja. Sasidhvaja’s conversation 
with his wife Susanta, in which he justified his decision for war by 
referring to the dvditadvaitd system of philosophy. Sasidhvaja’s fight 
with Kalki; and his capturing the latter in an unconscious state to his 
own house. Susanta’s eulogy of Kalki. Sasidhvaja’s giving his 
daughter Rama in marriage to Kalki. Story of Sasidhvaja and his 
wife’s previous birth as vultures. Method of Visnu-worship. Discourses 
on Visnu-bhakti. Sasidhvaja’s narration of the story of Dvivida, who 
attained liberation by being killed by Balarama. Sasidhvaja’s mention 
of some exploits of Krsna. 

Chaps. 14-13. — Other deeds of Kalki, viz., his liberating the 
poison-girl at Kancanapurl, his installing of his followers on the 
thrones of Ayodhya, Mathura, Viranavata, Pundra, Ahga, Vahga, 
Kikata etc., his return to Sambhala and introduction of the 
Krta-yuga, and his liberating Sasidhvaja who eulogised Maya at 
Kokamukha. 

Chap. 16.— Performance of Rajasuya and other sacrifices by 
Visnuyasas. Narada’s instructions to Visnuyasas on the nature of 
Maya and the glory of Kalki. Arrival of Parasurama at Sainbhala. 

Chap. 17. — Description of the method of performing the 
Rukmini-vrata, which Rama performed for a son at Parasurama’s 
advice. Praise of this Vrata by means of the story of Sarmistha and 
Devayanl. 

Chaps. 18-19. — Kalki’s amorous sports with his wives. Brahma 
and others’ arrival at Sambhala, and Kalki’s passing to heaven. 



308 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Chaps. 20-21. — Eulogy of Gahga. Contents of the Kalki-p., 
which is said to consist of six thousand and one hundred verses; praise 
of studying this work. Conclusion. 

The Kalki-p., as its contents show, is purely a Vaisnava work, its 
philosophic standpoint being ‘dvaitadvaita’. It knows Visnu’s ten 
incarnations including Balahhadra and the Buddha, and seems to 
regard Krsna as the Bhagavat himself. It mentions the TulasI plant 
once and the ‘Tantras’ on several occasions. By its statement that 
Kalki defeated the Buddha and his followers and carried on dig-vijaya 
for the establishment of dharma, this work seems to betray its 
knowledge of 5 amkaracarya’s activities. That it is a late work is 
shown definitely by the fact that it is not referred to or drawn upon 
by any of the numerous Smrti-writers known to us. It is, however, 
not to be dated later than the beginning of the eighteenth century 
A. D. One of its Mss was copied in 5 aka 1726. 

The Kalki-p, must have been written in Bengal. Almost all its 
Mss, hitherto discovered, are written in Bengali script; and in Atnsa 
I, chap. 2 (verses 38 and 41) it speaks of ‘ten sacraments’ (dasa 
samskarah) for Brahmins. 

4. THE PURUSOTTAMA-PURANA 

This Upapurana has not yet been printed, but a Ms of a work 
entitled Purusottama-p. has been mentioned in Biihler’s Catalogue of 
Sanskrit Mss in the Private Libraries of Gujarat, Kathiawad, Kachchh, 
Sindh and Khandcs (2. i^j). We do not know of any other Ms of this 
Upapurana^ nor docs its title occut in any of the lists of Upapuranas 
known to us. 

Of the numerous commentaries, Nibandhas and various other 
works examined by us in this connection it is only the Kalasara of 
Gadadhara which ascribes a verse to the *Purusottama-p.’^^* This 
quoted verse and the title of its source show that the ‘Purusottama-p.’, 
as known to Gadadhra, was a Vaisnava work dealing with the gltMri- 

Ho See Kalasara, p. 184 — 

•purusottama-purane — 

jayasva krsna krsneti subhadreti sakrn narah/ 
vadand marjane kale yanri brahma-padam mama/ / 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 309 

fication o£ Purusottama-ksetra (Puri) as well as with the method and 
praise o£ the worship o£ Krsna, Balarama and Subhadra there. As this 
quoted verse, in which Krsqa himsel£ seems to be the speaker, is 
£ound neither in the chapters on Purusottama-ksetra o£ the present 
Brahma-p. nor in the Purusottama-mahatmya^^^ o£ the Visnu-khanda o£ 
the Skanda-p., the ‘Purusottama-p.* drawn upon by Gadadhara must 
have been a distinct work. Gadadhara’s quotation £rom this work 
shows that it was written not later than 1200 A.D. 

As the above-mentioned Ms o£ the Purusottama-p., lying £ar 
beyond our reach, could not be examined, it is not possible for us to 
say whether or how far this Upapurana is the same as that used by 
Gadadhara in his Kalasara. 

5 . THE BRHANNARADIYA-PURANA 

This work, which was printed on more occasions than onc,“* can 
hardly claim to have had a very early origin. Yet it attained considcr- 

111 In Purusottama-mahatmya, chap. 31, there is a verse 
(No. 86 — jayasva rama krsneti jaya bhadrett yo vadet/, 

jaya krsna jagannatha nathety uccarayan muda/^ 
snana-kale sa vai muktim prayati dvija-satumah/ /) 
which resembles much the verse of the Purusottama-p. mentioned above. But 
in this verse of the Purusottama-mahatmya it is Jaimini, and not Krsna, who is 
the speaker. 

112 So far as I know, this work was published twice by the Vangavasi 
Press, Calcutta (the second edition having appeared m 1316 B.S.) and once by 
the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, in 1891 A.D. 

Both diese editions consist of 38 chapters and have generally the same text, 
although there arc occasional variations in readings and numbers of verses in the 
corresponding chapters. 

The Vahga. ed. is printed in Bengali characters. Yet, to avoid confusion in 
references, 1 have used it in the present work, because in my Puranic Records 
also I used it (in discussing its date and relation with the present Naradiya-p.) 
in preference to the ASB ed., in which the verses have not in all cases been 
properly numbered. For instance, verses 80 85 of chap. 13 have been numbered 
in this edition simply as ‘80/81’ without any demarcation, and verses 26-4701 
chap. 24 have been wrongly numbered as 16-37. However, in using the Yanga. 
ed. 1 have always taken particular care to compare its readings with those of the 



310 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


able popularity as an interesting handbook of religious and ethical 
value, and this is evident from the discovery of its Mss*^*® (written in 
different characters) from different parts of India. 

Being meant exclusively for the Vaisnavas it begins with a saluta- 
tion, in two verses, to LIpendra (Krsna) of Vrndavana, who is said to 
be the original deity (adi-deva) consisting of pure consciousness and 

ASB ed. and to see that no deduction is made from any verse, the text of which 
is not supported by both these editions. 

1 13 For these Mss see especially 

(1) Aufrecht, Bod. Cat., pp. 9-1 1, Nos. 47-49 (all complete 1038 
chaps.), of which No. ^8 is written in Devanagati and No. 49 in Bengali scripts. 

(2) Weber, Berlin Cat. of 1853, pp. 129-130, No. 452 (consisting of 
39 chaps.). 

(3) Mitra, Bikaner Cat., p. 225, No. 479 (written in Nagara). 

( 4 ) Shastri, Nepal Cat., p. 24 (No. 845 which ends in chap. 30 and 
is written in Maithila script), p, 25 (No. 910 which is written in Maithila 
script and dated La.-Sain. 429), and p. 29 (No. 1001 which also is written in 
Maithila script and is dated La.-Sam. 425). 

(5) A Catalogue of Sanskrit Mss Acquired for and Deposited in the 
Government Sanskrit College Library, Sarasvati Bhavana, Benares, 1918-30 
(Prepared under the Supervision of MahSmahopadbyaya Gopinath Kaviraj), 
Vol. I, p. 16 (written in Bengali script). 

(6) Dacca University Mss Nos, 548 (incomplete), 605B (incomplete), 
625 (complete), 937 (complete; dated Saka 1648), 1013 (complete; dated Saka 
1646); 1317 (incomplete), 1667 (complete; dated Saka 1578), 1704 (com- 
plete; dated Saka 1689), 2670 (complete; dated Saka 161^), 2712 (com- 
plete; dated Saka i6i8), 3836 (complete), 4091 (complete; dated Saka 1725). 
4234 (ending in chap. 37; dated Saka 1609), 4329 (complete). 

All these Mss are written in Bengali script, and in the complete ones 
the work consists of 38 chapters. 

(7) Eggcliug, Ind. Off. Cat., VI, pp. 1208-9, Nos. 3368-73 (all complete 
in 38 chapters and written in Devanagari). Of these. Nos. 3368. 3369 and 3370 
are dated i 535 t 1747 and 1769 A. D. respectively. 

(8) Keith, Ind. Off. Cat.. II, pp. 914-5, Nos. 6612-13 (both being 
complete in 38 chapters). Of these two Mss, the former was copied in Bengali 
script in 1775 A-.D. and the latter in Grantha characters in 1866-67 A.D. 

(9) M. Rangacharya, Madras Cat., IV. i, pp, 1453-54. No. 2139 (break- 
ing off in the 38th chapter; written in Jelugu), and p. 1454, No. 2140 (com- 
plete in 38 chapters; written in Grantha characters). 



311 


THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

also appearing in parts as Brahma, Visnu, Mahesa and others for the 
sake of creation. It then introduces its topics by narrating the story of 
Saunaka as follows ; 

Saunaka and many other sages practised austerities and worshipped 
Visnu with great devotion in the Naimisa forest, some of them trying 
to please the god by austere practices, some by following the path of 
knowledge (jnana), and some by cultivating the highest type of Bhakti. 
Once these and innumerable other sages met in a conference to find 
out the best means of attaining the four ends of life, viz., Dharma, 
Artha, Kama and Moksa. Finding that the sages were about to put 
to him questions as to what the sacred places and the Tirthas were, 
how people could attain final liberation and unswerving devotion to 
Hari, and in what way the three kinds of actions bore fruit, Saunaka 
referred them to Suta, the best Pauranika, who was engaged in wor- 
shipping Janardana by various sacrifices at Siddhasrama. ^aunaka said 
that Suta, son of Lomaharsana, was a pupil of Vyasa and, being in- 
structed by the latter in all the Sastras, used to speak out in the 
Puranas the essence of the Vedas, Vedahgas and other works and that 
with the decrease of Dharma in the different Yugas Madhusudana 
appeared as Vyasa and divided the Veda. Being thus informed of 
Suta’s learning and wisdom, the sages thanked Saunaka and went 
to Siddhasrama where Suta had undertaken to perform the Agnistoma 
sacrifice for the pleasure of Narayana. After Suta had taken his holy 
bath at the conclusion of the sacrifice, the sages requested him to speak 
to them on the source and nature of creation, preservation and destruc- 
tion of the universe, the method of pleasing Visnu by worship, the 
practice of Varnasrama-dharma, the right way of receiving guests, the 
means of attaining final liberation, and the nature of Bhakti and its 
attainments. Consequently, Suta proposed to speak out ‘the extensive 
(brhat) Purina named Naradlya (or, ‘the Brhannarada Purina in 
which Narada spoke to Sanatkumara and which contained topics on 
Narayana and was imbued with the Vedic ideas. He praised this work 

114 Bnar. i. 36 (puranam naradiyakhyam brhad vedartha-sainmium), and 
I. 66 (... brhannarada-namadheyain parain puraoain, In the ASB ed. the 
latter verse reads 'idain narada-namadheyam’ (for ‘brhannarada-namadheyain ). 



312 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


in high terms as yielding all the ends o£ life and decried and con- 
demned to hell those who found in the Puranas nothing but ‘artha- 
vada’.*^® (-Chap. i). Being asked as to how and where Narada met 
Sanatkumara and what the former spoke to the latter, Suta said that 
once Sanatkumara and the other sons of Brahma went to the peak of 
the mountain Meru and prepared to take their holy bath in the 
Ganges known by the name of Sita, when Narada arrived there sing- 
ing the names of Hari and eulogising the sacred river. Sanatkumara 
praised Narada as the best devotee of Hari and requested him to speak 
on a number of religious topics including the origin of the universe. In 
compliance with this request Narada began by eulogising Hari with 
the mention of his ten incarnations including Rama (the carrier of the 
ploughshare), I^na, and another not expressly named but appearing 
from his description to be none hue Kalki. (-Chap. 2). 

Thus the concents of the Brhannaradlya-p. have been introduced 
in chaps. 1-2. The remaining chapters deal with the following topics: 

The process of origin of the universe from Mahavisnu (also called 
Narayana) who assumes the forms of Prajapati, Visnu and Rudra by 
taking to the three Gunas (Rajas, Sattva and Tamas respectively), and 
also appears as Prakrti, Purusa and Kala for the sake of creation. Des- 
cription of Visnu’s Para Sakei, which is differentiated into Vidya and 
Avidya and is said to permeate the whole world and to effect its crea- 
tion, preservation and destruction. People’s naming of this ^akti 
variously as Uma, LaksmI, Bharatl, Girija, Ambika, Durga, Bhadrakall, 
Candi, Vaisnavl, Brahml, Mahesvari, Kaumarl etc. and as Maya (or 

1 15 Ibid., 1.56-59 — 

nindayam kalahe vapi hy asantah papa-tatparah// 
purancsv arthavadaevam ye vadanti naradhamah/ 
tair arjitani punyani tadvad eva bhavanci vai/ / 
samasta-karma-nirmula-sadhanani naradhamah/ 
putanany arthavadena srutva narakam asnute// 
yavad brahma s^aty ctaj jagat sthavara-jahgamam/ 
tavac sa pacyate papi narakagnisu samtatam/ / 

Also X. 61 — 

puranesu dvija-sresthah sarva-dharma-ptavaktrsu/ 
pravadanty arthavadatvaip ye te nacaka-bhajanah / /, 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 313 

Mahamaya) for creating infatuation and as Prakrti for effecting the 
origin of the universe. 

Names of the seven upper worlds (Bhuh, Bhuvah etc.) and the 
seven lower worlds (Atala, Vitala etc.). Geography of the earth ; — 
position of tlie mountains Meru and Lokaloka which bound the seven 
oceans and of which the former is situated at the middle of the earth 
and forms the resort of all the gods and the latter lies at the farthest 
end of land;^*® division of the earth into seven continents (dvipas, viz., 
Jambu, Plaksa etc.); names of the oceans surrounding these continents; 
relative position and extents of the continents and the oceans; position 
of Bharatavarsa, which is said to be lying on the north of the salt- 
ocean and on the south of the Himidri. Praise of Bharatavarsa as 
the best place for pious work and for Visnu-worship. (-Chap. 3). 

Praise of faith (sraddha) and devotion (bhakti), which form the 
basis of Dharma and ensure success in all enterprises. Eloquent praise 
of faithful observance of asramacara (customs enjoined by one s order 
of life), without which neither the Veda nor devotion to Hari or 
Mahcsvara is of any avail to one. Benefits of association with good 
men, especially with the sincere devotees of the Bhagavat. (-Chap.q). 

Characteristics of the best Bhagavatas, who include those devoutly 
worshipping Siva, bearing the sectarian mark Tripundra, and putting 
on Rudraksas. (-Chap. 5). 

Glorification of the river Gafiga, especially at Prayaga, where this 
sacred river meets the Yamuna, and at Varanasi. 

Praise of reading and hearing the Puranas with devotion. 

Mention of persons (including teachers and expounders of the 
Vedas and the Puranas) who arc to be regarded as Gurus; classification 
and praise of Gurus. (-Chaps. 6 and 9). 

Praise of bhumi-dana (n. izoff.). Qualifications of persons to 

whom gifts should be made. (-Chap. 12). 

Praise of various pious acts which please Visnu and Siva; providing 
Brahmins with means of livelihood; digging tanks, wells etc.; construc- 

116 Ibid., 3. 44 — 

bhutale madbyamc merub sarva-deva-Minascayah/ 
lokalokai ca bhumy-ante tan-madhye sapta sagarah/ /, 


40 



314 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


tion and preservation of temples meant for Visnu or Siva; dedication of 
orchards, and of flower-gardens meant for the public or for deities^*^; 
plantation of TulasI plants and making arrangements for their pre- 
servation; bathing of Visnu or Siva with various articles and on different 
occasions: worship of these deities with various kinds of flowers and 
with the offer of different articles (including food materials); gift of 
cows, food, wealth, virgin girls (in marriage), books etc. to Brahmins; 
medical treatment of diseased persons, especially of Brahmins; rendering 
of various kinds of service to Visnu or Siva, their temples, and to 
Brahmins; and so on. (-Chap. 13). 

Names of hells, and description of terrible punishments under- 
gone by the sinners there. Persons to be considered guilty of maha- 
patakas, viz., Brahma-hatya, sura-pana, svarna-steya, etc. Enumeration 
of sins leading to different hells and deserving different kinds of 
punishment. (-Chap. 1 4). 

Observance of devotional Vratas on Sukla-dvadasi and PaurnamasI 
Tithis for a year by worshipping Visnu under particular names in the 
different months from Margasirsa (Agrahayana) and bringing these 
Vratas to a conclusion after a year by worshipping Visnu in Sarvato- 
bhadra Mandalas on the full-moon days of the months of Margasirsa 
and Karttika respectively. Performance of homa, keeping awake at 
night, and dance and music (both vocal and instrumental) form some 
of the most essential parts of these Vratas. (-Chaps. 16-1 7). 

Description of other vows, viz., Dhvajaropana-vrata (requiring the 
hoisting of a flag and the worship of the Sun, Garuda and the Moon 
as well), Hari-paocaka-vrata (which is to be observed for five days from 
the SuklaikadasI Tithi of every month from Margasirsa), Masopavasa- 
vrata (i.e. the vow of observing fast for a month), and Ekadasl-vrata 
(-Chaps. 1 8-2 1 ). 

Elaborate treatment of Varnisrama-dharma (including sraddha, 
prayascitta, and tithi-nirnaya for the eflScacy of the Srauta and the 


1 17 Ibid., 13. 55 — 

sarva-iokopabbogartham pusparamam janeivara/ 
kurvate devatartham va tesam punya-phalam ^u/ j, 



315 


THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

Sniarta rites), said to have been made in accordance with the prescrip- 
tions of Manu and others. (-Chaps. 22-28). 

Description of the path of Yama (yama-marga), which is said to 
be very pleasant for the virtuous but extremely dangerous and painful 
for the sinners. Nature of these pleasures and sufferings; and the 
poius acts (such as gift of various things including betel leaves, service 
to parents and others, reading of Puranas, and so on) which cause the 
pleasures. (-Chap. 29). 

Account (in prose) of the course of rebirth of creatures, first as 
stationary objects of nature (such as trees, creepers, mountains, etc.) 
and then as worms, insects, beasts and human beings in succession. 
Gradual rise in caste, profession, and physical and financial condition 
of human heings in their successive births. Description of the course 
of development of the foetus in the mother’s womb. Painful experi- 
ences of a human being in the different stages of his life. (-Chap. 30), 

Ways of attaining final liberation. — Distinction of yoga into 
Kriya-yoga and Jnana-yoga; detailed treatment of yoga, with the names 
of thirty kinds of asanas (modes of sitting for the practice of yoga)\ 
characteristics of persons to be regarded as sincerely desirous of final 
liberation. (-Chap. 31). 

Praise of rendering devotional service to Visnu and his temples 
untiringly by body and mind or even unintentionally on rare occasions. 
(-Chaps. 32-37), 

Names and extents of the four Yugas. Conduct of people in the 
different Yugas, especially in Kali. Praise of reading or hearing the 
Brhannaradlya-p. (-Chap. 38). 

Besides the above contents the Brhannaradlya-p. has a number of 
stories, which include the following. 

Mrkandu’s practice of severe ausrerities at Salagrama, and 
Markandeya’s birth as his son and practice of the Bhagavata-dharma 
at Salagrama according to Visnu’s instructions. (-Chaps. 4-5). 

Birch of Sagara in Aurva’s hermitage, after the Haihayas and the 
Talajahghas had dethroned his proud and jealous father Bahu, son of 
Vrka, and administered poison to his mother with the intention of 
hilling him in her womb and Aurva had consoled Sagara’s mother and 



316 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


prevented her from burning herself to death^^* after Bahu s demise in 
the forest; Sagara’s education, military or otherwise, from Aurva, and 
bis crushing defeat of the ^akas, Yavanas and others, whom Vasistha 
saved from annihilation by Sagara by turning them extra-Vedic and 
compelling the Parsnikas (Parasikas?) to shave off their heads, the 
Yavanas to have long hair, and the others to have shaven heads and 
long beards;*^® Sagara’s marriage with Kesinl and Sumati, daughters 
of a king of the Kausika family of Vidarbha; birth of Asamanjasa to 
Kesini and of sixty thousand sons to Sumati as a result of Aurva s 
boon; reproachable conduct of Asamanjasa and the other sons of 
Sagara, and the tyrannised gods’ approach to Kapila for redress; birth 
of Ainsumat to Asamanjasa; Sagara’s performance of a Horse Sacrifice, 
and Kapila’s reducing all the sons of Sagara to ashes for their mis- 
behaviour to him for the sacrificial horse, which was kept in his 
hermitage by Indra; Ainsumat’s bringing the horse trom Kapila’s 
hermitage; birth of Dillpa from Ainsumat, of Bhagiratha from Dillpa, 
and of Sudasa in the family of Bhagiratha, Sudasa’s son being Saudasa 
Mitrasaha. 

Dharniaraja’s instructions to Bhagiratha to rescue his burnt 
ancestors from hells by means of the waters of the Ganga; Bhagiratha’s 
consequent worship of Visnu in the Himalayas, and his bringing down 
the Ganga by propitiating Siva in accordance with the instructions 


1 18 Among the verses said by Aurva to prevent Sagara’s mother from 
self-immolation occurs the following one : 

balapatyas ca garbhinyo hy adrsta-rtavas tathe/ 
rajasvala raja-sute narohanti citam subhe// 

This verse has been quoted in Srinatbacarya-cudamani’s Krtya-tattvarnava (fol. 
93b), Govindananda’s Suddhi-kaumudi (p. 83), and Raghunandana’s Smrti- 
tattva (II, p. 236). 

In his commentary (II. i, p. 39)011 the Parasara-smrtrMadhavacarya also 
quotes this verse but ascribes it to the ‘Naradiya-p.’ 

(This verse is the same as Nar. I. 7. 52). 

119 Bnar. 8 39- — 

cakara pirsnikan mundan yavanan lamba-murdhaian/ 
anyams ca smakulan mundan anyan veda-bahiskrtan// 

In the ASB ed. the word 'yavanan’ has been spelt as ‘javanan*. 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


317 


received from Bhrgu living on the bank of the Godavari. (-Chaps. 
7-8 and 13-15). 

Saudasa Mitrasaha’s turning a Raksasa for twelve years as a result 
of Vasistha’s curse brought on him by a Raksasa who caused Saudasa 
to offer human flesh to Vasistha by appearing first in the form of 
Vasistha and then in that of Saudasa ’s cook and thus took revenge for 
Saudasa’s killing, during a hunting expedition in a forest on the 
bank of the Reva (Narmada), his female mate sporting with him in 
the form of a tigress. Saudasa’s having the name Kalmasapada for 
throwing on his own feet the waters with which he was going to 
curse Vasistha for the mischief done by him. Saudasa’s eating up of 
a Brahmin sage on the bank of the Narmada, and the latter s wife s 
curse to Saudasa to continue to be a Raksasa for long and to meet 
death, during sexual enjoyment. Saudasa’s curse to the Brahmin 
woman to be a Pisacl. Saudasa and the Brahmin woman s meeting 
with a Brahma-raksasa, who was formerly a Brahmin, named Somadatta, 
of Magadha; Saudasa and others’ regaining higher states of existence 
by coming in contact with the waters of the Gahga. (-Chap.9). 

Aditi’s austerities after the gods’ defeat in a wat^*® with Bali, and 
Visnu’s birth to her as Vamana and redemption of the kingdom of 
heaven for the gods. Origin of the Ganga from the waters with which 
Vamana’s feet were washed by Bali. (-Chaps. lo-ii). 

Unconscious performance of the Dhvajaropana-vrata by a reckless 
Sudra named Matali and a Nisada woman named Kokilini, who, after 
death, passed to the region of Visnu and were then reborn re- 
spectively as king Sumati of the Lunar race and his queen Satyamati. 
(-Chap. 18). 

King Dharmakirti’s degradation by coming under the influence 
of the Pasandas, but his rebirth to sage Galava as his extremely pious 
son by unconsciously performing the Ekadasl-vrata. (-Chap. 21). 

120 In describing this war the Brhannaradiya-p. names a large variety of 

missiles, which are as follows : Drughana. Bhindipala, Khadga, Parafu, Tomara, 
Parigha, Churiki, Danda. Cakra, Sanku. Musala, Ahkuia. Lihgala. Pattisa, 
Sakti, Upala, 5 ataghni, Prasa, Ayodanda, Miisd. Sula, Kuthara. Paia, Ksudra- 
yasri (or, Ksudra and Yasri?). Brhacchara, Ayomddia. Tunda, Cakra-danda, 
Ksudra-patoia, NSnica.— -Bnar. 10. 23-»7. 



318 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

Devamali’s repentance after earning a large fortune by unlawful 
means, his spending half of his wealth in benevolent work, and his 
attainment of final liberation at Varanasi by worshipping Visnu accor- 
ding to the instructions of a sage named Jananti. (-Chap. 33). 

Sumali’s constant help to his reckless and licentious brother 
Yajnamali, and his rescuing the latter from hellish tortures by offering 
to him a part of his religious merit. (-Chap, 3.^). 

The above contents of the Brhannaradiya-p. show that it is a 
Vaisnava work dealing exclusively with the praise and worship of 
Visnu, who is very often named as Narayana and sometimes also as 
Vasudeva, Hari, Janardana etc., but very rarely as Krsna.^*‘ According 
to this work the highest deity in his supreme state is Mahavisnu (very 
often called Narayana), who is described as ‘avyaya’, ‘ananta’, ‘sarva- 
vyapin’, ‘nirdvandva’, ‘nirmama’, ‘mayatita’, ‘sadanandaika-vigraha’, 
‘jnana-svarupa’, ‘jagac-caitanya-karana’ and so on,*** and said to be 
existing as one and many.**® It is he who assumes the forms of 
Brahma, Visnu and Rudra by taking to the three Gunas and creates 
the universe by means of his Para 5 akti (Supreme Active Power), which 
is differentiated into Vidya and Avidya, the former being the intellect 
(buddhi) that knows no distinction between the cognisor and the 
cognisable and makes one perceive the unity of ail objects*** and the 
latter making the universe appear as different from the god and caus- 
ing miseries and rebirths.**® The Sakti of Visnu-Narayana, which is 
also called Maya or Mahamaya for creating infatuation of beings and 
Prakrti for effecting the origin of the universe*** and is popularly 

121 For this name (Krsna) see Bnar. 2. 9, 1 1; 3.59; 15.71; 21, 73; 32.41. 

122 Bnar. 3. i, 25. 61-63, * 9 ’ “'’d so on. 

123 Ibid., 3. 27 — bhinnabhinna-svarupena sthito vai parameivarah. 

124 Ibid., 3. 8 — jnatr-jneyady-upadhis tu yada naiyati sattamah/ 

sarvaika-bhavana buddbih sa vidyety abhidhiyate// 

125 Ibid., 3. 7 — yada visvam mahavisnor bhinnatvena pratiyate/ 

tada hy avidya satnsiddha tada duhkhasya sadhani// 
Also ibid., 3 - 9 ® — evam maya mahavisnor bhinna samsara-dayini. 

126 Ibid., 3. 28 — yasya saktir mahamaya jagad-visrambha-karini/ 

visvotpatti-nidanatvat prakrtih procyate budhaih/ / 

See also ibid. 3. 9a (quoted above) and 3. 15 (quoted below). 



319 


THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 

known by various names such as Uma, Laksmi, Bharatl, Durga etc., 
is all-pervading like the god himself;^^' and it is only by means of 
Yoga that one can perceive the identity of the god with his Maya or 
Avidya 5akti and thus get away from the latter, which is not unreal 
nor real nor both, resorts to the Indescribable (Being), and creates the 
sense of diversity of Paramatman.*^’* 

The Brhannaradiya-p. recommends the painting of the sectarian 
mark Urdhvapaundra on all occasions (except Sraddha according to 
some)^*® but severely denounces as extremely sinful and unfit for 
Srauta and Smarta rites those persons who mark their limbs with the 
figures of the ^ahkha (conch-shell), Cakra (disc) etc. or of the Lihga 
(Phallus) created by the application of heat.'*® It prescribes the use 
and muttering of the great eight-syllabled Mantra ‘otn nanio naraya- 
naya’'** said to be eternally expressive of the god,'** praises Bhakti 
with its ten gradations,'** speaks very highly of serving the god like a 

127 Ibid,, 3. 12-15 — 

yatha harir jagad-vyapi tasya saktis tatha mune/ 
daha-iaktir yathangare svasrayam vyapya tisAati/ / 
umeti kecid ahus tarn saktim laksmiti capare/ 

brahmiti vidyavidycti mayeti ca tathapare/ 
prakrtis ca para ceti vadanti paramarsayah// 

128 Ibid., 31. 69-71 — 

mayino tnayaya bhedam paiyanti paramatmani/ 
tasman mayain tyajed yogan mumuksur vipra-sattamah// 
nasad-rupa na sad-rupa mSya vai nobhayatmika/ 
anirvacyasrita jneya bheda-buddhi-pradayini/ / 
mayaivajfiana-sabdena sabdyate muni-sattamah/ 
tasmad ajnana-vicchcdo bhaved vxgata-mayinam/ / 

129 Ibid., 24. 44-45. which include the foUowing line— urdhvapaundram 
ca tulasim sraddhe necchanti kccana. 

130 Ibid., 14. 136-14*. 

131 Ibid., 15. 18, 21, 37 * 3 ^» * 7 * 3 ^* 99 - 

132 Ibid., 15. 43 — 

vacyo narayanah prokto mantras tad-vacakah smrtah/ 
vacya-vacaka-saipbandho nitya eva mahatmanah/ /, 

133 Viz.. ,Tamas5dhama, Tamasa-madhyama, iMasottama, Rajasadhama, 

Ra>asa-madhyama, Rajasottama, Sattvikadhama, Sattvika-madhyama. Sattviko- 
ttama, and Uttamottama (Bnar. 14. * 95 '*°?)' 



320 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


servant, and lays special stress on avyabhicarint hhakti (unswerving 
devotion), which arises from pious acts and forms the basis of jnana 
yielding final liberation.*®® In its opinion, a Candala who is sincerely 
devoted to Visnu is superior to a Brahmin, and a Brahmin having no 
devotion for Visnu is worse than a Candala.*®® It contains a good 
number of hymns mostly in praise of Visnu- Narayana*®^ and speaks of 
innumerable incarnations of the god, of which only the following ten 
have been named : Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Nrsimha, Vamana, 
Jamadagnya, Rama Dasarathi, Rama (Musall, also called Nanda- 
sutagraja), Isana and Kalki.*®* 

In its discourse on the way of attaining final liberation (moksa) m 
chap, ji the Brhannaradlya-p. deals elaborately with Yoga consisting 
of Kriya-yoga and Jnana-yoga, of which the former requires the wor- 
ship of all-pervading Visnu in images, twice-born people, the earth, 
fire, sun, pictures etc. and forms the basis of the latter.*®* As a matter 
of fact, worship of Visnu in images forms the preliminary step to the 
realisation of the god and is meant for ‘ignorant people, who always 
worship the Lord of the Universe in images of stone etc.’**® It takes 
jnana to be the same as buddhi purified by the total destruction of 


134 Bnar. 14. 204. 

135 Ibid., I. 13; and 31. 27 — 

jnana-Iabhyatn param mok^m prahus tattvartha-cintakah / 
tajjnanatn bhakti-mulam ca bhaktih sat-karmaja tatha// 

136 Ibid., 32. 39, and 35. 12. 

137 Ibid.. 2. 20-53; 4. 55-63; 4. 84-89; 5- 24*32: iSP 39 > 7 *' 79 i * 5 - 

57-64; 36. 3-38. 

138 Ibid., 2. 31-41. See also ibid., ii. 77-78 for some of the names. 

139 Ibid., 31. 31-33 — 

yogas tu dvividhah proktah karma-jnana-prabhedatah//, 
kriya-yogam vina nrrnam jnana-yogo na sidhyati/, 
kriya-yoga-ratas tasmac chraddhaya harim arcayet// 
pratima-dvija-bbumy-agni-surya-citradisudvijah/ 
arcayeddharim etesu visnuh sarva-gato yatah / /, 

140 Ibid,, 2. 48 — ajna yajanti viivesam pasanadisu sarvada/ 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 321 

sins by supreme faith (para sraddha)*^i and extols Yoga saying that 
It IS only the Yogins who acquire jnana yielding moksa.^^* On the 
authority of the Atharva-veda it distinguishes Atman (or Brahma) into 
Para and Apara, of which Para Atman is beyond the Gunas and Apara 
Atman has Ahatnkara; and Yoga is said to be the perfect realisation of 
the unity of Para and Apara Atman.**® As to the correct practice of 
Yoga it says ; 

sanaih sanair vijetavyah prana matta-gajendravat/^ 
anyathakhalu jayante maharoga-bhayamkarah// (31. laS). 
‘Like intoxicated lordly elephants the vital airs should be con- 
trolled by and by, otherwise they become dreadful by (creating) 
dangerous diseases.” 

Going to speak on devotional service to Visnu the Brhannaradlya-p. 
extols the sanctity and efficacy of the waters and mud of the Ganges*-- 
and urges people to maintain the Tulasi plant in their houses, to 
salute and worship it with great devotion,*-* and to wear its wood 
and leaves on their ears.*** A very small particle of Ganges-water 
in which a Tulasl-leaf has been placed, is said to purify twenty-one 
generations (9* 133. *38); gift of land with Tulasi plants in it is 
highly praised (ii. 127): and even Visnu is said to wear a ‘Tulasi- 
™ala’ (31. 138). 

14* Ibid., 31. 29-30 — 

iraddhaya paraya caiva sarva-papam pranasyad/ /, 
sarva-papesu nastesu buddhir bhavad nirmala/ 
saiva buddhih samakhyata jnana-iabdena suribhih/ /, 

142 Ibid., 31. 31 — jnanam ca moksadam prahus tajjnaaam yoginam bhavet. 

143 Ibid., 31, 57-58 — 

atmanam dvividhatn prahuh parapara-vibhedatah/. 
dve brahman! veditavye id catharvani irudh'// 
paras tu nirgunah prokto ahamkara-yuto ’parah/, 
tayor abheda-vijnlnam yoga iiy abbidbiyatc/ / 

144 See ibid., chaps. 6 , 9 and 37, especially 6. 30 (on the benefits of 
besmearing the head and body with the mud of the Ganges) and 14. 218-9 
the benefits of throwing the hair, bones, nails, teedi or ashes of a deceased 
person into the waters of the saaed river). 

145 Ibid., 6. 65; II, 62; 23. 59-69; 14. 191; 37. 52-53; 37. 65; and so on 

146 Ibid., 5. 53; 13. 65, 

41 



322 


studies in the LJTATURaNAS 

One of the striking features of the Brhannaradiya-p. is that it 
repeatedly praises Siva-worship and declares the unity of Siva and 
VisnU'Narayana. Among the best Bhagavatas it includes those per- 
sons who love and worship Siva, constantly meditate upon him, mutter 
his five-syllabled Mantra (namah sivaya), offer costly sacrifices to him 
as well as to Hari with great devotion, utter the names of these two 
deities, carry the sectarian mark Tripundra, and wear Rudraksas (5. 
56-61). It gives out Siva to be a form of Visnu-Narayana (i5" 74) 
and regards as ‘venerable that Brahmin who looks up, without any 
idea ot distinction, to the Lord of gods (devesa) consisting of Nara- 
yana and Siva’ (3. 63). Severely denouncing those who distinguish 
between these two gods it says: 

“The Pliallus (linga) assumes the form of Hati, and Hari bears 
the form of the Phallus. There is not the slightest difference (between 
them), (and) one who makes (any) distinction, acquires sin. 

“(Only) the sinners merged in the ocean of nescience find 
disdnetion in the eternal god designated as Hari and Samkara. 

“It is that imperishable god, the Lord of the worlds and the 
Cause of causes, who devours up the universe at the end of a Yuga 
by assuming the form of Rudra. 

“Rudra protects the entire universe in the form of Visnu; and 
Hari creates it by assuming the form of Brahma and (then) devours 
it himself. 

“The man who differentiates between Hari, Samkara and Brahma, 
suffers in hell as long as the moon and stars exist. 

“It is the decided opinion of the holy scriptures that one who looks 
upon Hara, Hari and Vidhatr as one, attains supreme bliss.”*— 

In Brhannaradlya-p. 14. 214-5 Dharmaraja (Kala) says to 
king Bhaglratha, “Worship Hara and Visnu, O king, by taking 
them to be one. The person who distinguishes (between them) 
becomes guilty of misdeeds of the magnitude of decades of thousands 
of Brahmin-murder. Siva is (the same as) this Hari in person, (and) 
It is Hart who is Siva himself. One who makes any distinction 
between them suffers in crores of hells” (14. 214-215). 


147 Ibid,, 6. 41-46. 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 323 

We have already seen how the Brhannaradlya-p. eztx>ls even a 
Candala who is sincerely devoted to Visnu-Narayana and cakes him to 
be superior to a Brahmin who is not so. But this attitude relates sim- 
ply to religious fervour and does not mean that the Brhannaradiya-p. 
has no respect for the Vedas and the Vedic views of life and conduct.. 
On the other hand, it prescribes the study of the Vedas to the mem- 
bers of the higher three castes (22. 20, 23-25), declares these works 
to be as much superior to other scriptures as Kesava is to the otha: 
gods (32.9), repeatedly identifies them with Visnu-Narayana,^- takes 
Dharma to be rooted in them (4. 17, 27. 64), and urges people to 
practise, for th; satisfaction of Nariyana, the duties enjoined by these 
sacred works (3. 80, 27. 64), It includes among the superiors (guravah) 
those people who study the Vedas and correctly explain their mean 
ings to others, and assigns to them the foremost piosition among those 
who are specially venerable (9. 89-go, 98). In its opinion, a teacher 
of the Vedas is to be saluted first of all ( 23 * 35 )’ becomes a 

Sudra and goes to hell by studying scriptures excluding the Vedas (23. 
66). It regards Gayatri as destructive of all sins and as the mother of 
the Vedas (6. 61-65), severely denounces those who hate or sell the« 
works,*— and advises people not to invite under any circumstances in 
a Sraddha ceremony a Brahmin who is ‘bereft of the Vedas (26. 35)* 

It is very natural that with its high regard for the Vedas t c 
Brhannaradlya-p. should extol ‘Smrti’ which records Dharma ro(^ *n 
the Vedas. As a matter of fact, it urges people to foUow their own 
Grhya-sutras in kindling fire (agnyadhana) and performing bom* an 
other Grhya rites including the sacraments (22. loa, 26.50 ., *3 9 * 
encourages them to practise Dharma as declared in the Smtns (24^ , 
looks upon the sellers of these works as great smners like those 
Vedas (i 2. g), and prescribes the observance of Vraus an 

religious rites on Tithis determined in accordance with the ditectwms 

of the Smrtis (27. 63). It firmly believes in caste-system, 
dWiKdoo' between the ,erion5Catte„nd tubcatte,. and fully teegnjw 
the suptemacy of Brahmins in society, ft warns with te ce 

148 Ibid,, a|. 17, 23. 68, and so on. 

149 Ibid., 4. 17; »2- 4'5s 8*9^ *4- 49- 



324 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


those who take, enhance or collect the revenue of a village belonging 
to a Brahmin and all those who support others in doing so (i/^. 122- 
124). In its account of the gradual improvement attained by creatures 
in their successive births it mentions the following castes, of which 
each succeeding one is taken to be superior to that immediately 
preceding it : 

Carmakara, Candala, Vyadha, Rajaka, Kumbhakara, Lohakara, 
Suvarnakara, Tantravaya, Vanik, Sikhajata (?), Dhavaka, Lekhaka, 
Bh^ka, Sasanaharin (30. 2). 

It assigns the Sudras and women to a very low position in the 
social fabric. About these important members of the Hindu society 
it says : 

“A twice-born man who, being invited by a Sudra, takes his meal, 

is known as a drinker of wine and thrown outside (the pale of) all 
(^rauta and Smarta) Dharma (14. 39). 

“Or, a twice-born man who, being asked by a Sudra, takes his 
meal, is known as a drinker of wine and deprived (of the right of per- 
forming) all (Srauta and Smarta) work (14. 40). 

*** ••• ••• 

“A man who bows down to a Linga or (an image of) Visnu wor- 
shipped by a Sudra, has no escape (from sin) even by (practising) 
decades of thousands of penances (14. 54), 

“One who salutes a Linga or (an image of) Hari touched by a 
Sudra, undergoes all (kinds of) suffering till the moon and the stars 
exist (14, 55). 

By saluting a Linga worshipped by an Abhira one goes to hell, 
O king, even though one may be versed in the Vedas or know the 
meanings of all Sastras (14. 56b-57). 

“One who salutes a Linga or even (an image of) Visnu worshipped 
by women, lives in Raurava (hell) with a crore of his generations op 
to the end of a kalfa (14.58). 

“A Sudra or women must not couch a Linga from the time it is 
established according to (the right) procedure by those versed in the 
mantras ( 14 . 59 ). 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


325 


“Neither women nor those invested with the sacred thread, 
nor the Sudras, O lord of men, have the right o£ touching (an image 
of) Visnu or Samkara (14. 60). 

• •• ••• ••• *** ••• 

“A man who salutes a Lihga or (an image of) Visnu consecrated 
by a Sudra, meets with endless miseries in this very world, not to 
speak of the next one (14. 62). 

“One who salutes a Lihga or (an image of) Visnu worshipped by 
an Abhira, meets with destruction, O lord of men. What is the good 
of speaking anything more? (14. 63). 

“By touching (an image of) Kesava or Siva a Sudra, one not in- 
vested with the sacred thread, women, and a ‘fallen’ man (ftttita) 
suffer in hell (14. 64). 

• •• ••• ••• ••• *** 

“There is no atonement for those who have association 

with Sudra women, (and) nourish their body with food received from 
Sudras, ... ... (14. 66-67). 

••• .... ••• ... ••• ••• •** 

“A man who reads the Vedas in the proximity of women and 
Sudras, goes to hells successively during thousands oferores of kalfts 
(14. 144). 

The Brhannaradlya-p. warns students against having any contact 
with Sudras (23. 32); and in connection with one s profession in 
distress it says; 

“Even in dire distress a twice-born man must not take to the 
profession of Sudras. If an infatuated twice-born man docs so, be is 
looked upon as a Candala, 

“Brahmins, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas (visah) arc wcU-known as ‘twice- 
born’ people. And they have four stages of life, there being no fifth 
(23. 31-32). 

From the above statements about the 6udras and women it appears 
that these members of the Hindu society were seriously influenced by 
the ideas and practices of the extra-Vedic sectaries, especially the 
Buddhists and the Tantriks. As a matter of fact, the Brhannaradiya-p. 
amply testifies to the great spread of Buddhism and Tantricism, which 
threatened the very basis of the Varnawamadbarma of the Vedas. It 



326 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


uses the name ‘Pasanda’ for the Buddhists and the Tantriks and 
defines it saying : 

“As the Bauddhas decry the Vedas, they are called Pasandins” 

( m - 70). 

•‘Those who have ceased to perform the sacrifices to the gods and 
Pitrs and strayed from the Vedic way (of life), are well-known as 
Pasandas and undergo. a multitude of sufferings” (14. 186), 

“A Pasanda is so called by the wise on account of his forsaking 
tlic duties of his own caste” (22. g), 

“One who, after forsaking his own (lawful) work, takes to the 
Work of others, is known as a Pasanda and thrown outside (the pale of) 
all (Srauta and Smarta) Dharma” (23. 2), and 

“That cunning twice-born mortal, who does not perform Samdhya 
(i.e. the morning, noon and evening prayer) in times when there is no 
calamity, is known 3s a Pasanda and placed outside all (Srauta and 
Smarta) work” (25. 29). 

That in the above passages the name Pasanda was applied for the 
Tantriks also is shown by the mention at several places of the worship 
of the Lihga or the images of Visnu and Siva by the Pasandas. For 
instance, in chap, 14 the Brhannaradiya-p. says that ‘by saluting a 
Lihga worshipped by the Pasandas one is reduced to the state of a 
Paunda even though he may be versed in the Vedas and know the 
meanings of all Sastras (verse 56), and that ‘(a twice-born man) must 
not worship even in dream (an image of) Visnu or Samkara (which 
has been) worshipped by those who have forsaken the customs and 
usages (icara) of their own orders of life’ (verse 61). As these extra- 
Vcdic sectaries did not follow the Vedic way of life and disproved the 
efficacy of Vedic sacrifices by puzzling argumentation, and as associa 
tion with them made others acquire their habits (ai. 53-55). the 
Brhannaradiya-p. repeatedly warns people against talking,*®® or having 
any other kind of contact, with them. It says: 

“One who enters the house of a Bauddha even in great distress, 
has no escape (from sin) even by (practising) hundreds of penances. 

“The Bauddhas are called Pasandins, because they decry the Vedas. 

150 Ibid., 17, 20 (pasandalipa-varjitah). 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 327 

So, a twice-born man, if he has (any) regard for the Vedas, must not 
look at them. 

“(One acquires sin), in case one enters the house of a Bauddha 
knowingly or unknowingly. There is no escape (from sin), (if one 
docs so) knowingly. This is the decision of Sastras”. (14. 69-71). 

Going to deal with the duties {dharma) of the different castes and 
orders of life ‘as prescribed by Manu and others’ (manvadyais coditatn 
ca yat — 22. 6), the Brhannaradlya-p. encourages the due performance 
of Yuga-dharmas by all the castes^** but names a number of lawful 
practices which, being considered unfavourable for the attainment of 
heaven and disliked by the people, have been forbidden by wise men 
in the Kali age. These practices have been mentioned in the 
following verses: 

“karmana manasa vaca yatnad dharnian samacaret/^ 
asvargyatn loka-vidvistam dharmam apy acaren na tu/ J 
samudra-yatra-svikarah kamandalu-vidharanam/ 
dvijanam asavarnasu kanyasupayamas tatha// 
devarena sutotpattir madhuparkc pasor vadhah/, 
matnsa-danatn tatha sraddhe vanaprasthisramas tatha/ / 
dattaksatayah kanyiyah ponar-danam parasya ca/ 
dirgha-kalatn brahmacaryam nafamedhasvamedhakau/ / 
mahaprasthana-gainanain gomedham ca tatha makham/ 
iman dharman kali-yuge varjyin ahur manisinah/ / 

(22.12-16). 

“One should carefully practise dbarmt (lawful duty) by work, 
mind and word, but one should not perform an act which, though 
legal, is unfavourable for (the attainment of) heaven and is disliked 
by the people. 

“Undertaking of sea voyage; carrying of a kaman^lu; marriage 
of twice-born people with girls of odicf castes. 

“Raising of issue by the husband’s brother; killu^ of W a in 
Madhuparka; offering of meat in Sriddha; the stage of a of 

hermit. . , 

“Offering again (in marriage), to another (bridegroom), of a married 

. 5 . Ibid.. 22. , .a-yuga-dharmah parigrahya varnair etak yathockam. 



328 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


girl whose marriage was not consummated; celibacy (i.e. studentship) 
for a long period; (performance of) human sacrifice and horse sacrifice. 

“Starting on a great journey; and cow sacrifice. — These lawful acts 
have been declared by the wise as forbidden in the Kali age.” 

As to the Acaras (customs and usages) deserving practice, the 
Brhannaradlya-p. attaches much importance to those enjoined by 
one’s caste and order of life and decries wilful negligence of these, 
saying : 

“One who gives himself up to devotion to Hari without trans- 
gressing one’s own acara, goes to the abode of Visnu which is seen 


“O powerful sage, one who, while performing the duties declared 
by the Vedas and required by one’s own order of life, engages himself 
in meditation on Hari, attains final beatitude. 

“Dharma arises from acara, and Acyuta is the lord of Dharma. 
Being worshipped by one who is engaged in (the practice of) acara 
enjoined by one’s stage of life Hari gives everything. 

“He who, though being a master of Vedanta together with the 
Ahgas, falls from his own acara, is known as ‘patita’ (fallen from his 
caste), because he is outside (the pale of Srauta and Smarta) work. 

“He who deviates from acaii enjoined by his own order of lifc» 
is said to be ‘patita\ no matter whether he is given to devotion to 
Hari or engaged in medication on him. 

“O best of the twice-born, neither the Veda not devotion to 
Hari or Mahesvara purifies that fool who has fallen from acara. 

'“Neither visit to holy places, O Brahman, nor residence in sacred 
Tirthas, nor performance of various sacrifices saves one who has 
discarded acara. 

“Heaven is attained by (the practice of) acara, happiness is 
attained by (the practice of) acara, and final release is attained by (the 
practice of) acara. What is not attained by (the practice of) 
acara 

The Brhannaradlya-p. further adds : 

“Visnu is not satisfied with one who sticks only to Bhakti after 
152 Ibid., 4. 20-27, 




329 


THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 

giving up (all religious) works, because he is to be worshipped with 
acara. 

“In all sacred scriptures acara has the hrst consideration. Dharma 
arises from acara, (and) Acyuta is the lord of Dharma. 

“Hence such devotion to Hari is to be practised as does not 
go against one’s own Dharma. Dharma and Artha do not yield 
happiness to those who do not follow sadacara (practice of good 
men).”*“ 

Feeling that faithful practice of acara may not he possible for all 
under all circumstances this work says : 

“sva-grame purnam acaratn pathy ardham muni-sattamah '/ 
ature niyamo nasti mahapadi tathaiva ca j j’’ (25. 16). 

“Complete acara (is to be practised) in (one’s) own village, half 
(of the same) on the way (during a journey), O best of sages, and 
there is no rule in times of illness as well as in great distress.” 

But it does not attach the same importance to all kinds of acara. 
It recommends ‘vrddhacara’ (practice of old men) as acceptable (vrd- 
dhacarah parigrahyah — ^24. 43) and says that ‘gramacara’ (peculiar 
practices of villages) may be followed without going against the 
prescriptions of Smrtis.**- As regards ‘dcsacara’ (i. c. the peculiar 
practices of different countries) this work says : 

“desacarah parigrahyas tat'tad-de^ajair naraih/ 

anyatha patito jheyah sarva-dharma-bahiskrtah//” (22. ly). 

“The (peculiar) practices of (different) countries should be followed 
by the people born in those particular countries. Otherwise, one 
is known as ‘fallen’ (fiatita) and externed from all (Srauta and Smarta) 
Dharma.” 

Among the peculiar customs then prevailing in the Hindu society 
the Brhannaradlya-p. mentions the following : difference of opinion 
as regards right for ufanayana (investiture with the sacred thread) 
of the Kundas, Golakas, idiots and others, or of their sons;'*’ a 

153 Ibid., 14. 209-211. 

154 Ibid., 22. II — gramacaras tatha grahyah SRirri-margavirodhatah. 

155 Ibid., 23. 65 — kunda-golakayoh kecij jadidinam ca sattamah/ 

vadanti copanayanain tat-pucresu ca kccana// 


42 



330 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


householder’s wearing of two sacrificial threads with an upper 
garment,*®* two golden ear-ornaments (called kundala), a turban 
(usnisa), and footwears of wood and leather (paduke capy upa- 
nahau);*®* prohibition to a householder against wearing a single piece 
of cloth and keeping his hair loose during worship, acamana, bath, 
etc. (24. 25), against riding camels or cars drawn by these animals 
(2^. 26), against touching the shade of a lamp, a beadstead, and 
one s body, and also a piece of cloth used for tying the hair, and 
dusts of goats and cats,*®* and against passing by a cow, a horse, an 
assembly, a crossway and a temple by keeping them to the left;*®* 
covering the earth with grass and carrying in hand a piece of wood 
at the time of passing stool or making water (25.4); and so on. 

As to the position of certain members of the Hindu society the 
Brhannaradlya-p, gives us interesting information.. According to this 
work the following persons were looked down upon for their pro- 
fession: a Naksatra.pathaka (also called Naksatra-patha-jivin), i.e. 
one studying the stars; a Oevalaka (temple-priest); a Grama-yajaka 
(one serving as a priest for a village); a Loka-yajaka (public priest); 
a Bhisak or Bhisak-sastropajivin (physician); a Gayaka (singer); and a 
Kavya-kartr (composer of poems). About these persons the 
Brhannaradlya-p. makes the following statements : A gift made to a 
Naksatra-pathaka becomes futile (12.6), and he does not deserve 
salutation (23.38) or invitation in a Sraddha ceremony (26.11); 
taking of food offered by a Devalaka is equal to the drinking of wine 
(*4'3^)' ^ Grama-yajaka does not deserve salutation (23.37) or 
invitation in a Sraddha ceremony (26.12); the Brhannaradlya-p. 
should not be read to a Loka-yajaka (i.qS); one should bathe with 
one s garments at the sight of a Bhisak (24.30); and a Gayaka, a 
Kavya-kartr and a Bhisak-sastropajIvin should not be invited in a 
Sraddha ceremony (26.17). 

156 Ibid., 24. 19 — yajnopavita-dvitayam soturiyam ca dharayet. 

157 Ibid., 24. 20-22. 

158 Ibid., 24. 3 2 ^dipa-khawa-tanu-cchaya kesa-vastrain ghamdakaoi/ 

aja-marjara-renui ca hand punyam pura-krtam/ / 

159 Ibid., 24. 35 gam asvam ca sabham caiva tathaiva ca catuspatham/, 

devatayatanam caiva napasavyam vrajed dvijah/ / 


331 


THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

In connection with penance (prayascitta) treated of in chap. 28 
the Brhannaradlya-p. names three varieties of wine (sura) — gaudi, 
madhvi and paisti (28.25) eleven varieties of liquor {madya), viz., 
tala, panasa, draksa, kharjura-sambhava, madhuka, saila, ivista, 
maireya, narikelaja, gaud! and madhvi (28.32-33). It declares all 
kinds of wine as untouchable and undrinkable to the members of the 
four castes, both male and female, and says that by taking wine (sura) 
as medicine for curing a disease one has to undergo two courses of 
Candrayana and to be invested with the sacred thread again (28.30), 
that food coming in contact with wine, water kept in a jar which 
contained wine, and articles of food soaked with wine, arc to be 
considered as equal to wine itself (28.31), and that one guilty of 
adultery with the ^udra wife of one’s teacher {guru), must practise 
the Prajapatya Vrata for three years (28.68). Like the Pancaratra 
Samhitas, the Brhannaradlya-p. prescribes the performance of 
Pranayama or the muttering of the Gayatrl as atonement for sin caused 
by certain acts, viz., stealing of small quantities of gold (of the 
weights of a trasarenu, a niska, a rajasarsapa, a gosarsapa, and a 
touching of certain persons (viz., a woman in her monthly 
courses, a Candala, one guilty of a Mahapataka or heinous crime, a 
recently delivered woman, an outcast, and such washermen and others 
as have not washed their hands and mouths after taking food),^*‘ 
and hearing their voice in the course of a Vrata, etc. (28.92). 
According to this work the weight of a suvarna is as follows : 8 
trasarenus=i niska, 3 niskas=i rajasarsapa, 3 rajasarsapas= i 
gosarsapa, 6 gosarsapas = i yava, 3 yavas=i krsnala, 5 krsnalas=i 
masa, 16 masas= i suvarna.**® 

In describing Yuga-dharma in chap. 38 the Brhannaradiya-p. says 
that no division of the Veda was made in the Krta-yuga (38. 8), that 
Nirayana was white in the Krta-yuga, red in Trcta, yellow in 
Dvapara, and black in Kali,**® and that the Veda was divided in the 

160 Ibid., 28, 47-50. 

161 Ibid., 28. 87-88. 

162 Ibid., 28. 36-39. 

163 Ibid., 38. 13, 14, 16 and 21, 



332 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Dvapara age (38. 17). As regards the conduct of the people of 
the Kali age this work makes, in the forms of prophecies, a number 
of interesting statements, some of which arc as follows : 

“sarit-tire baddha-halair vapayisyanti causadhih/ 
alpam alpatn phalatn tasam bhavisyati kalau yuge7/ 

na vratani carisyanti brahmana veda-nindakah/ 
na yaksyanti na hosyanti hetu-vadair vinasitah/7 
• ••>••••< ••••••••• ••••••#•• 

na kasyacid abhimato visnu-bhakti- paras tatha/, 
deva.puja-paran drstva upahasam prakurvate// 

kaleh prathama-pade ’pi vinindanti harim narah/ 
yugante ’pi hater nama naiva kascit smarisyati / / 

kuhakair aksarais tatra hetu-vada-visaradaih/ 
pasandino bhavisyanti caturasramya-nindakah// 
na ca dvijati-susrusam na sva-dharma-pravartanam/ 
karisyanti tada sudrah pravrajya-lihgino ’dhamah// 

5 udra dharman pravaksyanti kuta-yukti*visaradah/7 
asauca.y ukta-matayah para-pakvanna-bhojinah / 
bhavisyanti duratmanah sudrah pravrajitas tatha/ / 
utkoca-jivinas*** tatra mahapapa-ratis tatha/ 
bhavisyanty atha pasandah kapala bhiksavas tatha// 
dharma'vidhvatnsa>slianam dvijanatn vipra-sattamah/ 

(sudri dharman pravaksyanti pravrajya-linga-dharinah/ /)*** 
ete canye ca bahavah pasanda vipra-sattamih/ 
brahmanah ksatriya vaisyi bhavisyanti kalau yuge/ / 
gtta-vadya-para vipra veda-dcva>parahmukhah/ 
bhavisyanti kalau prapte sudra-marga-pravartinah/ / 


164 In the Visnudharma (chap. 105) there is mention of ‘Utkocas’ (or 
Utkaucas) as a class of heretics. See pp. 149 and 150 above. 

163 This line (ludra dharman pravaksyanti etc.) occurs not in the yaqga. 
ed. but in the ASS ed. of the Brhannaradiya-p. 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 333 

visvasa-hinah pisuna veda-deva-dvijatisu/ 
asamskrtokti-vaktaro bahu-dvesa-ratas tatha// 

••• ••• ••• 

bhavisyanti kalau prapterajano mleccha-jatayah// 

*** ••• ••• 

veda-nitida-paras caiva dharma-sastra-vinindakah/ 
sudra-vrttya ca jivanti dvija naraka-bhaginah/ / 


nagaresu ca gramesu prakaresv adhika janih/, 
cauradi-bbaya-bhlcas ca kascha-yantrani kurvate// 
durbhiksa-kara-pldadhir acivopadruta janah/ 
godhumadhyam yavannadhyam desam yasyanti dulikbicah/ j 

••• ••• *** ••• 

papa-jalena niratah (niyatali?) pasanda-jana-sanginah/ 
yada dvija bhavisyanti tada vrddhim gatah kalib//”**' 

“(People) will cause (men) with set ploughs (baddha-hala) to sow 
herbs on the banks of rivers, but the output of those (herbs) will be 
very scanty in the Kali age (38. 43). 

• •• *** ••• *** *** 

“The Brahmins, denouncing the Vedas, will not observe (any) vows, 
nor, being spoiled by (heretical) reasonings, will they perform any 
sacrifice or homa (38. ^ 6 ). 


“A person sincerely devoted to Visnu will not be liked by any one, 
and people will ridicule (the devotees of Visnu,) finding (them) given 
to the worship of the god (38. 490-503). 

*** ••• ••• ••• '• • • ••• 

‘‘Even during the first quarter of the Kali age people will decry 
Hari, and at its end also none will remember his name (38. 32). 

• •• ••• ••• ••• ••• ' 

“Being influenced by the roguish experts in (heretical) dialectics 
with (promises of) final beatitude people will become Pasandins and 
decry the four stages of life (38, 54). 

166 , Bnar. 38. 43, 46, 498-503, 52, 54-61, 64. 74b, 79, 86-87, 91. 



334 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


“At that time the vile ^udras, bearing the signs of mendicancy, 
will not serve the twice-born people, nor will they practise their own 
dharma (38. 55). 

“The Sudras, skilled in puzzling argumentation, will instruct 
dharma (38. 56). 

“The wicked Sudras will have unholy mental tendencies, turn 
wandering mendicants, and subsist on food prepared by others (38.57). 

“Living on bribe and being given to heinous crimes they will 
become Pasandas, Kapalas and Bhiksus (38. 58). 

“O best of Brahmins, the 5 udras, bearing the signs of mendicancy, 
will instruct dharma to the twice-born men habituated to its destruc- 
tion (38. 59). 

“In the Kali age, O best of Brahmins, these and many other 
Brahmins, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas will become Pasandas (38. 60). 

“After the Kali age comes up, the Brahmins given to song and 
instrumental music but averse to the Vedas and the gods, will set 
themselves to the path of the ^udras (38. 6i). 

• •• ««• AAA AA* 

••• ••• 

“(They will become) faithless and slanderous about the Vedas, 
gods and twice-born (men), utter unreBned speech, and be engaged in 
hostility with many (people) (38. 64). 

••• ••• 

the Kah age comes up, persons belonging to the Mleccha 
tribes will become kings (38. 74b). 

••• ••• AAA 

• • • ••• 

Being given to the denouncement of the Vedas and decrying the 
Oharma-sastras, the twice-born (people) will live by (following) the 
profession of the Sudras deserving residence in hells (38. 79). 

■" *•• 

Being afraid of theives etc. the majority of people in cities and 

villages will set machines of wood in walls (or ramparts) (38. 86). 

Being very much affected by the sufferings caused by famine 
and taxation people will feel distressed and migrate to countries rich 
in wheat and barley-food (38. 87). 


• •• 


••• 


• • • 


• •• 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURaNAS 


335 


“When, being bound by a multitude of sins, the twice-born peo- 
ple will associate with the extra-Vedic people (pasanda-j^^a)* then 
Kali will grow (in power) (38. 91).” 

From the above statements it is evident that at the time when the 
Brhannaradiya-p. was composed there was a great spread of the extra- 
Vedic faiths, especially Buddhism and Tantricism, which seriously 
affected the social discipline requited for the Dharma rooted in the 
Vedas. 

Following the Bhagavad-gita the Brhannaradiya-p. (3. ySff.) 
encourages selfless work, which is to be done only for the satisfaction 
of Visnu and not with a desire for the reward. It advises people to 
work untiringly and to dedicate all their actions to Visnu in case they 
desire to enjoy their fruits in the next world (3. 77). Like many other 
Puranas this work has a pessimistic view of life and takes the body 
to be ‘rooted in sin’ and ‘engaged in doing sinful acts’ (31. 6). In 
chap. 29 it gives an account of the sufferings of the sinners in the 
path of Yama and describes Citra-gupta, an officer of Yama, thus: 

“pralayambudhi-nirghosah anjanadri-sama-prabhah/ 
vidyut-prabhayudhair bhimo dvavirnsad-bhuja-sarnyutah/’/j 
yojana-traya-vistaro raktakso dlrgha-nasikah/^ 
dainstra-karala-vadano vapl-tulya-vilocanah/ / 
mrtyu-jvaradibhiryuktas citragupto vibhisanah/” (29.30'52a). 

“Having a thundering voice like the roar of the ocean at the dis- 
solution (of the universe), possessing splendour like that of a mountain 
of collyrium, looking dreadful with weapons shining like lightning, 
and having twenty-two hands, an extent of three yojanas, red and 
well-like eyes, a long nose, and a mouth made dreadful by large teeth, 
Citragupta, attended by Death, Fever and others, looks extremely 
terrible.” 

We shall now discuss the date of composition of the present 
Brhannaradiya-p. 

From the analysis of the contents of this work given above it is 
evident that it is a purely sectarian work lacking all the characteristics 
of a Mahapurana. Its title ‘Brhannarada’ ot ‘Brhannaradiya’, occurring 



336 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


in the body o£ the chapters**^ as well as in the colophons, indicates 
that it is not the original Naradiya-p., the words ‘brhat,’ ‘vrddha’ 
etc. being found to be prefixed to the titles of comparatively late 
works only. As the present Naradiya-p. incorporates all the chapters 
of the Brhannaradlya,^** we cannot agree with Winternitz in holding 
that the Brhannaradiya-p. ‘is generally so called to distinguish it from 
the Narada - or Naradlya-Upapurana’.**® That this work is merely an 
Upapurana and not the same as the genuine Naradiya-p., is shown 
definitely by the Matsya, Skanda and Agni-p., of which the first 
describes the Naradiya-p. as follows: 

“yatraha narado dharman brhat-kalpasrayani ca/ 
pancavitnsat-sahasrani naradiyatn tad ucyate/ /” 

(Mat. 53.23) 

“That (Purina,) in which Narada proclaims the (religious) duties 
as well as (other matters) connected with the Brhat Kalpa and (which 
contains) 25000 (verses), is called Naradiya”. 

167 See Bnar. J. 36 and 66, and 38. 132. See also foot-note 114 above, 

168 The chapters of the 6rhannaradiya-p., as occurring in the Naradiya-p,, 
are as follows : 

Brhannaradiya-p., Naradiya-p., Brhannaradiya-p., Naradiya-p., 
chaps, i-ii =chaps. i-ii. chaps. 14-17 =chaps. 15-18. 

12. 1-12 — cf. 12. 1-28. 18. 1-50 =chap. 19. 

* 3 - *'5 = X j 18. 51-131 = 20. 3-86. 

13.6-39 = 12.29-58. I chaps. 19-24 =chaps. 21-26. 

= 12. 59-98(00 the story i ‘^*’»P- 25 (e*cept^ = chap. 27 (except 

of king Virabhadra of I verses 23h-65a on 

Gaudadefa, whose mi- i 

with the perfor- 
mance of nyasa). 
chaps. 26-34 = chaps. 28-36. 

35. 1-70 =chap. 37. 
35.71-129 = „ 38. 

chaps. 36-37 =chaps. 39-40- 

38,1-126 (cx-‘J=chap. 41 fespe- 
cept verses > cially except verses 

127-149) J 116-122). 

169 Winternitz. History of Indian Literature. Vol. I. p. 557. 


nister Buddhisagara ' 
excavated a dried up 
tank). 

13. 40-212 =chap. 13. 

=chap. 14 (on occasions 
for impurity, and the 
requbite penances for ■ 
purification). 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 


337 


The Skanda (VII. and the Agni-p. (272.8), which do not 

differ materially from the Matsya m laying down the characteristics of 
the Naradlya-p., describe this work thus: 

“yatraha narado dharman brhat-kalpasrayams tv iha 

(Agni-p. — brhat-kalpasritan iha)/ 
pancavimsat-sahasrani (Agni-p. — pancavimsa-sahasrani) 

naradlyam tad ucyate//” 

“That (Purina,) in which Narada proclaims such (religious) duties 
in this world as were connected with the Brhat Kalpa and (which 
contains) 25000 (verses), is called Naradlya”. 

From these descriptions it is evident that the Naradlya-p., as 
known to the Matsya, Skanda and Agni-p., had Narada as the principal 
speaker, described the (religious) duties connected with the Brhat Kalpa, 
and contained 25000 verses. But in the Brhannaradlya-p., though 
Narada is said to have spoken to Sanatkumara on various kinds of 
(religious) duties, there is no mention of the Brhat Kalpa, and the 
number of verses is only about 3600. Moreover, the Ekamra-p. and 
the Brhaddharma-p. clearly distinguish the Brhannaradlya from the 
Naradiya-p., naming both of them side by side in their lists of 
Upapuranas;^’® and the manner in which the Smrti-writers refer to and 
quote verses from this Upapurana as well as from the Naradlya, shows 
that it was known to them under the title Brhannaradiya-p. and not 
as Naradlya. So, there is little scope for doubt that our Brhannaradlya 
is an Upapurana quite distinct from the Naradlya-p. 

This work names the Rasis (zodiacal signs) and the week-days on 
more occasions than onc,*^‘ and betrays its knowledge of the 
Markandeya-p. in the following verse: 

“aradhito jagannatho markandeyena dhimata/ 
purana-satnhitam kartutndattavan varam acyutah//” (5.4). 

'5. 

170 For these lists see Chap. I (pp. 13 and 10) above. 

171 For the names of the Rasis see Bnar, 6.31, 6. 39, and 27. 22-25, and 
for those of the week-days see ibid., 13. 80. 88, 89 and 91 (Bhanu-vara, Soma- 
vara, Indu-vara). 

No work preceding the Yajnavalkya-smrti betrays any knowledge of the 

43 



338 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


“Being propitiated by the wise Markandeya, Acyuta, the lord of 
the world, granted (him) a boon to compile a Purana-samhitS”. 

A comparison of the description of the conduct of the people and the 
activities of the Pasandas in the Kali age, as given in Brhannaradlya-p., 
chap. j8, with that occurring in Visnudharma, chap. 105, shows 
that the account of the former work is clearly based on that of the 
latter, from which it derives a good number of peculiar verses.*^-* 
It is cognisant of Visnu’s Sakti and says that this Sakti permeates the 
whole world and effects its creation, preservation and destruction, and 
that she is identical with Uma, LaksmI, Durga and others and also 
with Prakrti and Maya (or Mahamaya) which subjects all creatures 
to rebirths. Thus, the Brhannaradlya-p. records a developed 5 akti 
theory, which points to a date posterior to that of the Jayakhya- 
samhita*” and not earlier than about 550 A, D. By its statements 
that even Ajamila, a sinner and drunkard, earned freedom from sins 
and attained the highest region by simply uttering the name 
‘Narayana’^-^ (which was given to his youngest son) and that the 
great elephant (gajendra) got free from the clutch of the crocodile 
by praising the god Visnu-Narayana,'*'® the Brhannaradlya-p. clearly 


Rails, which, therefore, appear to have been unknown ro the Indians down to 
the beginning of the second century A.D. 

The earliest dated mention of a week-day has been traced in the Eran 
inscription of 484 A.D. (See Fleet, Gupta inscriptions, pp. 88-89). 

172 Sec, for instance, Bnar. 38. 52, 54 - 58 > 64b, etc., for which, as occurr- 
ing in the Visnudharma, see foot-note 108 on pp. 149-150 above. 

.We have already seen that the date of composition of the Visnudharma is 
to be placed between 200 and 300 A.D. (See p. 143 above). 

*73 This Samhita is dated about 450 A,D., and in it Laksmi, Jaya, Kirti 
and Maya are called Visnu’s Sakti but are not said to play any part in creation. 

174 Bnar. 2. 44 — 

suraparo 'pi yannama kirtayitva hy ajamilah / 
prapede paramam sthanain j j 

Also 1 1. 29 — 


ajamilo ’pi papatma yan-namoccaranoddhrtah/ 
praptavan paramam dhama j/ 

175 Ibid., 2. 28 yan-nama-samkirtanato gajendro 
mumuce sa eva/ 

/J ••• ••• 


grahogra-bandhan 

u 



THE MINOR VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 339 

refers to Bhagavata-p. VI, 1-2 and VIII. 2-4 respectively. It knows 
Bharavi s Kiratarjunlya and Bhatti’s Ravana-vadha {alias Bhatti-kavya), 
some of the expressions of which it imitates here and there.^^® It 
derives a complete verse^”- from Bhartrhan’s Niti-sataka and composes 
two others^ in imitation of a verse of his Vairagya-sataka. It speaks 
very highly of the TulasI plant and, unlike other early works, deifies 
It and inculcates its worship. So, this Upapurana cannot be dated 
earlier than about the last quarter of the seventh century A. D. The 
doctrine of nonduality and illusion, summarily referred to in Bnar. 
31. 57®'> shows that it could not have been written much earlier than 
Samkaracarya. 

Again, a Ms of the Brhaiinaradlya-p., lying in the Dacca Univer- 
city Library, is dated Saka 1578 (=1656 A.D.);*'® another, preserved 
in the Durbar Library, Nepal, bears the date La.-Sam.425 (=1544 
A.D.);SS® and a third, kept in the India Office Library^ London, 
is dated 1535 A. D.*®‘ The Text of this work, as preserved in these 

170 Compare, for instance, Bnar. 18. 108 (samyag-viveka-sunyarvam 
apadam hi padain mahat) and 32, 29 (vapur vinasa-nilayam apadam paramam 
padam) with Kiratarjunlya 2. 30 (avivekah param apadain padam) and 11.12-13 
respectively, and Bnar. 7. 9-10 (lyd/a so ’svamedhan vai ... ... j atarfayat 

suran sarvan ... ... // aramsta niii-sastiesu vyajesta paripanthinah/ mene 

krtartham atmanam ... ... //) with Ravana-vadha 1.2 (so 'dhyaista vedams 

tridasan ayasta pitrrn atarpsit samamainsta bandhun/ vyajesta sadvargam 
aramsta nitau samulaghatatn nyavadhid arims ca/ /) 

177 Bnar, 35. 37 — 

mrga-mina-sajjananam trna-jala-samtosa-vihita-vrttinam/ 
lubdhaka-dhivara-pisuna niskarana-vairino jagati// 

This verse is the same as verse 5° of Bhartrhari’s Niti-sataka. 

178 Bnar. 32. 26-27 — 

he janah kirn na pasyadhvam ayuso 'rdham tu nidraya/ 
hrtam ca bhojanadyais ca kiyad ayuh samahrtam/ /, 
kiyad ayur bala-bhsivad vrddfaa-bfaavat kiyaddhnam/ 
kiyad visaya-bhogais ca kada dharman karisyatha// 

Compare these verses with the following verse (No, 49) of the .Vairagya- 
sataka ; 

ayur varsa-satam nraam parimitam ratrau tad-ardham gatam 
tasyatdhasya parasya cardham aparam balatva-vrddbatvayoh/ etc. 

179-181 See foot-note 113 above. 



340 


SITJDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Mss, tallying fully with that given by the printed editions, the Brhan- 
naradlya-p. cannot be dated later than the middle of the fifteenth 
century A. D. As Bhaskara (or Bhairava)**^ draws upon chap. 13 
of the Brhannaradiya-p. in his Acara-nirnaya-bhaskara-samgraha, Mitra 
Misra upon chaps. 2, 4, ii. 13, 24 and 25 in his Viramitrodaya, 
Anantabhatta upon chaps, ij, 14 and 22-24 in his Vidhina-parijata, 
Sura Misra upon chap. 25 in his Jagannatha-ptakasa,**® Gopala-bhatta 
upon chaps. 1-6, ii, 13, 18, 21, 23, 28, 32, 34, 35, 37 and 38 
in his Haribhakti-vilasa, Raghunandana upon chaps. 7, 14, 22 and 
24 in his Smrci-tactva, Ganapati (of Mithila) upon chaps. 14 and 15 
m his Gahga-bhakti-tatanginI, Govindananda Kavikankanacarya upon 
chaps. 7, 14 and 25-27 in his Varsa-kaumudi, Sraddha-kaumudi and 
Suddhi-kauinudI, and Srinathacirya-cudamani upon chaps. 7, 14 and 
24 in his Krtya-tattvarnava,*** and as Sulapani refers definitely to and 
quotes a line from chap. 16 with the mention of the title ‘Brhan- 
naradiya in his Vrata-kala-vivcka,**® the Brhannaradiya-p. can by no 
means be placed later than 1300 A. D. It has already been said 
that the Brhaddharma-p., which was written in Bengal most probably 
in the last half of the thirteenth century A. names both the 

182 In the ASB Ms (No, 594 ^) ^he Acara-nirnaya-bhaskara-samgraha, 
which is the only Ms of this work hitherto discovered, the name of the author 
has been given as Bhairava in the second introductory verse and as Bhaskara in 
the final colophon. But unfortunately both the introductory verses and the 
final colophon were added in a later hand. 

As the name ‘Bhaskara’ occurs in the title of the work, we have preferred it 
to ‘Bhairava’ given in the second introductory verse. 

183 This is an extensive Smrti work composed at Indraprastha (Delhi) in 
Samvat 1654 (= 1598 A.D.) under the patronage of Jagannatha, a scion of the 
Solar dynasty, who was born in Samvat 1603 (=1547 A.D.). 

184 A complete list of the quoted verses will be given in the final Volume 
of the present work. 

183 See Vrata-kala-viveka, p. 20 — brhannaradiyokta-margasirsadi-dvadasa- 
masiya-dvadasivratasya margasirse subhe masi dvadasyam samupositah’ ityadi* 
vacanena ... ... ... j 

The quoted line is much the same as Bnar. 16. 4. 

186 A detailed discussion on the date and provenance of the Brhad- 
dharma-p. will be made in a subsequent Volume of the present work. See, 



the minor VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 341 

Brhannaradlya and the Naradlya-p. in its list of Upapuranas. The 
Uttara-khanda (of the Bengal Siva-p.), which was composed in Bengal 
not later than the twelfth century A. names a ‘Naradiya’ 

Purina called ‘Brhannarada’ and distinguishes it from the major 
Purina called Niradiya, saying : 

“niradoktain purinam tu niradlyam pracaksate/ 
tasmid anyan niradlyam brhannarada-samjnakam//”^®* 

“But the Purina spoken out by Nirada (people) call Naradiya. 

The Naradiya other than that (Purina) is named Brhannirada’’. 

Like the Brhaddharma-p., the Ekimra-p. also names both the 
Brhanniradiya and the Niradlya-p. in its list of Upapurinas; and 
we shall see afterwards that the Ekimra-p. was written in Orissa some 
time during the tenth or eleventh century A.D.'®® So, the Brhan. 
niradlya-p. has to be dated not later than the middle of the tenth 
century A.D. 

Here we should like to examine the mutual relation between the 
Brhanniradiya-p. and the present Niradiya and sec whether this 
relation renders us any help in making a nearer approach to the date 
of composition of the former work. 

We have already seen how the present Naradlya-p. incorporates 
all the chapters of the Brhanniradiya with the exception of a few 
verses. There is no doubt that it is the Naradiya-p. which borrows 
these chapters from the Brhanniradiya. As a matter of fact, the 
present Naradlya-p. is practically an Upapurana in which there is no 
mention of the Brhat Kalpa and Nirada appears not as a speaker 
anywhere in its two Parts (called Purva-bhiga and Uttara-bhiga) but 

however, Hazra in Journal of the University of Gauhati, Yol. ,VI, 1955, 
pp. 245-263. 

187 A detailed analysis of the Bengal Siva-p. and a full discussion on its 

date will be made in Yol, III of the present work. For a preliminary study 
of this work see Hazra in Our Heritage, Yol. I, *953, pp. 59 "^ * 66-68. 

188 Dacca University Ms No. 4233 (of the Uttara-khanda of the Siva-p.), 
chap. 23 (fol. 152a). 

189 The questions relating to the date and provenance of the Ekamra-p. 
will be discussed in Yol. Ill of the present work. See, however, Hazra in Poona 
Orientalist, XVI, 1951, pp. 70-76. 



342 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


as a hearer, to whom Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatkumara and Sanatana 
speak respectively in the tour sections (Pada) oE the First Part (Purva- 
bhaga) only. Now, the question arises as to when the Naradiya-p. 
incorporated the Brhannaradiya to form the first section of its First 
Part, An Examination of the Smrti commentaries and Nibandhas 
shows that several hundreds of verses on Sraddha, Tithi-nirnaya, 
Ganga-mahatmya, Ganga-snana, etc. have been quoted from the 
‘Naradiya-p.’ or ‘Naradiya’ in Devanabhatta’s Smrti-candrika, Hema- 
dri’s Caturvarga-cintamani, Bhaguri’s Smrti-sara-samuccaya (fol. 41b), 
Sridatta Upadhyaya’s Samaya-pradipa (fol. loa), Candesvara Thak- 
kura’s Krtya-ratnakara (p. 637) and Tithi-nirnaya (fol. 12a), Madha- 
vacarya’s commentary on the Parasara-smrti, Madanapala’s Mada na- 
parijata (pp. 265, 507, 539), Vidyipati Upadhyaya’s Gahga-vakyavall, 
Rudradhara Upadhyaya’s Varsa-krtya (pp. 157-158), Krsnananda 
Agamavagisa’s Tancrasara (I, p. 47), Vacaspati-misra’s Tirtha-cinta- 
mani, Raghunandana’s Smrci-tattva, Gopala-bhatta’s Haribhakti-vilasa, 
Gadadhara’s Kalasara, Mitra Misra’s Viramitrodaya, Sura Misra’s 
Jagannatha-prakasa (fols. 74b, 78b, 79a), and many other works. 
Most of these quoted verses occur in the Uttara-bhaga of the present 
Naradiya-p.,**® but only a very few lines*** can be traced in Purva- 


190 For a list of these verses see Hazra, Puranic Records, pp. 315-317. 
The verses ascribed to the ‘Naradiya-p.’ or ‘Naradiya’ 

in 


(1) Candesvara’s 
Tithi-nirnaya, 

fol. 12a =Nar. I. 23. 8. 

(2) Vidyapad’s 
Gahga-v^yavali, 

p. 259 = Nar. II. 38, 38. 


(3) Ganapati’s 
Ganga-bhakd- 
tarahgini, 

fol. 5b =Nar. II. 39. 25b-26a. 
fol. 15b =Nar, II. 38. 34. 
fol. 52a =Nar. II. 38. 38. 


1 91 yiz., two lines ‘yani kani ca papani etc.’ (=Nar. I. 23. 8) quoted in 
Heraadri's Caturvarga-cint^ani, II. i, p. 995. and III. ii, p, 153, Candesvara’s 
Tithi-nirnaya, fol. 12a, and Gadadhara’s Kalasara, p. 127; seven lines from 
‘jsvayuk-fuklanavami etc.’ (=Nar. I. 29. 52^55) quoted in Hemadri’s 
Caturvarga-dnt^ani, III. i, p. 255; two lines ‘balapatyas ca garbhinyah etc.’ 
( = Nar. I, 7. 52) quoted in Madhavaevya’s commentary on the Parafara-smrd 
(II. i, p. 59); eight lines (=Nar, I. 28. 2b, 20b, 63-643, 67 and 69a) quoted in 



343 


THE MINOR vAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

bhaga, chaps. 1-41 (which, as we have already seen, are very much the 
same as Brhannaradlya-p., chaps. 1-38), although among these chap- 
ters there are some which deal elaborately with the said topics (viz., 
Sraddha, Tithi-nirnaya, Gahga-mahatmya, Gahga-snana, etc.). It 
is particularly remarkable that of the numerous verses ascribed to the 
‘Naradlya-p.’ or ‘Naradiya’ in Devanabhatta’s Smrti-candrika, Vidya- 
pati Upadhyaya’s Gahga-vakyavall, Gopala-bhatta’s Haribhakti-vilasa, 
Ganapati’s Gahga-bhakti-tarahginl, and Sura Misra’s Jagannatha- 
prakasa, not a single occurs in the first section (comprising chaps. 
1-4 1 ) of Naradlya-p., Purva-bhaga, and that, of more than a century 
of verses quoted by Hemadri from the same work, only nine lines 
(quoted in Caturvarga-cintamani II, i, p. 995, HI. i, p. 255, and 
III. ii, p. 153) agree with Naradlya-p. I. 23. 8 and I. 25. 52^55. 
Similar is the case with Raghunandana, Gadadhara and several others, 
very few of whose quotations from the ‘Naradiya-p.’ are traceable 
in the first section of Naradlya-p., Purva-bhaga. This shows 
chat the ‘Naradlya-p,’, known to Dcvanabhatta, Hemadri and 
many others, constitutes a part of the Uttara-bhaga of the present 
Naradlya-p. and did not comprise the Brhannaradlya. The rare 
coincidences between the verses ascribed by these writers to the ‘Nara- 
dlya-p.’, on the one hand, and those of chaps. 1-41 of Naradlya-p., 
Purva-bhaga, on the other, must be explained by saying that these 
particular verses occurred in the original Naradtya-p. now lost to us, 
and that they have been retained in the Bthannaradlya-p. but lost 
from the ‘Naradiya-p.’ known to Dcvanabhatta, Hemadri and others. 
As a matter of fact, the Uttara-bhaga of the present Naradiya-p. begins 
abruptly without introducing the interlocutors Vasistha and Mandhatr 
or explaining the occasion for Vasistha’s narration of the Pur^a 
topics. This shows that the ‘Naradiya-p.’ known to DevanabhatM, 
Hemadri and others has not been preserved completely in the Uttara- 
bhaga of the present Naradiya, 

From the above discussion it is evident that the determination of 


Govindananda’s jraddha-kaumudi, pp, 79, 83, 169 and 173; and five lines 
(ssNar. I. 27. 66, 30. 9b-i3a, and 13. 98a) quoted in Raghunandana s Smrei- 
tattva, I, pp, 369 and 543, and II, p. 365, 



344 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


the period of incorporation of the Brhannaradlya-p. into the present 
Naradiya is useless for any chronological deduction with respect to the 
former work. We are, therefore, obliged to place the date of its com- 
position between 750 and 900 A.D. As this work docs not appear to 
to have any major interpolation, this date may safely be taken to be 
that of all its parts. 

Though being a comparatively late work and having its origin in'a 
society which saw a great spread of Buddhism and Tantricism, the 
Brhannaradlya-p. is entirely free from Tantric influence. It recom- 
mends the drawing of the Sarvatobhadta-mandala and its painting with 
various hues in certain religious rites*®^ but does not include the 
Tantric Yantra among the mediums of worship,^®® nor does it 
prescribe any Tantric Mantra or symbol or recognise the authority of 
the Tantric works. 

Although we have got no correct knowledge about the provenance 
of the Brhannaradlya-p., there is little doubt about the fact that it was 
composed somewhere in Northern India. It repeatedly mentions and 
praises Prayaga and the confluence of the Gahga and the Yamuna,^** 
and especially Varanasi and the Siva-lihga there, refers, on one 
occasion, to the use of cars drawn by camels (ustra-yana — Bnir. 2^. 26), 
and names the following twelve rivers as specially sacred : Godavari, 
Bhimarathi, Krsna, Reva, Sarasvati, Tuhgabhadra, Kaveri, Kalindi, 
Bahuda, Vetravati, Tamraparni and Satadru*** (most of them belong- 
ing to Southern India). On the other hand, it is the Ekimra-p. (writ- 
ten in Orissa) which is the earliest work to name the Brhannaradiya-p. 
and to recognise it as an authoritative Upapurana. Following the 
Ekamra-p., two Puranic works of Bengal, viz., the Uttara-khanda (of 
the Bengal Siva-p.) and the Brhaddharma-p., recognise the authority 
of the Brhannaradiya-p. without a shade of doubt. Among the Smrti- 
writers it is Sulapani of Bengal who is the first to draw upon this 
work; and it is remarkable that the comparatively early Smrti-writers 

192 See Bnar. 16. 83, and 17, 27. 

193 Viz., Pratima, Dvija, Bhunu, Agni, Surya, Citra, etc. Bnar, 31.33. 

194 See Bnar. i . 41, 6. 5, 6. 9, 6. 37, and so on. 

195 Ibid., 6. 37, 6. 48, 33. 71, 34. 54-55, and so on. 

196 Ibid., 6. 32-33. 



345 


THE Minor vaisnava upapuranas 

tecogtiising the authority o£ the Brhannaradlya-p. belong mostly to 
Bengal and very rarely to Mithila, that this work came to be accepted 
as an authority on Dharnia in other parts of Northern India much 
later, and that it was unknown in Southern India to a still later period. 
So, ic seems that some person from the land about the Narmada or 
Varanasi migrated to the eastern part of Orissa or the western part 
of Bengal and wrote the Brhannaradlya-p. immediately after settling 
there. It is perhaps for this reason that this work refers very often to 
the use and gift of betel-leaves‘®? and denounces the stealing of betel- 
nuts (14. 43) and makes no mention of the rivers and holy places of 
Bengal, Orissa or Mithila, 

The Brhannaradlya-p. contains a number of interesting lines and 
verses including the following :j 

(a) sasahkah sarvada duhkhl nihsahkah sarvada sukhl/ 
sarva-bhuta-hito dan to nihsahkah sarvadaiva hi// (4,74). 

(b) yasya mata grhe nasti bharya capriya.vadini/ 

aranyarn tena gantavyarn yatharanyam tatba grham’/ / {10 44) 

(c) yasya mata grhe nasti putra dharma-parayanah/ 

sadhvi ca strl pati-prana yatavyam tena vai vanam// (10.48). 

(d) atma-buddhih subhakarl guru-buddhir visesatah/^ 
para-buddhir vinasaya strl-buddhih pralayatnkatl// (11.93). 

(c) tyaja durjana-sanisargatn bhaja sadhu-samagamam/, 

kuru punyam ahoratratn smara visnum sanatanam// (15. ly). 

(f) na jatu kamah kamanam upabhogena samyati (31. 99). 

(g) picumardah phaladhyo ’pi kakair eveha bhujyate (34. 13). 

(h) sujano na yati vairam para-hita-buddhir vinasa-kale ’pi/ 
chede ’pi candana-tarur vasayati mukham kutharasya/(3 5.34).'** 

The great popularity of the verses (b) and (d) in Bengal seems to 
point to this province as the place of origin of the Brhannaradlya-p., 
which belongs to the Bhagavatas. 

197 See ibid., 13. 142 (on praise of tambula-dana), 19.8 (on offer of 
tambula to Yisnu in Haripancaka-vrata), 24. 36 (piobibition to take tSmbula in 
an impure state), 26. 3 (tambula — not to be taken by one performing Sraddha), 
26. 78 (offer of tambula to the Brahmins fed in a Sraddba ceremony), 29. 33 
(pleasure enjoyed by a giver of tambula), 

198 This verse has been ascribed to Ravigupta in 5 arhgadhara-paddhati. 
p. 38 (No. 237), but quoted anonymously in Vallabhadeva’s Subhantivali, 
p. 38 (No. 241), 

44 



CHAPTER V 

SOME LOST SAURA AND VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 

For more than two thousand years the Puranas have constituted 
a living literature in India, being intended to guide the common people 
in their religious and social life in different ages and also sometimes in 
different localities. The political changes and religious movements, 
which ancient and mediaeval India experienced not infrequently, 
could not be expected to allow the life of the people to remain static, 
but great care was taken by the Brahmins to preserve as far as possible 
the Vedic basis of religion and society under changed circumstances. 
As it was not possible for these leaders of the Hindu society to ignore 
totally the environments and the influence of the age, they had often 
to make a compromise between the old and the new life, and this 
spirit of compromise was responsible for the total extinction of some of 
the Puranic works and for changes and modifications in others. Among 
the principal Puranas the genuine Brahma, Brahmavarivarta and 
Garuda-purana arc still untraceablc, the present Puranas of the same 
titles being spurious works of later dates. The loss sustained by the 
Upapurana literature also is not negligible, and this will be evident 
from the number and nature of the extinct works treated of in the 
following pages and in the other Volumes of the present work. Of 
these extinct Upapuranas, not a single is now found to exist in man- 
uscripts or printed forms. Isolated verses or extracts from some of 
these UpapurSnas have been preserved as quotations in the Smrti 
Nibandhas, but the rest arc known merely by name either from the 
lists of Upapuranas contained in the Puranic and other works, or from 
the treatises on Vrata, Mabatmya, etc. which claim to be parts of 
these. It is, however, not quite impossible that manuscripts will be 
discovered some day of one or more of these Upapuranas which we 
now take to be extinct. 

Our highly imperfect knowledge of the vast area of India and the 
literary activities of her people in the different ages of her history, 
stands seriously in the way of our preparing an exhaustive list of the 



SOME LOSX' SAURA AND VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 347 

lost Upapuranas. So, we have been compelled to limit our treatment 
of these lost works only to those few Upapuranas which have been 
named, described or drawn upon in various works, especially in those 
of the Parana and the Smrti literature. Of these few works, again, 
we supply information, in the following pages, only about those which 
have been known to have belonged definitely to the Sauras and the 
Vaisnavas. The former sectaries, as the Bhavisya-p. indicates, began 
their literary activity quite early, but their output was very scanty 
unlike that of the Vaisnavas, whose numerical strength has been 
balanced by their zealous literary activity in all ages. 

We shall now record our information about the extinct Saura and 
Vaisnava Upapuranas separately in two groups (A) and (B). 

(A) 

I. THE SAURADHARMA 

This work has been mentioned in the Bhavisya-p.* together with 
the ‘eighteen Puranas’, ‘the Biography of Rama’ (i.e, the Ramayana), 
tlie Mahabharata, the Visnudharma, the ^ivadharma and ocher sacred 
works which arc to be known by the technical term *Jaya\ So, 
according to the Bhavisya-p. it was an early work dealing with the 
duties of the Sauras. But unfortunately its title has not been included 
in any of the lists of Upapuranas known to us. Yet we have taken 
it to be an Upapurana for two reasons. Firstly, it appears to have 

1 See Bhav. 1 . Sjb-Sg — 

astadasa-purgnani ramasya caritam tatha/ / 
visnudharmadayo dharmah stvadbarmas ca bha ata// 
karsnam vedam pancamain tu yan mahabharatain snirtam// 
saura dharmas ca rajendra naradokta mabipate/ 
jayeti nama etesam pravadanti manisinah / / 

(The printed ed. wrongly reads ‘irautah' for ‘saurah’ in the fourth line. Cf. 
Bhav. I. 2 i 6. 36-37 quoted on p, 113 above). 

The above verses, as quoted in Laksmidhara’s Krtya-kalpataru (I, p. *5), 
Hemadri’s Caturvarga-cintamani (II, i, pp. 19-20), Candefvara’s Krtya-ratnakara 
(p. 30), Raghunandana’s Smrd-tattva (I, p. 71), Narasiinha Vajapeyin’s 
Nityacara-pradipa (I, p. 22), and Mitra Miira’s Viramitrodaya, Paribhasa- 
prakasa (p. 17), read the second line as 'visnudharmadi- fastrani sivadharmaf ca 
bharata’ and the fourth line as 'sauras ca dharma rajendra caanavokta mabipate,’ 



348 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


had die foFin and contents o£ a Puranic work; and secondly, the 
Visnudharnia, yisnudharmottara, Sivadharma and Sivadharmottara 
have; been regarded as minor Puranas by various authorities. 

The Sauradharnia has been drawn upon in Ananta-bhatta’s 
Vidbanarparijata ( 11 , p. 696), Gadadhara’s Kalasara (p. 129), Gopala- 
bhatta’s Haribhakti-vilasa (p. 773), Ganapati’s Gahga-bhakti-tarahginl 
(fols. 3Qb and 3ia-b), Raghunandada’s Smrti-tattva (I, p. 142, and II, 
pp. 41 and 48), ^rlnathacarya-cudamani’s Krtya-tattvarnava (Eols. 
77b-78a), Vacaspati-misra’s Krtya-cintamani (p. 2), Hemadri’s 
Caturvarga-cintamani ( 11 . i, p. 1000, II. ii, pp. 552-7, and III. ii, pp. 
JI4, 150, 179)1 Sulapani’s Vrata-kala-viveka (p. 18), and in the 
Samvatsara-pradlpa (fol. 39a). So, this work cannot be dated later 
than 1000 A.D. We shall see below that the Sauradharmottara, 
which must have been written later than the Sauradharma, preceded 
Jimutavahana by a few centuries. Hence the Sauradharma must have 
been written earlier than 800 A. D. 

We cannot push the above date farther up, because we are not 
sure that the Sauradharma, drawn upon by the Smrti-writers, was the 
sameasthe.'Saura Dharma’ mentioned in Bhav. I.4.89 and 1 . 216. 37. 
Some of the verses, ascribed to the Sauradharma in the Smrti 
Nibandhas, show that in this work, as known to the Smrti-writers, 
Vasischa spoke to king Mandhatr at least in some of its parts, but 
according to the Bhavisya-p. Narada (or Manava) spoke out the 
'Saura Dharmas’ or ‘the (religious) duties of the Sun-worshippers’.* 

As the Visnudharma and the Sivadharma, mentioned in the 
Bhavisya-p., belonged to the Vaisnavas and the Saivas respectively, 
there can be little doubt about the fact that the ‘Saura Dharma’, 
known to the Bhavisya, must have dealt principally, if not entirely, 
with the duties of the Sun-worshippers. From the evidence of the 
quoted verses also we understand that the Sauradharma, as known 
to the Smrti-writers, was a work of the Sauras and that at least in some 
parts of this work Suta reported what he had heard from Vyasa on the 
interlocution between Vasischa and Mandhatr. Most of these quoted 

Z For the relevant verses of the Bhavisya-p, see the immediately preceding 
foot-note and also p, 1 13 above. 



SOME LOST SAURA AND VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 349 


verses relate to fasting on the EkadasI Tithi, two to the religious 
duties in the month of Migha (magha-krtyani), and one to the 
eatables in the Kamya-vrata; and there is one long extract, quoted, 
in Caturvarga-cintamani, II. ii, pp. 552-7, which deals with the 
Surya-vrata to be performed every month from Margasirsa by placing 
a golden image of the Sun in a silver chariot. In the verses ascribed 
to the Sauradharma in the Vidhana-parijata and the Caturvarga- 
cintamani there is mention of the Tulasi plant, of which three leaves 
are to be eaten up by the persons observing the Kamya-vrata and the 
Surya-varta every month from Margasirsa. 

2. THE SAURADHARMOTTARA 

This work also, like the Sauradharma mentioned above, should be 
regarded as an Upapurana, although no writer has called it so. It has 
been drawn upon in Gopala-bhatta’s Haribhakti-vilasa (pp. 776, 808), 
Raghunandana’s Smrti-tattva (II, p. 50), Candesvara’s Tithi-nirnaya 
(fols. 12a, 13a, 13b), Hemadri’s Caturvarga-cintamani (III. ii, p. 249) 
and Jlmutavahana’s Kalaviveka (pp. 432-3, 443, 444, 447). So, 
it must have been written not later than 900 A. D. 

Tlie Sauradharmottara does not seem to have been rich in Smrti 
materials. Only a few verses have been quoted from it in the Smrti 
works, and all these verses relate to Ekadasl-upavasa. 

3. the SORYA-PURANA 

In his Tithi-nirnaya (fol. 2a) Candesvara quotes a verse 
(satnkrantyatn ravi-vare ca tatha cendu-pariksaye, etc.), which he 
ascribes to the ‘Surya-purana’; Weber describes a Ms of the ‘Krsna- 
pahcaml-sraddha-vidhi’ which claims to belong to the ‘Surya-purana’?; 
and in the Berlin Ms of the Bhavi^ottara there is a chapter on Putra- 
kama-krsna-pancaml-vrata which, in its colophon, names the ‘Surya- 
putana’ as its source.* As neither the said verse quoted by Can^vara 
nor the chapters on Krsna-pancaml-sraddha-vidhi and Putra-kama- 

3 See Weber, Berlin Cat. of 1853, N®- t**?* P- 3*5 (colophon. — iw 
surya-purane krsna-paheami-fraddha-vidhih samaptah). 

4 Ibid., No. 468, p. 135 (see the colophon of chap. 50). 



350 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


krsna-pancaml'Vrata occur in the present Samba-p. and as no other 
writer is found to refer to or draw upon the Samba-p. under the title 
‘Surya-p.’, there is little scope for doubt that the Surya-p. was a 
distinct work. Its title as well as its mention in the Bhavisya-p. as 
the source of the said chapter on Putra-kama-krsna-pancami-vrata 
shows that the Surya p. belonged to the Sauras and was an early work. 
But unfortunately none of its Mss has come down to us. 

According to D. R. Bhandarkar, a Surya-p. quite distinct from 
the Bhavisya-p. is known to the Brahmins, called Sevaks, living round 
about Jodhpur.® As no Ms of this work is known to have been 
discovered as yet, we are in complete darkness about its nature and 
contents. The fact that the Sevaks, who call themselves Sakadvipa 
Brihmanas, ‘know that their story is told in the Namagrantha of the 
Sutya-purana and also in the Bhavi^a-purana’, shows clearly that this 
Sutya-p. was a Saura work. It may be mentioned in this connection 
that in his Tithi-nirnaya Candesvara quotes a few verses by expressly 
naming the Bhavisya-p. as their source and that the verse of the 
‘Surya-p’. quoted in Candesvara’s Tithi-nirnaya occurs neither in the 
present Bhavisya-p. nor in the Bhavisyottara. 

(B) 

I. THE ADI-PURANA 

This work, which was also called Adya-purana, Sanatkumara, 
Sanatkumara, SanatkumirTya, Sanatkumarokta and Sanatkumara- 
prokta, was quite distinct from the present Adi-p. published from 
Calcutta (with a Bengali translation) by Navlna-k'rsna Laha in 1891 
and from Bombay by the Vchkatesvara Press in Saka 1829 
and preserved in Mss in all parts of India. It occupied a very 
exalted position among the Upapuranas and was a Vaisnava work 
composed between 500 and 700 A.D. and probably during the sixth 
century. 

For full information about this work sec under ‘Adi-p.’ in 
Chap. IV above. 

5 See p, 100 above. Also Ep. Ind., IX, p. 279. 



SOME LOST SAtJRA AND VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 351 
2 . THE ANGIRASA-UPAPURANA 

The title oE this work is found included in none of the lists of 
eighteen Upapuranas except that given in the Ekamra-p,,* nor does 
any comparatively early Smrti-writer, except Gopala-bhatta, draw upon 
or refer to it in his work. The only verse/ which Gopala-bhatta 
quotes from it in his Haribhakti-vilasa, p, 677, says that if, being 
afraid of rebirths, any one pronounces the name ‘Vasudeva’, 
he is sure to become free from these and attain the region of 
Visnu. 

The title of this work and the quoted verse mentioned above 
indicate that this Upapurana was narrated by the sage Ahgiras and 
that it dealt primarily with the praise of Visnu-Vasudeva. 

Gopala-bhatta ’s quotation from this Upapurana and the mention 
of its title in the Ekamra-p.* (which is drawn upon by Gadadhara 
in his Kalasara and mentioned in the Uttara-khanda of the Bengal 
Siva-p.*) show that it was written earlier than 1000A.D,, most 
probably in Western Bengal or Orissa. But as it is not mentioned in 
any other list of eighteen Upapuranas, and as none of the compara- 
tively early Nibandha.writers is found to draw upon or refer to this 
work, it must have been composed at a date not much earlier than 
^ooA.D. 

3 . THE BRHAD-VAMANA-PURANA 

A ‘Vamana’ Upapurana is mentioned in some of the lists of 
Upapuranas, but there is not a single list which mentions the Brhad- 
vamana-purana. None of the comparatively early authors is found to 
draw upon or refer to this work. It is only in the Laghu-bhagava- 
tamrta that six verses have been ascribed to the 'Brhad-vamana’. In 
the first of these quoted verses Krsna refers to his indescribable mental 


6 For this list sec Chap, I (p. 13) above. 

7 vasudeveti manuja uccarya bhava-bhititah/ 
tanmuktah padain apDod visnor eva na samsayah// 

8.9 The periods of composition of these works will be discussed fully in 
Vol. Ill of the present work. 



352 


studies in the UPAEURaNAS 


condition at the remembrance of his Rasa-llla*®, and in the remaining 
five, Brahma speaks to ‘Bhrgu and others’ on the glory of the Gopis 
of Vrndavana, for the dusts of whose feet Brahma practised austerities 
for sixty thousand years.* ^ From these quoted verses we understand 
that this Upapurana was a Vaisnava work and dealt primarily with the 
sports of the cowherd Krsna at Vrndavana. 

As the present Vamana-p. does not contain any of these quoted 
verses or deal with any topic connected with the cowherd Krsna, it 
cannot be the same as the Brhad-vamana. The Vamana-upapurana 
also, if there were any Upapurana of this title, must have been 
different from the Brhad-vamana. The latter, as evidenced by its 
non-mention in any comparatively early work, must have been written 
at a late date. 

4. THE BRHAD-yiSNUDHARMA 

This work has not been mentioned in any of the lists known to us, 
but about eight verses have been quoted from it in Jimutavahana’s 
Kalaviveka, p. q6o. As in his Kalaviveka Junutavahana has drawn 
upon the Visnudharmottara and the Visnudharmottaramrta also, the 
Brhad-visnudharma must be a separate work. It must have been based 

10 Laghubhagavatamrta, p. 173 (I, No. 531) — 
sri-brhad-vamane — 

sand yady api me prajya lilas tas ta manoharah / 
na hi jane smrte rase mano me kidrsam bhavet//, 

11 Laghubhagavatamrta, p, 182 (II, Nos. 31-32) — 
si’ibrhadvamane ca bhrgvadin prati sribrahma vakyam — 

sasd-varsa-sahastani maya tapcain tapah pura/ 
nanda-gopa-vraja-sttinam pada-renupalabdhaye/ / 
tathapi na maya praptas tasam vai pada-renavab// 
blirgvadi-vakyam — 

vaisnavanatn pada-rajo gdiyate tvad-vidhair api/ 
santi te' bahavo loke vaisnava naradadayah//, 
tesam vihaya gopinam pada-renus tvayapi yat/ 
grhyate samsayo me ’tra ko hetus tad vada prabho//, 
sribrahma- vakyam — 

na striyo vraja-sundaryah putra srestbah sriyo ’pi tah/, 
nahatn sivai ca sesas ca foii ca tabhih samah kvacit//. 



SOME LOST SAURA AND VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 353 

dn tke Visnudharmottara, because the verses, quoted from it in the 
tCalavivcka, agree with Visnudharmottara I. i6i. i-8 and have 
Markandeya and a king (Vajra?) as the interlocutors. 

Jimutavahana’s quotations from the Brhad~visnudharma show that 
it mttst have been written not later than ^ooA.D. As it was based on 
the Visnudharmottara, it cannot be dated earlier than 6 ooA,D, 

5. THE BRHAD-VISNU-PURaNA 

This work is mentioned as ‘Brhad-vaisnava’ in the list of Upapu- 
ranas given in the Ekamra-p.‘- and is drawn upon under the title 
‘Brhad-visnu'purana’ in the Caturvarga-cintamani (III. i, pp. 70^, Jit, 
726-7), Haribhakti-vil2sa (pp. 449, 495 • ^^ 5 )» (Gopala- 

bhatta’s) Satkriya-sara-dlpika (pp. 45. 46, 98, 108), (Sanatana 

Gosvamin’s commentaries) Brhat-tosini and Vaisnava-tosini’** (on 
Bhag. X. 21. 10), (Sanatana-Gosvamin’s) Laghubhagavatamrta 

(p. 147— I, No. 397, and pp. 163.4— I, No. 471), and (Ratnakara 
Misra’s) Prayakitta-sara-samgraha*^. In the Laghubhagavatamrta this 
Upapurana is also named as ‘Brhad-vaisnava’. 

Hemadri’s knowledge of the Brhad-visnu-p. shows that this work 
must have been written not later than 1000 A.D. We do Jioc know 
whether this Brhad-visnu-p. was the same as the spurious ‘Vaisnava 
Purana’ known to Vallalasena.*^ This ‘Vaisnava Purana’ contained 
23000 verses and was, therefore, an extensive (brhat) work. 

The Brhad-visnu-p. was undoubtedly a Vaisnava work dealing with 

12 For this list see Chap. 1 (p, 13) above. 

12a. Ascribed to Jiva Gosvaoiin in Nityasvarupa Brahmacarin's edition 
of the Bhagavarata-p. 

13 Shastti, ASB Cat., Ill, p. 579, No. 2530 (Ms No. 8520). The Ms is 
dated 1661 Saka. 

14 Danasagara, p. 7 (verses 63-66) — 

tarksyain puranam aparain brahmam agneyam eva ca/^ 
trayovimsati-sahasram puranam api vaisnavam/ / 
sat-sahasra-mitam lihgam puranam aparam tatha/, 
diksa-pratistha-pasandayukti-ratnapariksanaih// 
mrsa-vainsanucaritaih kosa-vyakaranadibhih/ 
asahgata-kathabandha-paraspara-virodhatah / / 
tan-minaketanad inam bhanda-pasanda-lihginam/ 
loka-vancanam alokya sarvam evavadhiritam/ /, 


45 



354 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


the praise and worship oE Visnu. In his Haribhakti-vilisa Ciopala- 
bhatta quotes from this work seven verses which say that the water, 
which is placed before the eyes of Kesava and is mixed with TulasI 
leaves, or with which the Salagrama stone has been bathed, is extreme- 
ly sanctifying,^® that no twice-born man should hesitate to partake of 
the food and drink offered to Visnu, because such food and drink are 
never affected by anybody’s touch,** that the mention of Visnu’s 
name is highly sanctifying and beneficial and is able to destroy much 
more sin than a sinner can commit,*^ and that the muttering of the 
word ‘vasudeva’ can give one final emancipation.- In the Laghubhaga- 
vatamrta Visnu is called ‘nityavatara’, ‘nitya-murti’, ‘nitya-rupa’, 
‘nityaisvarya-sukhanubhu’ etc. and Krsna’s exploits at Vraja are said 

15 Haribhakti-vilasa, p. 449 — 
briiad-visnu-purane— 

‘tiitbadhikam yajna-satac ca pavanam 

jalam sada kesava-drsu-samsthitam/ 
chinatti papain tulasi-vimisritam 

visesatas cakra-sila-vinirmitam//’ 

16 Haribhakti-vilasa, p. 495 — 
brhad-visnu-purane — 

•naivedyaip jagadisasya anna-panadikam ca yat'/ 
bhaksyabliaksya-vicaras ca nasti tad-bhaksane dvijah//, 
brahmavan nitvikaram hi yatha visnus tathaiva tat/ 
vikaram ye prakurvanti bhaksane tad dvijatayah// 
kustha-vyadhi-sainayuktah pntra-d ara-vivar jitah / 
nirayam yanti te vipra yasman navartate punah//, 

17 Haribhakti-vilasa, p. 66 r — 

sarva-rogopasamanam sarvopadrava-nas'anam / 
santidatn sarva-ristanam hater namanukiitanatn/ /, 

Ibid., p. 658 — 

natnno ’sya yavati saktih papa-nirharane hareh/, 
tavat kartuin na saknoti patakam pataki janah// 

With this second verse the following Bengali saying may be compared: — 

JR I 

ft) msir rlrT 417 7.^ II 

18 Haribhakti-vilasa, p, 685— kva japo vasudeveti mukti-bijam 

anuttamam. 



SOME LOST SAURA AND VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 355 


to have been described elaborately in the Brhad-visnu-purana/* 
According to the verse*® quoted from the ‘Brhad-visnu-purana’ in 
Sanatana Gosvatnin’s commentaries Brhat-tosinI and Vaisnava-tojinl 
(on Bhag. X. 21. 10), Nanda’s wife had two names, Yasoda and Devaki, 
and it was for this reason that she had friendship with Devaki, wife 
of Sauri (Vasudeva). That the Brhad-visnu-p. dealt also with penance, 
funeral ceremony etc., is evidenced by its verses quoted in the Praya- 
Icitta-sara-samgraha and the Caturvarga-cintamani. Of these two works 
the latter has 30 metrical lines on gifts of umbrellas, chowries, mirrors, 
combs, young cows with calves, female buffaloes, bulls, camels, goats, 
sheep etc. to the departed forefathers, the recipients of all these gifts 
being the Brahmins.*‘- In the Satkriya-sara-dipika (pp. 45, 46, 98, 
108) five verses have been ascribed to the ‘Brhad*visnu-purana’. In 
one of these verses the Satvatas have been advised neither to worship 
the Pitrs and the gods other than Visnu nor to do any other kamya 
kaman-,^- one verse prescribes the worship of the gods and Pitrs to 
those persons who are not Satvatas ; in one verse the sanctifying power 
of the Candrayana-vrata and the Dvadasa-varsika-vrata has been put 
forth; and in the remaining two, Visnu has been described as the 
cause of all kinds of bliss. It is to be noted that in the verse ascribed 
to the ‘Brhad-visnu-p.’ in Satkriyi-sara-dipika, p. 46, the word 
‘rajendra’ has been used in the Vocative Case and that in explaining 
this verse Gopala-bhatta takes this word to mean ‘Yudhisthira’. So, 
in the Brhad-visnu-p, somebody spoke to Yudhis^hira on the topics 
mentioned above. 

In his Notices of Sanskrit Mss, II, pp. 68-69 (No. 635) R. L. 
Mitra describes a Ms of the Karma-vipaka which, in its colophon, 

19 Laghubhagavatanarta, p.i47 (h 397)* PP* * 63-164 (I, No. 47‘* 
sribrhad vaisnave— -vraje dvaravatisthasya pradurbhavo mura-dvisah/, brhadvisnu- 

puranadav asakrd bahudhocyate//). 

20 dve namni nanda-bharyaya yafoda devakity api/, 
atah sakhyam abhut tasya devakya ^auri-bharyaya// 

21 Caturvarga-cintamani, III. i, pp. 7°4« 7**> 7^^"7* 

22 Satkriya-sara-dipika, p. 45 — 

na darbha-dharanam kuryat na ca samkalpam acaret/ 
na kamyam satvato margatn iambhu-devadi-pujanam / i 



356 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


claims to be an extract from the Ehtgu-samhita belonging to the Brhad- 
visnu-p. The date of this Ms is 1687 Saka (= 1765 A. D.), and in 
it Bhrgu speaks to Bharata, son of ^akuntala, on the diseases and other 
evils resulting in this life from sins committed in a previous one, as 
well as on the expatiations meet for their removal. 

6. THE BRHANNARASIMHA-PURANA 

We have said above*® that the Ekamra-p. clearly distinguishes 
between the ‘Narasimha’ and the ‘Brhannarasiinha’ by including the 
former among the principal Puranas and the latter among the Upa- 
puranas. In his Haribhakti-vilasa Gopalabhatta is found to ascribe 
about a century of verses to the Narasimha-p. and 63 verses (on Nara- 
simha-caturdasI'Vrata) to the Brhannarasimha-p. So, according to 
Gopala-bhatta also, the Brhannarasimha-p. was distinct from the 
Narasimha-p. But as the 63 verses, quoted by Gopalabhatta from the 
‘Brhannarasinaha-p.’, have been ascribed to the ‘Narasimha-p.’ in 
Hemadri’s Caturvarga-cintamani, II. ii, pp. 41-49, it is probable that 
cither Hemadri took these two Purank works to be identical, or the 
extract on the Narasimha-caturdasl-vrata occurred in both these works. 
It should be mentioned here that none of the 63 verses, mentioned 
above, is found in the present text of the Narasimha-p. 

As the Brhannarasimha-p. is mentioned in the Ek3mra-p., it must 
be dated earlier than the eleventh century A.D. 

7. THE DAURVASASA-UPAPURANA {alias ASCARYA-UPAPURANA?) 

This work is mentioned in all the lists of Upapuranas except those 
contained in the Ekamra-p. and the Brhaddharma-p.*4 In some of 
these lists it is named as ‘Durvasasokta’; the Saura-samhita of the 
Skanda-p. calls it ‘Durvasah-samprokta’; and Narasimha Vajapeyin 
names it as ‘Durvisah-purana’. In the lists of Upapuranas contained 
in the Kurma-p., Garuda-p., and Skanda-p. VII (Prabhasa-khanda) as 
well as in those lists which are ascribed to the Kurma-p. in the 
Malamisa-tattva, Vlramitrodaya, Caturvarga-cintamani and Sabda- 
kalpadruma, this Upapurana is described as ‘durvasasoktam ascaryam.’ 

23 See Chap. Ill (under Narasimha-p.) above. 

24 For these lists see Chap. I above. 



SOME LOST SAURA AND VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 357 

We are not sure whether the word ‘ascarya’ is the title of the Upapur- 
ana ‘narrated by Durvasas’, or it is merely an adjective denoting the 
nature of this Upapurana. Radharainana Gosvami-bhattacarya, in his 
commentary on the Malamasa-tattva, takes the word ‘ascarya’ to be 
the title of the Upapurana ‘narrated by Durvasas’.®- 

According to the Reva-khanda (of the Skanda-p.) and the Reva- 
mahatmya the ‘Daurvasasa’ Upapurana belonged to the ‘Bhagavata’ 
Purina.*® So, this Upapurana must have been a work of the Vaisnavas. 

The mention of this Upapurana in all the comparatively early lists 
of Upapuranas shows that it must have been written before 800 A.D. 
and that it attained great popularity at an early date. As no Ms of 
this Upapurana or of any tract on Vrata, Mahatmya etc. claiming to 
belong to it, has been discovered as yet, and as none of the commen* 
tators and Nihandha-writers is found to draw upon or refer to this 
work, it is not possible to say anything about its contents. It seems 
that this work became extinct even before the tenth century A. D. 

8. THE KAUSIKA- (OR KAUSIKI-) PURANA 

This work has been mentioned in Bhavananda’s Hari*vamsa*', a 
popular work composed in Bengali verses in the district of Sylhet or 
Tipperah some time between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
A.D, According to Bhavananda, the Kausika-p. (also called Kausikl-p. 
in some of the Mss of the Hari-varnsa)*® contained the following 
story.*® 

When descending to the earth with the purpose of relieving her of 
her burden, god Narayana asked Garuda which form he would assume 
to accompany him to the land of mortals. Garuda was not willing 
to change his form during such a dangerous period. So, he assured 

25 Malamasa-tattva (ed. Candicarana Smrtibbusana), p. 213 — ^caryam 
ascaryakhyam, 

26 daurvasasain pancamain ca smrtam bhagavate sada. — ^Skanda-p. V. iii 
(Reva-kh,). i. 49b, and Reva-mahatmya (as described by Aufrecht in his Bod. 
Cat., p. 65). 

27 See Hari-vatnsa, p. 186 (line 7966) and p. 187 (line 799*). 

28 Ibid., p. 187, foot-note 15. 

29 Ibid,, pp. 184-187 (lines 7901-7992). 



358 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Narayana that he would present himself to serve as a mount as soon 
as Narayana would remember him in times of his need. But Narayana 
did not like to remain separated from Garuda for a long time. He 
said to Garuda : 

“Hear, Oh eater of snakes, hear now the wish of my heart. When 
1 shall be passing some time at Gokula as a child, a part of yours will 
remain with me. You will be born as a cuckoo, [and] I shall 
constantly hear [your] high, sweet note. When, after my killing of 
Katnsa by going to Mathura, king Jarasandha will challenge me to 
war, I shall remember you on that very day. As you do not agree 
to accompany me by forsaking this body [of yours] , the cuckoo will 
give up its life without finding me, and all its energy and strength 
will pass into you’’. 

Now, Nariiyana was born on earth as Krsna, and a part of Garuda 
became a cuckoo. In course of time, when Krsna was away in 
Mathura and Radha was pining for him, the cuckoo, being unable to 
bear his separation, searched for him in all possible places and at last 
went to Radha’s house with the hope of finding him there. But dire 
disappointment was in store for the cuckoo. It gave up its life as a 
result of the rude shock, and its soul passed to Vaikuntha and enterd 
the body of Garuda. 

From the mention of Radha in the above story as given by 
Bhavananda it appears that the Kausika- (or KausikI-) purana, known 
to him, was a Vaisnava work written at a comparatively late period. 
The total absence of any mention of this Purana in any work other 
than Bhavananda’s Hari-vamsa shows that it was a work of local 
origin and highly limited recognition. 

9. the LAGHU-BHAGAVATA-PURANA 

It is only the Ekamra-p. which includes the name of this work 
in its list of Upapuranas. In his Haribhakti-vilasa (pp. 657, 660, 
667, 685) Gopala-bhatta quotes from this work six verses on the 
praise of pronouncing the name of Govinda (or Hari). So, this work 
must have been written in Western Bengal or Orissa not later than 
1 000 A.D. but most probably not before 800 A.D. Its title as well 
as the quoted verses shows that it was a work of the Vaisnavas. In 



SOME LOST SAURA ANt) VAISNAVA UPAPURANAS 359 

the verse from it in Haribhakti-vilasa, p. 685 the word ‘nrpa’ has 
been used in the Vocative Case. So, in this Upapurana somebody, 
whose name is unknown to us, spoke to a king (whose name also we 
do not know) on the benefits of pronouncing the name of Hari. 

10, THE MAGHA-PURANA 

A Puranic work of this name has been mentioned in the colophon 
of a Ms of the Bala-gopala-stuti ascribed to ‘Srl-paramahamsa- 
parivrajaka-srlpada-Bilvamahgala’.®- The words ‘iti magha-purane 
bhagavad-vakyam’, used in this colophon, tend to indicate that the 
Magha-p. had the Bhagavat (Visnu or Krsna) as one of its speakers. 
As we have not yet met with any second mention of this Purana 
anywhere, we are in complete darkness about its nature and contents 
and do not know whether it was the same as the “Magha-smrti” 
mentioned by Jiva Gosvamin in his commentary on the Bhagavata-p. 
It is, however, sure that this Magha-p. is not the same as the Magha- 
mahatmya belonging to the Padma-p., Uttara-khanda. 

,11. THE PRABHASA-PURANA 

This Upapurana is mentioned as ‘Prabhasaka’ in the list of 
Upapuranas contained in the Ekamra-p, ; and from this work Sanatana 
Gosvamin quotes one metrical line on the praise of the name of Krsna 
in his commentary Vaisnava-tosinI,** and Gopala-bham has a complete 
verse on the same topic in his Haribhakti-vilasa.-* So, this Prabhasa'p. 
must have been written earlier than 1000 A.D. Its non-mention in 
the other lists shows that it was a comparatively late work. 

From the title of this Upapurana as well as from Sanatana Gosvamin 

30 For information about this Ms see O. C. Ganguly in Maiaviya 
Commemoration ydumc, 1932, pp. 285-9. 

31 Sec yaisnava-tosini on Bhag. X. 8, 13 — 

uktam ca prabhasa-purane — 

madhura-madhuram etan mahgalatn mahgalanam/ / 

32 Haribhakti-vilasa, p. 689 — 

prabhasa-purane narada-kusadhvaja-samvade sribhagavad-uktau— 
namnam mukhyataram nama krsnakhyam me paramtapa/ 
prayascittam asesanam papanani mocakam param/ /, 



360 


STUDIES IN THE UEAPURANAS 


and Gopala-bhatta’s quotations from this work we understand that it 
was a Vaisnava work dealing with the praise of Krsna and Prabhasa- 
ksetra, and that in it Narada narrated to (king) Kusadhvaja what he 
had heard from Krsna. Beyond this we have got no further informa- 
tion about this Upapurana. 

The Prabhasa-p. must not be taken to be the same as the Prabhasa- 
khanda of the Skanda-p. In the latter work, the lines, ascribed by 
Sanatana Gosvamin and Gopala-bhatta to the ‘Prabhasa-purana’, are not 
found, nor is there any interlocution between Narada and Kusadhvaja. 

12. THE VISNUDHARMOTTARaMRTA 

The name of this work is not mentioned in any of the lists of 
Upapuranas known to us, nor is it referred to or drawn upon in any 
work except Jimutavahana’s Kalaviveka, which has two verses®- from 
it on p. 464. The absence of these two quoted verses in the Visnu- 
dharmottara, shows that the Visnudharmottaramrta was a separate 
work; but its title indicates that it was based on the Visnudharmottara, 

The Visnudharmottaramrta must have been written later than the 
Visnudharmottara but a few centuries earlier than Jimutavahana. 

. Hence it is to be dated between 600 and poo A, D. 

13. THE VRDDHA-PADMA-PURANA 

This work has been mentioned as ‘Vrddha-padma’ in Sri-ananta- 
carya s Prapannamrta.®- According to SrI-anantacarya, this ‘Vrddha- 
padma’ contained stories about Ramanuja and the Alwar saints of 
Southern Indian, So, it seems to have been a late work. It is neither 
mentioned in any of the lists of Upapuranas nor referred to or drawn 
upon by any of the Smrti-writers, early or late. 


33 These two verses are the following; 

dvadasi sravana-yukta sprsed chadaiim yadi/ 
sa eva vaisnavo yogo visnu-srhkhala-samjnitah// 
tasminn uposya vidhivan narah samkirna-kalmasah/ 
prapnoty anuttamam rddhiin punat-avrtti-durlabham// 

34 Prapannamrta (Venkaf. ed.), chap. 73, verses 24.29, and chap. 75, 
verses 5-6. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY/ 


I. PRINTED TEXTS OF THE VEDIC, SANSKRIT AND 
BENGALI LITERATURES 

Acara-bhusana o£ Tryambaka Oka.-^Edited and published by Hari 
Narayana Aptc. Anandasrama Sanskrit Series, No. 57. Poona, 
1908. 

Acaradarsa {alias Krtyacara) of Sridacta Upadhyaya. — Benares edition 
published by the Surya-Prabhakara Press. Satnvat 1939. 

Acara-mayukha of Nllakantha-bhatta. — Published by the Gujarati 
Printing Press, Bombay, 1915. 

Adbhuta-sagara of Vallalasena. — Edited by Muralldhara Jha and 
published by Prabhakari & Co., Benares, 1905. 

Adi-purana. — Published by Ksemaraja Srlkrsnadasa, Vehkatesvara 
Press. Bombay, Saka 1829. 

Agni-purana. — Edited, with a Bengali translation, by Pancanana Tarka- 
ratna and published by the VahgavasI Press, Calcutta, 1314 B.S. 

Apastamba-dharmasutra (with Haradatta Misra’s commentary Ujjvala). 
— Edited by A. Chinnaswami Sastri and A. Ramanatha Sastri. 
Kashi Sanskrit Series, No. 93. Benares, 1932. 

Bhagavata-purana (with Sridhara Svimin's commentary). — Edited by 
Pancanana Tarkaratna and published by the Vahgavaa Press, 
Calcutta. Fifth edition, i 334 B.S. 

Bhagavata-purana (with the commentaries Krama-samdarbha and 
Sarartha-darsini of Jiva Gosvamin and Visvanatha Cakravartin 
respectively). — Edited by Rama-narayana Vidyaratna and printed 
at the Radharaman Press, Berhampore, Murshidabad (Bengal). 

Bhagavata-purana (with several commentaries including Sanatana 
Gosvamin’s Brhat-tosinland Vaisnava-tosinlon Skandha X, the latter 
com. being ascribed to Jiva Gosvamin in this edition). — Edited 
by Nitya-svarupa Brahmacarl. Brindavan, Satnvat 1963. 


I Minor works, and those editions and manuscripts of the Putinas, 
Upapurlnas etc. which have been referred to only occasionally, are not men- 
tioned in thu Bibliography. 

46 



^61 STUDIES Ilsr THE UPAPURANAS 

Bhavisya-purana. — Published by Ksemaraja Srikrsnadasa. Venkatesvara 
Press, Bombay, iSgy. 

Bhavisyottara. — Published as the ‘Uttara-parvan’ of the Vehkat. ed. of 
the Bhavisya-purana. 

Brahmana-sarvasva of Halayudha. — Edited by Tejascandra Vidyananda. 

Third edition. Calcutta, 1331 B.S. 

Brahma-purana. — Edited, with' a Bengali translation, by Paheanana 
Tarkaratna and published by the Vangavasi Press, Calcutta, 
1316 B.S. 

Brahmavaivarta-purana. — Edited by Jivananda Vidyasagara. Calcutta, 
1888. 

Brhaddharma-purana. — Edited, with a Bengali translation, by Panca- 
nana Tarkaratna and published by the Vangavasi Press, Calcutta. 
Second edition, 1314 B.S. 

Brhannaradlya-purana. — Edited by Pancanana Tarkaratna and published 
hy the Vangavasi Press, Calcutta. Second edition, 1316 B.S. 
Brhat-samhita of Varahamihira. — Edited by Kern. Bibliotheca Indica. 
Calcutta, 1865. 

Caitanya-caritamrta of Krsnadasa Kavirija. — Edited by Nityasvarupa 
Brahmacari. Calcutta, 1330 B.S. 

Caturvarga-cintamani of Hemadri. — 

Vol. I (Dana-khanda). — Edited by Pandit Bharatacandra Siro- 
mani. Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, iSyj. 

Vol. II (Vrata-khanda), Part i. — Edited by Pandit Bharatacandra 
Siromani. Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1878. 

Vol. II (Vrata-khanda), Part ii. — Edited by Pandit Yajnesvara 
Bhanacarya and Pandit Kamakhyanatha Tarkaratna. 
Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1879. 

Vol. Ill (Parisesa-khanda), Part i. — Edited by Pandit Yajnesvara 
Smrtiratna and Pandit Kamakhyanatha Tarkaratna. 
Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1887. 

Vol. Ill (Parisesa-khanda), Part 11.— Edited by Pandit Yajnesvara 
Smrtiratna and Pandit Kamakhyanatha Tarkavagisa. 
Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1895. 

Vol. IV (Prayalcitta-khanda). — Edited by Pandit Pramathanatha 
Tarkabhusana. Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1911. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 


363 


Dana-kaumudl of Govindananda Kavikankanacarya. — Edited by 
Kamalakrsna Smrtibhusana. Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1903. 

Danasagara of Vallalasena. — Edited by Bhabatosh Bhattacharya. 
Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1956. 

Devl-bhagavata-purana. — Edited by Ramateja Pandcya and published 
by Vrajabhusana Dasa Gupta, Samskrta Pustakalaya, Benares. 
Satnvat 198,:^. 

Devl-purana. — Edited, with a Bengali translation, by Pancanana 
Tarkaratna and published by the Vahgavasi Press, Calcutta. 
Second edition, 1334 B.S. 

Dharmasastra-saingraha (containing 26 Smrti works). — Edited and 
published by Jivananda Vidyasagara. Calcutta, 1876, 

Dipa-kalika (a commentary on the Yajhavalkya-smrti) by ^ulapani.— 
Edited by J. R. Gharpure. First edition. Bombay, 1939. 

Durga-puja-tattva of Raghunandana. — Edited by Satlsa Candra Sid- 
dhantabhusana and published by the Sanskrit Sahitya Parisad, 
Calcutta. 

Durgotsava-viveka of Sulapani.— Edited by Satlsa Candra Siddhanta- 
bhusana and published by the Sanskrit Sahitya Parisad, Calcutta. 

Ganesa-purana.— Published by Gopal Narayan & Co., Bombay, 1892. 

Ganga-vakyavall of Vidyapati Upadhyaya.— Edited by Jatindra Bimal 
Chaudhuri and published as Vol. Ill of his “Contribution of 
Women to Sanskrit Literature” (Calcutta, 

Garuda-purana. — Published by Ksemaraja Srikrsnadasa. Vehkatesvara 
Press, Bombay. Satnvat 1963. 

Gautama-dharmasutra (with Haradatta’s commentary Mitaksara).— 
Published by Hari Narayana Apte. Anandasrama Sanskrit Series. 
Poona, 1910. 

Gautama-dharmasutra (with Maskari-bhasya). — Edited by L. Srinivasa- 
charya and published by the Government of Mysore. Mysore, igij. 

Grhastha-ratnakara of Candesvara Thakkura. — Edited by Mahamaho- 
padhyaya Kamalakrsm Smttitirtha. Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 
1928. 

Haralata of Aniruddha-bhatta. — Edited by Kamalakrsna Smrtidrtha. 
Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1909. 

Haribhakti'vilasa of Gopala-bhara. — Edited by Syamacarana Kaviratna 



364 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


and published by Gutudas Chattcrjee & Sons, Calcutta, 1318 B.S. 

Harlta-samhita.— Onavimsaci Samhita ( pp. edited by 

Pancanana Tarkaratna and published by the VangavasI Press, 
Calcutta. Second edition, 1316 B.S. 

Hari-vamsa of Bbavananda. — Edited by Satish Chandra Ray and pub- 
lished by the Dacca University. Dacca, 1339 B.S. (This work is 
written in Bengali verses). 

Jayakhya-samhita (with a foreword by B. Bhattacharya). — Edited by 
Embar Krishnamacharya. Gaekwad’s Oriental Series, Vol. LIV. 
Baroda, 1931. 

Kadambarl of Banabhatta. — Edited by KasTnatha Pandurahga Parab 
and published by the Nirnaya Sagara Press, Bombay. Seventh 
edition, 1932. 

Kala-nirnaya (also called Kala-madhava and Kala-madhavlya) of Madha- 
vacarya. — Edited by Candrakanta Tarkalamkara and published 
by the Asiatic Society, Calcutta. Saka 1809. 

Kalasara of Gadadhara. — Vol. I edited by Sadasiva Misra. Bibliotheca 
Indica. Calcutta, 190^. 

Kalaviveka of Jimutavahana. — Edited by Parmathanatha Tarkabhusana 
and published by the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, 1905. 

Kalika-purana. — Published by Ksemaraja Srlkrsnadasa. Venkatesvara 
Press, Bombay. Saka 1829. 

Kalki-purana. — Edited and published by Jivananda Vidyasagara. 
Calcutta, 1890. 

Katha-sarit-sagara of Somadeva. — Edited by Pandit Durga-prasad and 
Kasinath Pandurang Parab and published by the Nirnaya Sagara 
Press, Bombay. Third edition, 1915. 

Katha-upanisad. — ‘Astaviinsaty-upanisadah’ (pp. 7-19) edited by 
Vasudeva Laksmana Sastrl Panasikara and published by Tukrram 
Jawaji, Nirnaya Sagara Press, Bombay. Fifth edition, 1918. 

Kavikahkana-candl of Mukundarama Cakravartl. — Edited by Dinesh 
Chandra Sen, Charu Chandra Bandyopadhyay and Hrishikesh Basu 
and published in two parts by the University of Calcutta. Calcutta, 
192^. (This work is written in Bengali verses). 

Kavindra-vacana-samuccaya. — Edited by F. W. Thomas. Bibliotheca 
Indica. Calcutta, 1912. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 


365 


Kiratarjunlya of Bharavi. — Edited by Vasudeva Lakstnana Sastri 
Panaslkara and published by the Nirnaya Sagara Press, Bombay. 
Twelfth edition, 1933. 

Krama-samdarbha (a commentary on the Bhagavata-p. by Jiva Gosva- 
min). — See under “Bhagavata-p.” above. 

Kriyayogasara. — Published in the Vehkatcsvara Press edition of the 
Padma-purana. Bombay, Saka 1817. 

Krtya-cintamani of Vacaspati-misra. — Edited by Radhanatha Nyaya- 
pahcanana Bhattacarya and Ramanatha Kniratna Bha^carya, and 
published by Kasicandra Bhattacarya, Benares. First edition, 
Saka 181^. 

Krtya-kalpataru of Laksmidhara. — Vol. I (Brahmacari-kanda), Vol. II 
(Grhastha-kanda), Vol. Ill (Niyata-kala-kanda), Vol. IV (Sraddha- 
kanda), Vol. V (Dana-kanda), Vol. VI (Vrata-kanda), Vol. VIII 
(Tirtha-kanda), Vol. X (Suddhi-kanda), Vol. XI (Rajadharma-kanda), 
Vol. XII (Vyavahara-kanda), and Vol. XIV (Moksa-kanda.) — Edited 
by K. V. Rangasawami Aiyangar, Gackwad’s Oriental Scries. 
Baroda, 

Krtya-ratnakara of Candesvara Tbakkura. — Edited by Pandit Kamala- 
krsna Smrtitirtha. Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1923. 

Kurma-purana. — Edited, with a Bengali translation, by Pancinana 
Tarkaratna and published by the VahgavasT Press, Calcutta. Second 
edition, 1332 B. S. 

Kuttanimata of Damodaragupta. — Kavya-mala, Part III (pp. 32-1 10) 
edited by Pandit Durga-prasad and Kasinath Pandurang Parab and 
published by the Nirnaya Sagara Press, Bombay. Second edition, 
1899. 

Laghu-bhagavatamrta of Sanatana Gosvamin. — Edited by Balai Chand 
Goswami and Atul Krishna Goswami and printed in Bengali 
characters with Baladcva Vidyabhusana’s commentary and a Bengali 
translation. Calcutta, 1304 B. S. 

Lioga.purana. — Edited by Jlvananda Vidyasagara. Calcutta, 1885. 

Madana-parijata of Madanapala. — Edited by Madhusudana Smrtiratna. 
Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1893. 

Mahabhagavata-purana. — Published by Manilal Itcharam Desai. 
Gujarati Printing Press. Bombay, 1913. 



366 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Mahibharaca (with Nilakantha’s commentary). — Edited by Pancanana 
Tarkaratna and published in two parts by the VangavasI press, 
Calcutta. 1826-1830 Sakabda* 

Malamasa-tattva of Raghunandana.— ^See under “Smrti-tattva” below. 

Malamasa-tattva of Raghunandana (with Kasirama Vacaspati’s 
commentary). — Edited, with a Bengali translation, by Hrishikesh 
Shastri and published by the VangavasI Press, Calcutta, 1319 B.S. 

Malamasa-tattva of Raghunandana (with the commentaries of Kasirama 
Vacaspati and Radha-mohana Gosvami-bhattacarya). — Edited by 
Candicarana Smrtibhusana, Calcutta. Second edition, 1306 B.S. 

Manu-smrti (with Kullukabhatta’s commentary). — Edited by Pandit 
Gopala Sastri Nene. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series. Benares, 1935. 

Manu-smni (with Medhatithi-bhasya), — Edited by Mahamahopadhyaya 
Ganganath Jha and published in two volumes by the Asiatic 
Society, Calcutta, Vol. I having appeared in *932, and Vol. II in 
1939. 

Markandeya-purana. — Edited, with a Bengali translation, by Pancanana 
Tarkaratna and published by the VangavasI Press, Calcutta. 
Fourth edition, 1316 B.S. 

Matsya-purana. — Edited, with a Bengali translation, by Pancanana 
Tarkaratna and published by the VangavasI Press, Calcutta, 1316 
B.S. 

Mitaksira of Vijnanesvara. — Sec under “Yajnavalkya-smrti” below. 

Mundaka-upanisad. — ‘Astavitnsaty-upanisadah’ (pp. 28-35), edited by 
Vasudeva Laksmana Sastrl Panasikara and published by Tukarain 
Jawaji, Nirnaya Sagara Press, Bombay. Fifth edition, 1918. 

Nama-linganusasana of Amarasiinha (with the commentary Tlka- 
sarvasva of Vandyaghaoya Sarvananda). — Edited by T. Ganapati 
Sastrl and published in four parts under the authority of the 
Government of his Highness the Maharajah of Travancore. 
Trivandrum, 1914-17. 

Narada-smrti. — Edited by Julius Jolly and published by the Asiatic 
Society, Calcutta, 1885. 

Naradlya-purana. — Published by Ksemaraja Srlkrsnadasa, Venkatesvara 
Press, Bombay. Saka 1845. 



biBLiOGRAPHY _ %1 

Narasimha-purana. — Edited by Uddhavacarya and published by Gopal 
Narayan & Co., Bombay. Second edition, ign, 

Natya-sastra of Bharata. — Edited by Batuk Nath Sharma and Baladeva 
Upadhyaya. Kashi Sanskrit Series (Haridas Sanskrit Granthamala), 
No. 6o. Benares, 1929. 

Niti-sataka of Bhartrhari. — Forming Book I of Bhartrhari’s Subhasita- 
trisati published (with Ramacandra Budhendra’s commentary) by 
the Nirnaya Sagara Press, Bombay. Sixth edition, 1922. 

Nityacara-paddhati of Vidyakara Vajapeyin. — Vol. I, edited by 
Vinoda Viharl Bhattacarya. Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1903. 

Nityacara-pradlpa of Narasimha Vajapeyin. — 

Vol. I, edited by 

Pandit Vinoda Viharl Bhattacarya, Bibliotheca Indica, Calcutta, 1907. 

Vol. II, edited by Pandit Vinoda Vihari Bhattacarya and Maha- 
mahopadhyaya Sadasiva Misra, Bibliotheca Indica, Calcutta, 1928, 

Padma-purana. — ■Published by Hari Narayana Aptc. Anandasrama 
Sanskrit Series. Poona, 1893. 

It is printed in 4 volumes, Vol. I consisting of the Adi- and 
the Bhumi-khanda, Vol. II of the Brahma- and the Patala-khanda, 
Vol. Ill of the Srsti-khanda, and Vol. IV of the Uttara-khanda. 

Parasara-smrti (also called Parasara Dharma-satnhita) with the commen- 
tary of Madhavacarya. — Edited by Vamana Sastrl Islampurkar. 
Bombay Sanskrit Scries. Bombay, 1893-1911. 

Prapannamrta of Srl-anantacarya.— Published by the Vchkatesvara 
Press, Bombay. 

Prasthana-bheda of Madhusudana Sarasvatl. — Published by the Vani 
Vilas Press, Srirangam, 1912. 

Raghu-vamsa of Kalidasa.— Edited by Rajendra-natha Vidyaybhusana 
and published by Satlsa Candra Mukhopadhyaya. Vasumatl- 
sahitya-mandira, Calcutta. 

Raja-tarahgini of Kalhana. — Edited by M. A. Troyer. Paris, 

MDCCCXL. 

Ramayana of Valmiki. — Edited (with the commentary Ramayana-tilaka) 
by Pancanana Tarkaratna and published by the Vahgavasi Press, 
Calcutta. 

Reva-khanda.— Forming Part iii of Skanda-purana V (Avantya-khanda). 



568 StUDlES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

Rg-veda (with Sayanacarya’s Bhasya). — Edited by Mahamahopadliyaya 
Rajarama Sastri Bodas and Sivarama Sastri Gore and published by 
Tookaram Tatya. Bombay, Saka i8io, 

5 abda-kalpadruma. — A Sanskrit Lexicon compiled by Sir Raja Radha- 
kanta Deva Bahadur and published by Kall-prasanna Sarma. 
Calcutta, 1867. 

Sadukti-karnamrta of Sridharadasa. — Edited by the late Mahamaho- 
padhyaya Pandit Ramavatara Sarma and published by Matilal 
Banarsi Dass. Lahore, 1933. 

Samba-purana. — Published by Ksemaraja SrTkrsnadasa, Vehkatesvara 
Press, Bombay, Saka 1821. 

Sarhgadhara-paddhati of Sarngadhara. — Vol. I (Text) — edited by Peter 
Peterson. Bombay Sanskrit Series No. XXXVII. Bombay, 1888. 

Satapatha-brahmana. — Edited by A. Weber. Berlin, 1855. 

Satkriya-sara-dipika of Gopalabhatta. — Edited by Bhakti-siddbanta- 
sarasvatl and published by the Calcutta Gaudiya Math. Third 
edition. Gaurabda 449. 

Saura-purana. — Edited and published by Vinayaka Ganesa Apte, 
Anandasrama Sanskrit Scries, Poona. Second edition, 1924. 

Siva-mahatmya-khanda. — See under “Suta-samhita” below. 

Siva-purana. — Edited, with a Bengali translation, by Pancanana 
Tarkaratna and published by the Vahgavasi Press. Calcutta, 
1314 B. S 

Skanda-purina. — Published by Ksemaraja Srikrsnadasa, Vehkatesvara 
Press (Bombay, 1910), in seven Parts called Khandas as follows: 
Vol. I — Mahesvara-khanda, Vol. II — Visnu-khanda, Vol. Ill — 
Brahma-khanda, Vol. IV — Kasl-khanda, Vol. V — Avantya-khanda, 
Vol. VI— Nagara-khanda, Vol. VII— Prabhasa-khanda. 

Sinra-candrika of Devanabhatta. — Published by the Government of 
Mysore in five volumes as follows: 

Vol. I (Samskara-kanda). — Edited by L. Srinivasacharya, Mysore, I9t4* 

Vol. II (Ahnika-kanda). — „ „ 

Vol. Ill (Vyavahara-kanda), Part i. — „ 

•• ” Part ii.— „ „ „ 1916 

Vol. IV (Sraddha-kanda). — Edited by the Curator, Government 
Oriental Library, Mysore, 1918. 



bibliography 


369 


Vol. V. (Asauca-kanda). — Edited by R. Shama Sastry. Mysore, 1921. 

Smrci-tattva of Raghunandana. — Edited by Jivananda Vidyasagara. 
Calcutta, 1893. 

This work has been printed in two volumes. 

Vol. I consists of (i) Titlii-tattva (on pp. 1-188), (ii) Sraddha- 
tattva (on pp. 189-325), (iii) Ahnika-tattva (on pp. 326- 
465), (iv) Prayascitta-tattva (on pp. 466-558), (v) Jyotis- 
cattva (on pp. 559-735). (vi) Malamasa-tattva (on pp. 736- 
856), and (vii) Samskara-tattva (on pp. 857-948). 

Vol. II consists of (i) Ekadasl-tattva (on pp. 1-105), (ii) Udvaha- 
tattva (on pp. 106-150), (iii) Vrata-tattva (on pp. 
151-161), (iv) Daya-tattva (on pp. 161-197), (v) Vyava- 
bara-tateva (on pp. 197-233), (vi) 6 uddhi-tattva 
(on pp. 233-412), (vii) Vastuyaga-tattva (on pp. 412-423), 
(viii) Krtya-tattva (on pp. 423-483), (ix) Yajurvedi- 
sraddha-tattva (on pp. 483-502), (x) Deva-pratistba tattva 
(on pp. 502-513), (xi) Jalasayotsarga-tattva (on pp. 513- 
528), (xii) Chandoga-vrsotsarga-tattva (on pp. 528-562), 
(xiii) 6ri-purusoctama-tactva (on pp. 563-573), (xiv) Divya- 
tattva (on pp. 574-613). (xv) Matha-pratistliidi-tattva 
(on pp. 613-633), (xvi) Sudrakrtya-vicarana-tattva (on pp. 
633-636), (xvii) Yajurvedi-vrsotsarga-tattva (on pp. 636- 
644). (xviii) Diksa-tattva (on pp. 645-659), and (xix) 
Sridutgarcana-paddhati (on pp. 659-683). 

6raddha-kaumudl of Govindananda Kavikankanacarya. — Edited by 
Kamalakrsna Smpibhusana. Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1904. 

Sraddha-viveka of Sulapani. — Edited, with Sriktsna Tarkalamkara’s 
comnientary, by Candlcara^ Smrtibhusana. Second edition. 
Calcutta, 1299 B.S. 

Subhasitavali of Vailabhadcva.— Edited by Peter Peterson and Pandit 
Durgiprasada. Bombay, 1886. 

Suddhi-kaumudI of Govindananda Kavikankanacarya.'— Edited by 
Kamalakrsna Smrtibhusana. Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1905. 

Suta-samhita (belonging to the Skanda-putana and consisting of four 
Parts called Khandas, viz., i-Siva-mahatmya-khanda, ii-Jnana-yoga- 
khanda, iii-Mukti-khanda, and iv-Yajna-vaibhava-khanda). — Pub- 

47 



370 


STUDIES In the upaEurAnAs 


lished in two volumes (with Madhavacarya’s commentary Tatparya- 
dlpika) by the Anandasrama Press, Poona, Vol. I consisting of the 
first three Khandas, and Vol. II of the fourth divided in two Parts. 
Second edition, 1924. 

Svetasvatara-upanisad. — ‘Astavimsaty-upanisadah’ (pp. 243-255), edited 
by Vasudeva Laksmana Sasttl Panasikara and published by Tukaram 
Jawaji, Nirnaya Sagara Press, Bombay. Fifth edition, 1918. 

Svetasvatara-upanisad-bliasya (ascribed to Sainkaracarya). — Published in 
the Anandasrama Sanskrit Series (No. 17), Poona. 

Tantrasara of Krsnananda Agamavagisa.— Edited and published by 
Pancasikha Bhattacarya. Fourth edition. Calcutta, 1318 B.S. 

Tika-sarvasva of Vandyagatlya Saravananda. — Sec under “Naina- 
lihganusasana of Amarasimha” above. 

Tirtha-cintamani of Vacaspati-misra. — Edited by Kamalakrsna Smrti- 
tlrtha and published by the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, 1912. 

Tithi-viveka of Sfilapani (with Srinathacarya-cudamani’s commentary 
Tatparya-dipika). — Edited by Jatindra Bimal Chaudhuri. Calcutta. 

Onavimsati Samhita.— -Edited by Pancanana Tarkaratna and published 
by the VahgavasI Press, Calcutta. Second edition, 1316 B.S. 

Vairagya-sataka of Bhartrhari.— -Forming Book iiiof Bhartrhari’sSubha- 
sita-trisatl published (with Ramacandra Budhendra’s commentary) 
by the Nirnaya Sagara Press, Bombay. Sixth edition, 1922. 

Vaisnava-tosinI (a commentary on Bhagavata-purana, Skandha X, by 
Sanatana Gosvamin).— -Sec under “Bhagavata-purana” above. 

Varaha-purana. — Edited by FIrsikesa Sastrl and published by the 
Asiatic Society, C.ilcutta, 1893. 

Varsa-kaumudl of Govindananda Kavikahkanacarya. — Edited by 
Kamalakrsna Smrtibhusana. Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1902. 

Varsa-krtya of Rudtadhara Upadhyaya. — Printed in Nagarl (at 
Benares?). 

Vayu-purana, — Edited and published by Hari Narayana Aptc. Anan- 
dasrama Sanskrit Scries, No. 49. Poona, 1905. 

Vidhana-patijata of Anantabhatta.— Vols. I-III, Bibliotheca Indica. 
Calcutta. 

Vikramorvaslya of Kalidasa.— Edited by M. R. Kale, Bombay. Sixth 
edition, 1923. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 


371 


Viramitrodaya o£ Mitra Misra, 

(i) Paribliasa-prakasa, (a) Ahnika-prakasa. — Edited by Parvatlya 
Nityananda Sarma. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Scries. Benares, 
1906, 1913. 

(3) Samskara-prakasa, (4) Puja-prakasa, (5) Rajanitl-prakasa. — 
Edited by Vishnu Prasad Sharnia. Chowkhamba Sanskrit 
Series. Benares, 1913-16. 

Visnudharmottara. — Published by Ksemaraja Srikrsnadasa. Vehkate- 
svara Press, Bombay. Saka 1834. 

Visnu-sahasra-nama-stotra-bhasya (ascribed to Samkaracarya). — Published 
by the Vani Vilas Press, Srirangam. 

Visnu'purana.— Edited, with a Bengali translation, by Pancanana 
Tarkaratna and published by the Vahgavasi Press, Calcutta, 
Second edition, 1331 B.S. 

Visnu-smrti. — Edited by Julius Jolly and published by the Asiatic 
Society, Calcutta, t88i, 

Vrata-kala-viveka of Sulapani. — Edited, with a short Introduction, 
by Suresh Chandra Banerji and reprinted from Indian Historical 
Quarterly, XVII, 1941, No. 4. 

Yajnavalkya-smrti (with the commentary of Aparacka). — Edited and 
published in two parts by Hari Narayana Aptc. Anandasrama 
Sanskrit Scries, No. 46. Poona, 1903 and 1904. 

Yajnavalkya-smrti (with the commentary Mitaksara of Vijnanesvara). — 
Edited by Vasudeva Laksmana Sastrl Panasikara and published by 
Pandurang Jawaji. Nirnaya Sagara Press, Bombay. Third edition, 
1926. 

II. SiORKS IN MANUSCRIPTS 
{All the Asiatic Society Mss mentioned below belong to the 
Government collection'). 

Acara-nirnaya-bhaskara-samgraha of Bhiskara (or Bhairava?). Ms 
No. 594b, Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 

Agneya-purana (alias Vahni-puranta).— Ms No. 8090, Asiatic Society, 
Calcutta (for chaps. 1-64), and Ms No. 1001, India office, London 
(for the remaining chapters). The latter Ms is dated Samvat 
1861. 



372 STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

Ekamra-purana. — Ms No. ^492, dated Saka 1663, Dacca University 
Mss Library. 

Ganga-bhakti-taranginI of Gaiiapati. — Ms No. 1 18, Government 

Sanskrit College, Calcutta. 

Jagannatha-prakasa of Sura Mtsra. — Ms No. 878, Asiatic Society, 
Calcutta. 

Kreya-tattvarnava of Srinathacarya-cudamani. — Ms No. 4630, Dacca 
University Mss Library. 

Parasara-upapurana. — Ms No. 8205, Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 

Prayascitta-sara-saingralia of Ratnakara Misra.— Ms No. 8520, dated 
Saka 1661, Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 

Samaya-pradipa of Sridatta Upadhyaya. — Ms No. 10619, dated 
Saipvat 1817, Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 

Satnvatsara-pradlpa. — Ms No. 4632, Dacca University Mss Library. 
This Ms, which is incomplete, consists of folios 1-39 and ends 
with a part of its last section styled ‘Prakirnakam’. 

Sivadharma.— Ms No. 3852, Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 

Sivadharmottara. — Ms No. 3852, Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 

Siva-purana, Uttara-khanda. — Ms No. 4233, dated Saka 1676, Dacca 
University Mss Library. 

Smrti-sara-samuccaya of Bhaguri,— Ms No. 5483, Asiatic Society, 
Calcutta. 

Titbi-nirnaya of Candesvara Thakkuta. — Ms No. 6557 (incomplete), 
Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 

Visnudharma. — Ms No. 1670, Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 

Visnu-nama-mahatmya (claiming to belong to the Adi-purana).— Ms 
No* 3355» Asiatic Society, Calcutta. (Also consulted Asiatic 
Society Ms No. 4022 of the ‘Vaisnavarntta*, which is the same as 
the Visnu-nama-mahatmya). 

HI. ANCIENT WORKS IN TRANSLATION. 

Markandeya-purana, — ^Translated into English by F. E. Pargiter, 
Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1904. 

Visnu-purana.— Translated into English from the original Sanskrit 
by H. H. Wilson and edited by F. Hall. Vols. I-V, LoOdon, 
1864-70. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 


373 


ly. y/ORKS ON EPIGRAPHY 

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Epigraphia Indica, Bombay. 

y. yARIOUS MODERN WORKS 

A Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts Acquired for and Deposited in 
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1918-30, (Prepared under the Supervision of Mahamahopadhyaya 

Gopinath Kaviraj), Vol. I. 

A Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Adyar Library.— Part 
I. Compiled by the Pandits of the Library, and published for the 
Adyar Library (Theosophical Society, 1926). 

Aufrecht, Theodor.— Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Sanscriti- 
corum Bibliothecae Bodlcianac. Oxonii, MDCCCLXIV. 

Bancrjca, ]. N.— Development of Hindu Iconography. Published by 

the University of Calcutta. Second edition, 1956. 

Beal. Samuel.— Buddhist Records of the Western World. Translated 
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London, 1884. 

Bclvalkar, S. K.— Shree Gopal Vasu Mallik Lectures on Vedanta 
Philosophy. (Delivered in December, 1925). Pa« L Lectures 1-6. 

Poona, 1929. c 1 • 

Bhandarkar, Ramkrishna Gopal. — ^Report on the Search or 

Manuscripts in the Bombay Presidency during the years 1887-88. 
1888-89, 1889-90, and 1890-91. Printed at the Government 

Central Press. Bombay, 1897. , ■vr 

Bhandarkar. Ramkrishna Gopal.-Vaisnavism, Saivism and Minor 

Religious Systems. Strassburg, 1913* 

Biililer, G.— Detailed Report of a Tour in Search of Sanskrit Manu- 
scripts made in Kashmir. Rajputana and Central India. Ooutnal 
of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Extra Number, 

1877). Bombay. . _ , 

Burnell. A. C.— A Classified Index to the Sanskrit Mss in the Palace 

at Tanjore. Printed for the Madras Government by Stephen 

Austin & Sons, Hertford (London, 1880). 



374 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 

Caland, W. — ^Altindischer Ahncnkult. Leiden, 1893. 

Cambridge History of India. — Vol. I (Ancient India), edited by E. J. 
Rapson. Cambridge, 1922. 

Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Sanskrit College Library, 
Benares. Printed by F. Luker, Superintendent, Government Press, 
United Provinces. Allahabad, 1911. 

Chakravarti, Chintahatan. — A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit 
Manuscripts in the Vahglya Sahitya Parisat. Published by the 
Vanglya Sahitya Parisat. Calcutta, 1935. 

De, Nundo Lai. — The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Me- 
diaeval India. Calcutta Oriental Series, No. 21. E. 13. Second 
edition, 1927. 

Devi Prasada, Pandit. — List of Sanskrit Manuscripts Discovered in 
Oudh during the Year 1877. Allahabad, 1878. 

Eggeling, Julius. — A Descriptive Catalogue of theSanstrit Manuscripts 
in the Library of the India Office. Parts I-VII. London, 1887-1904. 

Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. (In 1 2 volumes). — Edited by 
James Hastings. Edinburgh, 1908-1921. 

Farquhar, J. N. — An Outline of the Religious Literature of India. 
Oxford, 1920. 

Fleet, J. F. — Gupta Inscriptions. (See under Section IV above). 

Ganguly, Mano Mohan. — Orissa and Her Remains — Ancient and 
Mediaeval. Calcutta, 1912. 

Gardner, P. — Catalr^ue of Coins of the Greek and Scythian Kings of 
Bactria and India in the British Museum. London, 1886. 

Hazra, R. C. — Studies in the Puranic Records on Hindu Rites aud 
Customs. Published by the University of Dacca (Bulletin No. 
XX), 1940. 

Hiralal. — Catalogue of Sanskrit and Prakrit Manuscripts in the Cen- 
tral Provinces and Berar. (Nagpur, 1926). Published under the 
orders of the Government of the Central Provinces and Berar. 

Kane, P.V. — History of Dharmasistta, Vols. I, II (Parts i-ii) III, IV. 
Published by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. Poona, 
1930, 1941, 1946 and 1953 respectively. 

Keith, Arthur Berriedale. — Catalogue of the Sanskrit and Prakrit Mss 
in the Library of the India OflSce, Vol. II, Parts I-II, Published 



BI&LIOgRAPHY ^7$ 

by order of the Secretary of State for India in Council at the 
Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1935. 

List of Sanskrit, Jaina and Hindi Manuscripts purchased by order of 
Government and deposited in the Sanskrit College, Benares, during 
1897, 1898, 1899, 1900 and 1901. Printed at the Government 
Press, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Allahabad, 1902. 

Macdoneli, A. A. — A History of Sanskrit Literature. London, 1925 

Malaviya Commemoration Volume. 1932. 

Mitra, R. L. — A Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Library of 
His Highness the Maharaja of Bikaner. Published under the 
orders of the Government of India. Calcutta, 1880. 

Mitra, R. L. — Notices of Sanskrit Mss. Published under orders of 
the Government of Bengal. Calcutta, 1871-88. 

Pargiter, F. E. — Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. Oxford, 1922. 

Poleman, H. I. — A Census of Indie Manuscripts in the United States 
and Canada. American Oriental Series, Vol. 12, American Orien- 
tal Society. New Haven, Connecticut, 193^* 

Rangacharya, M. — A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sansktit Manus- 
cripts in the Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras. 
Vol. VI, Part i (Itihasa and Purana), 1937* ii (Upapuranas and 

Sthala-mahatmyas), 1908. 

Rice, Lewis. — Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in Mysore and Coorg. 
Bangalore. Mysore Government Press. 1884. 

Sachau, E. C. — AlberunI’s India. (In two volumes). London, 1888. 

Sastri, P. P. S. — A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts 
in the Tanjorc Maharaja Serfoji’s Sarasvatl Mahal Library , Tanjore. 
Vol. XV. Vani Vilas Press, Srirangam, * 93 *’ 

Sastri (S. Kuppuswami) and Sastri (P. P. Subrahmanya).— A Descrip- 
tive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Government 
Oriental Manuscripts Library, Madras. Vol. XXVII. Madras, 1937 * 

Schrader, F. O.— Introduction to the Pancaritra and the Ahirbudhnya 
Samhita. Adyar, Madras, 1918. 

Shastri, Haraprasad.— A Catalogue of Palm-leaf and Selected Paper 
Mss belonging to the Durbar Library, Nepal. (With a Historical 
Introduction by Prof. Cecil Bendall). Calcutta, * 9 ® 5 " 

Shastri. Haraprasad.— A Descriptive Catalogue of Sansktit Manuscripts 



m 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


in the Government Collection under the care of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal. Published hy the Asiatic Society, Calcutta. Vol. Ill 
(Smrti Mss), Calcutta, 1925; Vol. V (Purana Mss), Calcutta, 
1928. 

Shastri, Hataprasad.— -Notices of Sanskrit Manuscripts, Second Series. 
Vols. I-IV. Published under the orders of the Government of 
Bengal. Calcutta, 1900-1911. 

Shastri (Hrishikesa) and Gui (Sivacandra). — A Descriptive Catalogue 
of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Library of the Calcutta Sanskrit 
College. Vol. IV (Purana Manuscripts). Prepared under the 
orders of the Government of Bengal. Calcutta, 1902. 

Sir Asutosh Mookerjee Silver Jubilee Volumes. — Vol. Ill, Orientalia— 
Pare 2. Published by the University of Calcutta, 1923. 

Stein, M. A.— Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Raghu- 
natha Temple Library of His Highness the Maharaja of Jammu 
and Kashmir. Printed at the Nirnaya Sagara Press, Bombay. 
MDCCCXCIV. 

Vasu, Nagenda Nath. — Castes and Sects of Bengal (or 
). Printed at the Visvakosa Press, Calcutta. 

Vasu, Nagendra Nath. — ^The Archaeological Survey of Mayurabhanja. 
Vol. 1 . Published by Mayurabhanja State, 1911. 

Visvakosa (a Bengali encyclopaedia in 22 volumes). — Edited by 
Nagendra Nath Vasu. Calcutta, 1293-1318 B.S. 

Weber, A. — Die Handschriften-Verzeichnisse der Kdniglichen Biblio- 
thek, Vol. I ( Verzeichniss der Sanskrit-Handscriften ), Berlin, 
1853. 

Weber, A. — Verzeichniss der Sanskrit- und Prakrit-Handschriften der 
Kdniglichen Bibliothek zu Berlin. Berlin. 

Whitehead, R. B. — Catalogue of Coins in the Panjab Museum, Lahore. 
Vol. I — Indo-Greck Coins. Oxford, 1914. 

Wilson, H. H.— Essays, Analytical, Critical and Philological (collected 
and edited by Dr. Reinhold Rost), Vol. I. London, 1 864. 

Winternitz, M. — A Catalogue of South Indian Sanskrit Manuscripts 
(especially those of the Whish Collection) belonging to the Royal 
Asiatic Syciety of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by the 
Royal Asiatic Society. London, 1902. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 


377 


Winternitz, M.— A History o£ Indian Literature- Vois. I and II, 
translated from the original German by Mrs. S. Keekar and pub- 
lished by the University of Calcutta, 1927 and 1933. 

yi. JOURNALS 
Bharatiya Vidya (Bombay). 

Calcutta Review (Calcutta). 

Indian Antiquary (Bombay). 

Indian Historical Quarterly (Calcutta). 

Journal of the Department of Letters (Calcutta). 

Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art (Calcutta). 
Journal of the Oriental Institute, Baroda. 

Journal of the University of Gauhati (Gauhati, Assam). 

Our Heritage (a half-yearly Bulletin of the Research Depart- 
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Poona Orientalist (Poona). 

Sahitya Parisat Patrika (Calcutta). 


48 




INDEX 


A 

Abhicara, 12^, 165, 

Abhira, 324, 325. 

Abu Ishak al Ishtakhri. 30. 

Acara, 55 * 9 ^. * 79 « *9^'3. *96. 236, 
3 >3.328-330. 

Acara-sagara (of Vallalasena), 236, 301. 
Adharma, 304. 

Adika-purSna, 291. 

Adi-purina. 10, i4, 18. 236. 242, 

^79-303. 350- 

Aditi. 37, 48. 

Aditya-hrdaya (Mantra), 55, 233. 
Aditya-purana, 4, i6, too, 242, 302. 
Aditya (or, Adityas, their names), 
3 >» 33. 37 . 38s 48-50. 56, 64, 78, 
80, 121, 228 (108 names). 
Aditya-siddhanta, 51. 

Aditya (Upapurana), 2, 10, ii. 13, 14, 
243, 290, 

Adya (Upapurana), 4-13. 279-303, 

i5o. 

Agasti, 1 1 4. 

Agastya, 124, 169, 231, 233, 252. 
^gneyz-puririi (or, Agneya), 3, 236, 

353. 

Agnihotri Brahmins, 139, 14 1. 
Agnistoma (sacrifice), 31 1, 

Agriculture, 178. 

Ahalya (an Apsaras), 1 63. 

Ahimsa, in, 122, 125, 127, 192. 
Aiduka, 190, 218, (See also under 
‘Eduka’). 

Aivyaonghen, 41, 189. 

Ajamila, 338. 

^kbetaka (Upapurana), 13. 

Aksaya-vata (tree), 272. 


Alatnkara (Poetics), 184, 210. 

Alaya (a gopi), 284, 

Alberuiii, 30, 1x6, 117, 138, 208, 242, 
290, 291. 

Al Edrisi, 30. 

Alpa (Purina), 24. 

Alwar saints. 360. 

Ambarisa, 121, 131, 139, 140. 

Ambika, 269, 273, 312. 

Ananta, 232, 234. 

Anaptas. 111. 

Anda (Upapurana), 10. 

Ahga, 172, 202, 293. 

Ahgas (of a kingdom), j8o. 

Ahgirasaka or Ahgirasa (Upapurana), 

>3. 35 *. 

Ahgiras (a sage), 124, 162, 351, 
Aniruddha. 217. 

Antelope, 292. 

Anti-Vedic (ideas, practices, religious 
systems, etc.), 109, no, 112, 128, 
129, 151. 

Antyaja, 286. 

Apabhrainsa, 183, 186. 

Apsarases (their names), 38, 44, 50. 

>63. 263. 

Arambhins, in, 

Aratm (name of a country), 292. 

Arjuna, 123, 161, 233, 240, 280. 287. 
Arjuna (Kartavirya), 160, 167. 

Arjuna (tree), 281, 283. 

Arkaksetra, 106. 

Arsdgrama, 284. 

Artha, 9. 

Arthavada, 312. 

Arupa, 72, 73. 

Aryadeva, 278, 279, 



380 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


Aryans (or, Aryas), 20, 292. 

Aryavarta. 292. 

Asana (mode of sitting for Yoga- 
practice), 315. 

Ascarya (Upapurana), 4-6, 8-9, 

356-357- 

Asoka Maurya, 114, 147. 

Asokika, 176. 

Astamanacala, 70, 103. 
Asthi-samcayana (collection of bones 
of a deceased person), 297-9. 
Astrology and astronomy, 162, 18 1. 
Asuras (and their names), 285. (See 
also under ‘Demons’). 

Asva (a manifestation of Visnu), 211. 
Asvattba (tree), 270-172. 
Asvatthaman, 120, 

Aivayurveda, 201. 

Aivins, 38, 43-45. 49* 53> 73 * ‘o®- 

130. 132, 232, 240, 241, 259. 
Atharvana (Veda), 161, 180. 
Atbarva-veda, 173, 175, 180, 321. 
Atman (its nature), 321. 

Attendants (of the Sun), 38-39, 45, 
52. 53 - 

Aurva, 315, 316, 

Ausanasa-prokta (Upapurana), 10. 
Ausanasa (Upapurana), 4, 10, 11, 13. 
Ausija, 79. 

Avanti (or, Avanti), 236, 262. 

Avidya, 312, 318, 319. 
Avimukta-ksetra, 46. 

Aviyanga, Avyanga, 41, 53, 189, 
205. 

Ayodhya, 159, 166, 172, 220-2. 226, 
306. 

Ayurveda, 164. 175, 201. 

B 

B^arayana, 282. 

Baburoman (a demon), 220, 222, 225, 


228, 229, 233, 244, 248, 249, 251. 
Balabhadra (of Purusottama-ksetra), 
145. 272. 308. 

B^aka (a Smrti-writer), 209. 

Balakhilyas, 34, 36, 44, 306, 

Balarama, 133. 239, 241, 274, 307, 309, 
Bali, 121. 130, 131, 317. 

B^abhana, 281. 

Barhaspatya (Upapurana), 7. 

Barsom, 81. 

Baths (ceremonial), 177, 178, 179, 18 1, 
Bauddha, 306, 326, 327, 

Beef, 278. 

Bengal, 209, 274, 275, 287, 308, 340, 

34 >. 344. 345. 35 *. 358- 
Betel-leaves (tambula), 175, 345. 
Betel-nuts, 345. 

Bhadravam (a place), 231. 

Bhagavad-gita, loi, 143, 151, 197, 
206, 

Bhagavat, 239, 359, 

Bhagavata, 21, 93 (Tantra), 109, 111- 
112. 122, 126, 137, 139, 143. 154. 
216, 254, 259, 270. 273, 274, 285, 
322, 345. 

Bbagavata-dharma, 304, 315- 
Bhigavata-pitrana (or, Bhagavata), 3, 
7, 8, 19, 21, 236, 240. 270, 274, 
276, 281, 303, 304. 

Bhagavata {Upapurana), 6 (bhagavatam 
dvayam, bhagavata-dvayam), 7, 8, 
10, 19. 

Bbagavati, 19. 

Bhagiratha, 159, 316-7, 322. 

Bhagirathi, 106. 

Bhakti, 55, iii, 161,166,251,272, 
273,286.287,307, 31X. 313. 319- 
320, 328. 

Bh^aha, 201, 210, 21 1. 

Bharadvaja, 220, 22 1, 229, 238. 240, 
251. 



INDEX 


381 


Bharata, 168-172 (his war against the 
Gandharvas). 

Bbarata, 119, 1 61, 201, 289. 

Bharata (son of Sakuntala), 356. 
Bharatavarsa, 269, 270, 313. 

Bharavi, 339. 

Bhargava (Upaputana). 4-5, 7-13. 
Bhartrhari, 339. 

Bhaskara-farana, 100. 

Bhdskara (Upaputana), 5, 7, 100. 
Bhatti. 339. 

Bhaui-kivya, 339. 

Bhavisya-furina, 3, 7, 8, 70, 76, 100, 
236, 242. 

Bhavisyat-purana, 21, 70, 102. 
Bhavisyottara, 18, 236. 

Bhcdabheda, 132, 137. 

Bhiksus, 149, 230, 332. 

Bhima, 233, 

Bhoja family, 97. 

Bhojakas, 80, 81, 95-99. 

Bhrgu, 113, 122, 124, 140, 162, 181, 
191, 198, 231, 253, 256, 317, 352, 

356. 

Bija, 56, 67, 218 (Tantric). 
Bilvamangala, 272, 276, 359. 

Bindusaras (a lake), 215. 

Brahma, 21, 36, 56, 126, 127, 151, 
161, 224, 227, 234. 

Brahma, 21-22, 38, 39, 41-44, 4 ^' 
52-54. 56. 63. 70, 75, 76, 89, 120, 
121, 148, 162, 187. 189. 198, 217, 
225, 226, 234, 237, 259, 260, 269. 
270, 352. His sons, 256 (ten). 
Brahma, 20, 21 (Smarta). 

Brahmagupta, 2 1 1 . 

Brahma-ksetra, 107. 

Brahmands-pmam, 3, 236, 242. 
Brabmanda (Upaputana), 4-10, 12. 
Brabma-purina, 3, 8, 18, 22, 242, 346. 
Brahma (Purina), 24, 236, 353. 


Brahma-sutra, 281, 281-2. 
Brahmavaivarta-parana, 2, 3, 12. 346. 
Brahma-worshipper, 20, 21. (See also 
under ‘Brahma’ above). 

Brahmi, 269, 273. 

Brahmins, 175, 177. 

Brhadbala, 36. 37, 64, 76, 78. 95, 96. 
Brhaddharma-purana, 10, 276. 
Brhadratha (king of Ceylon), 305. 
Brhad-vaisnava (Upapacina), 13, 353-h. 
Bthad-visnudharma, 210, 352-3- 
Brhannandisvara (Upaputana), 10. 
Brhannandi (Upaputana), 13. 
Brhannaradiya (Upaputana), 10, 13, 

309-345. 

Brhannarasirnha, or Brhannarasirnha 
(Upapurana), 13, 263,356. 

Bribe, 334. 

Buddha, 125, 143-7.211-2, 239, 244, 
249, 274, 276, 305, 306, 308. 
Buddhisagara (minister of king 
Virahbadra of Gauda-desa), 336. 
Buddhism, 112, 114, 128, 147,151, 
218, 267. 325, 335, 344. 

Buddhists, 143, 151, 278, 325, 326. 

C 

Caitanyaism, 289. 

Caitanya (of Navadvipa), 289. 

Caitya, 301. 

Camel, 194, 214, 330, 344, 355. 
Candala, 130, 178, 272, 274, 300, 
320, 323-5, 331. 

Candrabhaga (or, Candrasarit), 37, 40, 
41, 47, 48, 60, 61, 83, to3-6, 159, 
164, 168, 169, 175, 215. 
Cane-strokes (receiving of), 272. 
Car-festiva! (Ratha-yatra), 54, 74, 272. 
Castes, 32, 35, 41, 125, 127, 129, 136, 
137. 147; 148, 152 (duties of), 178 
(mixed), 192, 227, 230, 260, 261, 



382 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


272, 278, 292, 294. 299, 300, 
323-4, 324 (names of), 326. 

Cedi, 130. 

Cement (its composition), 1 90. 

Ceylon (or, Simhala), 305. 

Chandodeva, 176. 

Cbandoga-parisista, 210, 

Characteristics (or subjects) of 
Puranas. — Five, 20, 24, 25, 223, 
225, 258. Ten, 25. 

Chaya, 42. 43, 53, 72, 73. 75. 

Cintamani (a courtesan), 272. 

Circle, 30, 32. 

Cities (their names — Bhallaunagara, 
Kancanapuri, Puskaravati, Vifasana, 
etc.), 172. 307. 

Citrabhanu, 48, 49. 

Citragupta, 45, 335 (description of). 

Citrasena (wife of Kuvera), 234, 

Citrasikhandin Rsis, 109 (their names), 
112. 

Citra-sutra, 182, 188. 

Cittavisuddhi-prakarana (of Aryadeva), 
278. 

Cloth (kinds of), 126, 194. 

Coin, 31. 

Cookery, 156, 177. 

Cosmic Egg, 34, 49, 72, 225. 

Countries, viz., Anga, Avantya, 
Ayodhya, Caidya, Daksinapatha, 
Daieraka, Kalihga, Karaskara, 
Karnata, Kekaya, Kerala, Kikam 
(or, Kaikact), Madra, Magadha, 
Malavaka, Malaya, Mathura, 
Patanga, Paundra (or Punia or 
Pau^dravardhana), Sakala, Saurasaa 
(also called Surasora), Sauvira, 
Sindhu, Ttailahkava, Vanga, Vara- 
navata, Vindhya, etc., 163-5, 168, 
191, 220-2, 226. 293, 306, 307. 

Cows (their medical treatment, etc.), 
176, 179. 


Creation, 20, 24, 25, 162, 227, 234. 
238, 269, 312. 

Cremation, 292, 295-9. 

Crimes, 125, 331, 334. 

Cuckoo, 359. 

Cult (local), 25. 

Cult (of the Sun), 23, 29, 32, 74. 

Customs and usages, 92, 156, 192, 

292-4, 326, 328-335. (See also 
under ‘Local customs). 

Cyavana, 168. 

D 

Dadhici (or Dadhica), 34. 124, 168. 

Daityas, Danavas, Raksasas, etc., 130, 
131. 172, 174, 233. 

D»va (Upapurana), 5, 6. 

Daksa, 72, 73, 162, 171, 226, 227, 
252, 255. 

Daksa’s daughters (their names and 
descendants), 252, 263-4. 

Dancing, 157, 186-8, 314. 

Dandaka forest, 123, 152. 

Danda-nayaka, 39, 44, 32 - 54 . 

Dandin, 44, 53, 54. 

Dandin (author of the Kiuyidtrsd), 
201, 210, 211. 

Daradas, 298, 299. 

Dasa, 234, 251. 

Dafaratha, 306. 

Dasta, 43. 

Dasya-bhakti, 251, 263. 

Dattatreya, 130. 

DaurvisAsa (Upapur^a), 7, 8, 1 1, 356- 

7 - 

DaurvasA (Upapurana), 9-12, 356-7. 

Demons (viz., Dhundhu, Heti, Kala- 
nemi, Lavana, Mahisa, Mklin, Pra- 
beti, Prahlada, Puloman, Vatapin, 
Virocana and others) and demoness- 
es (viz., DirgbajahghS, Kuthodari, 



INDEX 


383 


^urpanakha and others), 42, 160, 
163, 168-171, ^34, 285, 306. 
Dentist (dantakara, dantopajivin), 168. 
Desacara, 329. 

Desofadesa (of Ksemendra), 177. 
Devaki, 133. 355. 

Devalaka (Brahmins), 40, 78, 79, 97, 
33°- 

Devarastta, 292. 

Deva-sarman (a Brahmacarin), 231. 
Devayani, 307. 

Devi-bhagavdtd, 19, 291. 

Devika (a river), 123, 130, 155. *59. 

166, 168, 169, 175, 201, 215. 
Devi'purana, 18, 287. 

Devi (Upapurana), 13. 

Dhanurveda, 174, 175, 182, 193, 201, 
3°5- 

Dharma-furSni, 10. 

Dharma-samhitas (or, Dharma-sastras). 
The names of their authors, *24. 
143, 163. 164, 175, 206, 333, 334. 
Dharma (^rauta, Smarta, etc.), 9, 12, 
29,53, log, 113, 124,125,129, 
130, 138, 142, 149, *62, 190, 2*8, 

230. 253. 293. 307, 3*3. 323. 324. 

326-9, 334, 335> 345* 

Dhatri (aee), 270, 273. 

Dhruva, 162, 220, 222, 224, 225, 228, 
229, 233, 243, 248, 249. 

Dindi, 39, 45. 46, 52, 54. 

Disc, 30-32, 52. 

Dola-yatra, 27a. 

Donation, 15, 203, 236, 237, 255, 270, 
286, 291, 300-301. 

Dramaturgy, 185-8, 201. 

Draupadi, 220, 229, 233, 240. 

Drivida, 285* 

Dravidas, 31. 

Drona, 120. 

Durga, 54, 3*2, 319, 338. 


Durvasah-purana, 4. 

Durvasas, 38, 88, 89, 94, 95, 357. 
Durvasa-samprokta ( Upapurana ), 7, 

356-7- 

Durvasasa (Upapurana), 10, 356-7. 
Durvasasokta (Upapurana), 4-6, 8-9, 

356-7. 

Durvasa (Upapurana), 13, 356-7. 

Duties (of castes, orders of life, etc.), 
35, 127, 148, 179, 192, 229, 232, 
260, 261, 271, 327. 

Dvaitadvaita, 137, 307, 308. 

Dvaraka, 37, 69, 70, 123. 

Dvaravati, 37, 38, 41, 94, 95, 281. 
Dvipas (continents), 4* (names of), 50. 
Dyauh, 42, 75. 

Dynasty (of kings), 20, 24-26, 

E 

Eclipse, 51. 

Eduka, *44. 

Ekamra-purina, 13. 

Ekanta-bhava, 217, 

Ekapadd (Upapurana), 1 3. 

Elephants, 172, 173, 175, 176, 182, 
273. 

Eran inscription, 242. 

Etymological meanings of names, 74, 
90. 

Eulogy, 37, *24, *28, 13a, 146, ,x, 96. 
Expiations, 153, *78, 180, 192, 200, 

355. 

Extra-Xcdic (faiths, sectaries, etc.), 98, 
316, 325, 326, 335. 

F 

Families of sages, 20, 24, 25. 

Festivals, 172, 301, 30a. 

Fire (viz., Srauta, Smarta, Laukika), 
297, 298. 

Fire cult, 139. 

Fish, 55. 



384 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


Flags (for different deities), 53 - 54 > 9 °y 

122, i8i, 190, 229. 

Flowers and leaves (their names), 126, 
179, 264-6, 271, 272. 

Forts (durga), 175. 

Fowler, 270 (named Dhanurdhvaja). 
Funeral ceremony, 292, 293, 355, 

G 

Gajendra-moksana, 130, 167, 201, 338. 
Gambhari (Gambhari or Gamvi) wood, 

275 - 

Gambling, 178. 

Ganaga (a caste). 41, 81. 
Gandhamadana (mountain), 129. 
Gandharva (form of marriage), 294. 
Gandharvas, 38, 44, 50, 168, 172, 201, 
218, 294. 

Gandharva-veda, 175. 

Ganesa, 53('called Heramba), 229, 232, 
238, 304 (called VighneJa). 
Ganesaka (Upapurana), 13, 

Gadga (or, Ganges), 155, 159, i6o, 
165, i 65 , 189, 215, 220, 251, 270, 
271, 275, 278, 279, 292, 298, 299, 
308,312,313,316, 317,321,342, 
344 . 

Gahga-dvara, 106, 123, 159, 171, 270, 
275. 

Gahga-sagara-samgama, 103, 106, 107, 

123, 193, 270, 271, 275. 
Ganga-yatrii, 271. 

Gardening, 175. 

Garga, 205, 206, 283. 

Garuda, 22, 39, 41, 45, 189, 196, 229, 

3 * 4 - 357. 358 

Garuda (or, Garuda-furSna), 3, 14, 236, 
346. 

Garuda (Upapurana), 13. 

Garutmat, 54, 251. 

Gatha, 92, 164. 

Gauda-deia, 336. 


Gauramukha, 78, 79, 81, 82, 132. 
Gaya, 123, 159, 164, 300, 301. 

Gayatri, 165, 180, 323, 331. 

Genealogy, 20, 24-26, 228, 236, 256. 
Geography, 20, 50, 155, 159, 228, 269, 
313 - 

Gifts (of various articles), 15,55, 120, 
124-6, 165, 193-4, 230, 236, 273, 
301, 313, 355. 

Go-carma, 303. 

Gods and goddesses. Their names. 

189-190. 

Gokarna, 169. 

Golaka, 329. 

Gopis (or, Gopikas), 283, 284 (names of 
the principal ones), 285, 287, 352, 
Gotra, 162, 293. 

Govardhana (a mountain), 123, 285. 
Govindapura, 99. 

Grahas (pernicious beings), 170, 171. 
Gramacara, 329. 

Grammatical solecism, 65, 218, 259. 
Grhya rites, 323. 

Grhya-sutras, 323. 
Gundicamandapa-yatra, 272. 

Gupta (dynasty), 16, 20, 21, 26, 21 1. 
Guru. 313, 323. 

H 

Haihayas, 31. 

Hamsa (a manifestation of Vhnu), 167, 
192, 211, 218. 

Hamsa (a name of Aditya), 228. 
Haralila, 79, 80, 97. 

Harama, 263. 

Hari (son of Dharma), 129. 

Harita, 227, 261. 

Harita-sarnhita, 260-2. 

Hasdnapura, 123, 306. 

Hastyayurveda, 201. 

Havani, 79, 97. 

Hayagtiva (a Datya), 233. 



INDEX 


385 


Hells, 12J, i8o, 314. 

Heresy, 20, 151, 267, 278. 

Heretic, 148-153. 236, 332. 

Heretical faiths (their names), 149. 
Himalaya (or, Himalayas), 164, 168, 
169, 270, 306. 

Hiranyakasipu, 121, 170. 

Hiranyaksa, 121, 216. 

Hiuen Tsiang, 30. 

Hladini Sakti, 285. 

Holy places. — Their names (such as 
Amarakantaka, Bilvaka, Cakratirtha, 
Citrakum, Jayanti, Kalanjaia, 
Kanakhala, Kardamala, Kasmira, 
Kubjaka, Kusavarta, Lohadanda, 
Nilaparvata, Pindaraka, Prthudaka, 
^ahkhoddhara, Sanniti, Siddha- 
srama, etc.), 61, 62, 103, 106-8, 
723, 128, 159, 163, 164, 167, 171. 
191, 193, 220, 221, 231, 249, 293, 
306, 311. 

Homa, 41, 55, 63, 120, 165, 180, 193, 

3»4- 323. 333- 

Hora, 162, 205. 

Horse, 173, 175, 176, 182, 273, 330. 
Horse-sacrifice, 160, 316, 328. 
Horticulture, 156, 175. 

Human sacrifice, 328. 

Huna, 30, 2 1 1. 

Hymns, 122, 124, 127-8, 130, 167-8, 
197, 2 i8, 229, 320. 

I 

Iksv^ku, 232, 306. 

Image (pratima, of the Sun, Visnu and 
other deities), 29-35, ^0-42, 46, 51. 
52, 53 (construction of). 60-62, 65, 
70. 75, 78, 79. 3,02. 103, 107, 122, 
.126, 189-191, (construction and 
consecration of), 217, 218, 229, 
230, 238, 255, 271, 303, 320, 326, 

349- 

49 


Impurity (caused by mbcarriage, birth, 
death, or lamentation for a deceased 
person), 292, 297, 299-300, 336. 

Incarnations (of Visnu), 22, 124, 125, 
132, 133- H3-6, 21 1, *12, 233, 
239 (eleven), 240, 241, 244, 274, 
285, 305, 306, 308, 312, 320. 

Indra, 44, 48, 49, 54,78, 121, 122, 
129, 158, 160, 167, 168, 170-2, 
181, 189, 198, 220, 222, 226, 228, 
232-4, 246, 249, 

Indradyumna-saras (of Purusottama- 
ksetra), 272. 

Indraprastha, 340. 

Indravana, 103. 

Iran, 98. 

Isana (an incarnation of Yisnu), 312, 
320. 

Islam, 98. 

Itihasa, 163, 175, 184, 281, 282. 

J 

Jagannatha (of Purusottama), 272. 

Jagannatha (of the Solar dynasty), 340. 

Jahuda (a tribe), 160. 

)aimini, 269, 270, 

Jainism, 112. 

Jamadagni, 47, 160. 

Jambu-dvipa, 4 o» 4*. *0.*. *05. *®8, 
158. 

janaka, 36. 130, 136. 

Janamejaya (Pariksita), 120, 240, 

Jandaka, 52. 

Jandakara, 45, 54. 

Jarasabda, 79, 80, 97 > 9 ®- 

Jaraiastra, 79, 80, 97, 98, 

Jataka stories, 218. 

Jaya (a technical term), 29, 112, 113, 

347- 

Jay adhvaja (a king), 233. 

Jina, 306. 



386 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


Jivitagupta II, 99. 

Jodhpur, 100, 350, 

K 

Kaccha, 292. 

Kadambari, 281. 

Kaitabha (a demon). 160, 187,270. 
Kaivalya, 120, 136, 274. 

Kalakantha (Upapurana), 7. 

Kalanatha, 103. 

Kalapagtama, 306. 

Kalapagramakas, 160, 

Kalapriya (a place), 70, 101.6, 108. 
Kalavallabha, 103. 

Kala-vilisa (of Ksemendra), 177. 

Kali age. 26, 127, 144, 145, 148.151. 
161, 220, 222, 225, 228, 230, 245, 
249, 269, 273, 282, 284, 293, 

3°4-7. 3*5. 33 '-S* 338. 

Kalidasa. 163, 206. 

Kalika-furaita (or, Kalika), 3, 4-13, 15, 
17-19. 

Kalinga, 163, 233, 293. 

Kalt-furana, 7, 9, ii, 12, 

Kali-varjyas, 293, 327-8. 

KSliya (Kaltyai) (Upapurana), 13. 
Kalki (or, Kalkin), 127, 145, 146, 16 1, 
233, 239, 274, 304-8, 320. 

Kalki’s sons ( — their names). 306. 
Kalmasa, 39, 45, 52, 54. 

Kalpa (Aghora, Brahma, Brhat), 70, 
i6i, 162, 336, 337, 341, 

Kalpas, 173 (five, viz., Naksatra-kalpa, 
Vaitana-kalpa, etc.), 173. 

Kamapaia (a name of Visnu), 124. 
Kamarupa, 107, 208, 233. 

Kamboja (tribe), 307, 

Kamsa, 241, 285, 351. 

Kanct, 107, 292. 

Kanva (dynasty), 30. 

Kanyakubja, 160. 


Kanya-vikrayin, 273. 

Kapala, 332. 

Kapila, 228 (a name of Aditya). 

Kapila (a sage), 130, 316. 

Kapilas, 149. 

Kapila (Upapurana), 3, 4-13. 

Kafileya (Upapurana), 12, 

Karaskara, 163. 

Karatoya (a river), 175, 292. 

Karavira (flower), 73. 

Katkomka, 107. 

Karma-vipaka, 56 , 256, 179-180, 192, 

353 - 

Karttikeya, 34, 45, 53, 271. 

Kasi, 123, 130, 165, 166. 

Kasmira (or, Kashmir), 177, 191, 233. 
Kasyapa, 43, 252. 

Kasyapa (a Brahmin), 232, 

Katyayana, 210. 

Kaum 3 ra (Upapurana), 10, 

Kattrma Mahafurana, 5. 

Kaurma (Purana), 3, 6, 16, 

Kaurma (Upapurana), 7, 8. 

Kauiikl (a river), 165, 169, 175. 
Kavacas, 17 1, 218. 

Kavyadarsa (of Dandin) 201, 210. 
Kavya-kartr, 330. 

KSvyalamkSra (of Bhamaha), 201, 210. 
Kayasthas, 177. 

Kbandava (forest), 240. 

Khasa (a tribe), 307. 

Kikau, 306, 307. 

Kings (viz., Ambarlsa, Bhimavega, 
Brbadbala, Candavega, Caruvarman, 
Citraratha, Citravahana, Devapi, 
Dharmakirti, Dhundhumara, Jahnu, 
Janaka, Krtavirya, Kusadhvaja, 
Mandhacr, Maru, Nahusa, Nimi, 
Ruciraiva, Sasidhvaja, Sveta, Vira- 
bhadra, yisakhayupa, Yuvanasva, 
and many others, especially of the 



INDEX 


387 


Solar and Lunar dynasties), 36, 
140, 146, 159, 160, 162, 165-7, 
17*1 172, 233. 256-8, 270. 306, 

307. 315-7- 336. 348. 3^°- 

KiratSrjuriiya, 339. 

Kirtana, 285, 286. 

Kokamukha (a place), 307. 

Konaditya, 82, 83, io6, 108. 

Konarka, 62, 82, 83, 91, 105, 106, 108. 
Konkana, 292. 

Kosala, 159, 233, 292, 

Kosi (i.e. Kausiki, a river), 293. 
Koti-homa, 165, 230, 238, 244, 249. 
Kriyayogasara (Upapurana), 10,267- 
279. 

Krsna, 38, 69, 70, 94, 95, 102, 11 iff., 
217, 221, 224, 231, 233, 239, 241, 
254, 272 (one hundred and eight 
names of), 274, 279, 280, 283 (story 
of his birth and exploits), 307-311, 
3 1 8, 351. 352- 359. 360. 

Krsna (Dvaipayana), 113, 124. 
Krsna-ganga, 284. 

Krsnakarnamrta, 272. 

Krsna (son of Dharma), 129. 
Krsna-tuiasi, 126 (called Kala-tulasi), 
262, 

Krtya, 124, 146. 

Ksatriya, 131, 149, 160, 175, 228, 230, 
295, 297, 299, 300, 325, 332, 
Ksemendra, 177. 

Ksipra (a river), 61. 

Ksullaka Purana (i.e. Upapurana), 24. 
Ksutapa, 45, 52, 

Kubjamra, 123. 

Kulaji-grantha, 99. 

Kumara, 4-9, 13, 114, 282. 

Kunda, 329. 

Kurma-purana, 2, 4-6, 14, 15, 22, 242, 
Kuru country (Northern), 42-44, 7 ^* 

74. 


Kuruksetra, 123, 163, 164, 168, 231-3. 
Kusa-dvipa, 41. 

Kusa (grass), 292, 295. 

Kuvera, 45, 52, 53, (called Dhanada), 
55, 169, 170, 234. 

L 

Laghu-bhagavata (Upapurana), 13. 
Laghu-harUa-smrti, 260-2. 

Laihga (Purana), 3. 

Laksa-homa, 165, 230, 238, 244, 249. 
Laksmi, 52, 123, 125, 135, 158, 189, 
190, 216, 269, 273, 302, 305, 312, 

319. 338. 

Lanka, 158, 169, 264. 

Lanka-kanda (of the RantSyana), 222. 
Lathe, 35, 42-44. 

Law, 177, 179, 194-6, 214, 

Leper, 69, 88. 

Leprosy, 30, 40, 69, 102. 

Lexicography, 156, 184. 
Lilauati-pHrina, 13. 

Linga (of Siva), 67, 171, 322, 324, 326, 

344. 

Lihga-purana, 236, 353, 

Lokapalas, 152. 

Local customs, 298. 

Lokas (of Visnu and others), 50, 67, 
69, 152, 158, 194, 233, 238, 269. 
Lokayatika, 162. 

Lomaharsana (a Suta), 221, 31 1, 
Lomapada, 172, 202. 

Lotus, 30, 3 1 . 

Love-story, 271 (of Madhava and Su- 
locana). 

Lunar (dynasty or race), 26, 228, 233, 
257, 259, 270, 306. (See also under 
‘Kings’). 

M 

Madalasa (a gopi), 214. 



388 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Madhu (a demon). i6o, 187, 239, 270. 
Madhyadesa, 231. 

Maga, 30-32, 35, 40, 4J> 5'* 79-8^> 
95-99. 298, 299. 

Magadha, 99, 165. 

Magadha, 4 i> 178. 

Magadha Vana, 123. 

Magaga (a caste), 41, 81, 82. 

Magasa (or, Magasa), 41. 

Magha, 240. 

Magian, 29, 32, loS. 

Magi (priest), 30, 32, 41. 42, 189. 
MahShhigauata-piirana, 3, 242, 277. 
Mahabbarata, 26, 29, 88, loi, 113, 
.138, 141, 143, 148, 164, 197, 240, 
276. 

Mahakali, 170, 171, 

Mahakalpa, 16 1, 

Mahamaya, 313, 318, 338. 

Mahamoha, 128, 143, 146, 148. 
Mahapataka, 314, 331, 

Mahapurana (a general name for the 
eighteen principal Puranas), 2, 25. 
Mahasveta, 32, 53. 

Mahat (Purina), 24. 

Mahavana, 284. 

Mahavunu, 269, 273, 274, 312,318 
(his description). 

Mabayanists, 149- 
M3hesa (Upapmanai), 10, 12. 
Mabesvara (Upapurana), 4-13. 
Mahismati, 305. 

Maitreyi, 123, 132. 

Mimaga, 41. 

Mina kings (of Magadha), 99. 

Manasa (a caste), 41, 81. 

Minava (a person), 29, 113, 1 14, 348, 
Minava Dharma (-Sitra), 1 52, 

Minava Sistra, 40. 

Mindva (Upapurina), 5-10, 12. 
Mandaga, 41, 81. 


Mandala, 31, 35, 51.53.55* 63.217 
(of Aditya), 314 (Sarvatobhadra), 
344 (Sarvatobhadra). 

Manifestation (of Visnu), iii, 145, 
161, 163, 167, 191, 201, 2II, 217, 
218, 220-2 ( Ptadurbhava ), 226, 
227. 

Mantra (V’^cdic, Putanic, sectarian), 35, 
36.51*53.54-6.63.67.81. .106, 
120, 135, 137, 154, 171. 180, 193, 
217, 218, 220-2, 226, 228, 229, 
231-4, 246, 249, 253, 254. 272, 
274, 278, 296, 305, 319, 322. 324. 

Manu (Vaivasvata, Savarni and others), 
20. 24, 40, 43, 47. 54. 62. 73, 103. 
>35. >43* >62, 163, 189, 204, 222, 
226-228, 255, 291, 315, 327, 

Manufacture of bows, arrows, swords, 
etc., 174. 

Manufacture of perfumes, 156, 177. 

ManH-smni, 76. 

Manvantara, 44, 161-3, >66, 228. 259, 

307. 

Marua (Upapurana), 3, 4-7, 9-13. 

Marici, 42, 109, 113, 120,121,131, 
140, 14 1, 227, 256, 260, 

Marka (a demon), 128, 146. , 

Markandeya (a sage), 34, i£i6, 172, 
182, 227. 231, 239, 252. 253, 260, 
261. 304, 3x5, 338, 353. 

Mirkandeya-hrada (of Purusottama- 
ksetra), 272. 

Markandeya-purana, 3, 242. 

Marriage, 162, 178-9, 193-5, 275. 

292-4, 327-8. 

Martanda, 89. 

Manx (a king), 306, 307. 

Maruts, 38, 163, 232, 240, 241, 259. 

Masaga (a caste), 41. 

Masaka, 41. 

Massagetae, 41. 



INDEX 


389 


Mathara, 45, 52, 56. 

Mathra, 45. 

Mathura, 70, 123, 281, 283, 285. 
Matrs, 52, 156, 170. 171. 
Matsya-furana, 3, 15, 22, 236. 242. 
Matirya, 114. 

Maya. 146, 151, 216, 234. 281-3, 285, 
306, 307, 312, 318, 319. 338. 
Mayatnoha, 146. 

Mayesvara, 281. 

Mayura (a manifestation of Visnu), 
21 1, 218. 

Measurement of space, 158. 

Meat, 55. 

Medical treatment of diseases (of human 
beings and lower animals), 156, 
176-7. 

Mediums of worship, 55, 63, 217-8, 

230. 320. 344- 

Mental attitudes (bhava), 67 (eight). 
Meru, 39, 49, 50, 75, 109. 1 1 2, 158, 
2 ' 7 - 3*2. 313. 

Methods (and results) of worship, 122, 
16 1, 179, 230 (Vedic and popular), 
232, 238, 255, 305, 311, 314. 
Metres, 50, 76, 183, 259. 

Mihira, 30, 56, 89. 

Mimamsa, 175. 

Minaketanas, 236. 

Minanatha, 236, 

Mithila, 340, 345. 

Mithra, 30, 32. 

Mitra, 30, 37, 48, 49, 61, 64, 78, 162, 

231, 252. 

Mitravana, 40-42, 46, 48, 60-63, 

8i, 83, 99, 101, 102, 104, 106-8. 
Mleccha, 149, 233, 263, 286, 306, 

333. 334- 

Modaganga, 47, 62. 

Mountains (Citrakua, Lokaloka, etc.), 
130, 158.9.313. 


Mrtyitnjaya (Upapurana), 13. 

Mudra, 56, 63, 94. 

Muhammadan, 263, 277, 288. 
Mulakarma (magic), 175-6, 180. 
Mulasthana, 70, 102-4, *9*> 205. 
Mundira, 47, loi. 103-6, io8, 
Mundirasvamin, 102, 103, 106, 
Mundita, 47. 

Music, 167, 182-3, 186,229,314. 

N 

Naga, 44, 170, 196. 260. 

Naimisa (forest). 33, 123, 140. 164, 
220, 269, 282, 283, 304, 31 1. 
Naksatras (order of), 142, 143, 161, 
176, 209, 212. 

Namagrantha, 100, 350, 

Names of those who attained success 
in Yoga, 136. 

Nanda, 355. 

Nacda, 123. 

Nandikhyd (Vpaputana), 11, 13, 
Nanda (Purana), 290. 

Nanda-purana, 242. 

Nanda-purana, 8. 

Nanda (Upapurana), 5, 6, 8-12, 23, 
Nandi, 1 1. 

Nandigrama, 231. 

Nandikesvata (Purina), 5 (nandikef- 
vara-yugmam), 6 (nandikesvara- 
yugmam), 10, 13, 18, 287. 
Nandi-krta (or, Nandi-krta) Upa* 
putana, 10, 11, 

Nandin, 7. 

Nandi-pmrina, 2, 4, 14, 16, 23, 243. 
Nandisa, 4-6, 8, 

Nandifvara, 9. 

Nandisvara-purSna, 10. 

Nara, 129, 133, 190, 196, 197, 21 1. 
Narada, 29, 34, 37, 38, 40, 46, 65, 
69. 75, 78. 89, 94, 95, 1.14, 163, 



390 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


206, 220, 222, 226-8, 232-4, 246, 
249, 256, 282, 284, 301, 311, 312, 

336. 337 > 341. 348. 359. 360. 
Naradiyaka (Upapurana), 10, 13. 
Naradtya-furana (or, Naradtya), 3, 236, 
336-7, 341-4. 

Naradtya (Upapurana), 4-7,9-12,336. 
Naradokta (Upapurana), 5-6. 8. 

Naraka (a demon), 233 , 

Narasiinha, 2i9fE. 

Narasimhagupta Baladitya, 99. 
Narasimha (Upapurana), 2, 4-12, 14, 
16, 219, 243. 

Narayana, 109, in, 112, 120-2, 129, 
132, 133, 154, 158-161, 163, 188, 
190, 196, 197, 211, 216, 217, 220, 
222, 224-6, 234, 249, 269, 305, 311, 

357. 358. 

Narmamald (of Ksemendra), 177. 
Nasatya, 43, 100, 121, 189, 191, 
Navadvipa, 289. 

Nayakas, 279, 285. 

Nayikas, 279, 285, 

Niksiibha, 38, 42, 52-4, 56, 75, 79, 184 
(called Riksubha). 

Nirgranthas, 149 - 
Nirvana, 153, 306. 

Niti-sataka (of Bhartrhari), 339. 
Nici-sastras (of Brhaspati and U^anas). 

173, 202. 

Non-Tantric, 291. 

Non-Vedic (ideas, practices, religious 
systems, etc.), 109-1 12, 128, 278. 
Nrsimha (Upapurana), 3. 13, 242. 
Nr-varaha, 21 1. 

Numeral (‘eighteen’), 22. 

Nyasa, 55, 56, 63 , 93, 336. 

O 

Odradcsa, 82, 83, 106, 123, 191, (called 
‘Udra’), 


Officers (royal), 168, 173, 175-7, 194. 
Omens and portents, 155, 160, 18 1, 
292, 302, 

Orissa, 60, 62, 91, 99, loi, 105-8, 274, 

341- 344 > 345 - 351- 358. 

Ornaments, 288, 298, 302. 

Osval Sravaks, 100. 

P 

Padas (four, of Puranas), 1S5, 206, 
Padma (name of a river.?), 292, 293. 

Pad ma- fur an a, 7, 8, 22. 

Padma (Purana), 3. 

Padma (or, Padmavati, daughter of Br- 
hadratha of Ceylon), 305, 306. 
P 3 dma (Upapurana), 6. 

Padmavati (wife of a merchant), 270, 
271. 

Painting, 182, 188. 
Paitamaha-siddhanta, 181, 21 1. 

Paksin, 39, 45, 52. 

Panca-kala, 161, 216. 

Panca-laksana (Puiana), 23-25. 
Pancaratra, 15, 20, 21 (Smarta), 93 
(Tantra), 109, no, 111-2, 144, 154, 
161, 175, 190, 192, 201, 216-8, 254, 
259, 331. 

Pahcasikha, 36. 

Pandavas, 220-2, 225, 228, 229, 240, 
244, 248, 249. 

Parasara, 76, 120, 206, 240, 241. 
Parasara-frokta (Upapurana), 10. 
Parasara-furana, 1 1 . 

Parasara-ufafurana, 5, n. 

Parasara (Upapurana), 7, 12. 
Parasarokta (Upapurana), 4-7. 

Parasarya (Upapurana), 7-12, 

Pasa (bondage), 67. 

Pasanda (or, Pakhanda), 124, 128, 129, 
143. 146, 147, 150, 152. 153, 192. 
ai8, 230, 270, 277, 278, 300, 317, 



INDEX 


391 


3^6. 332, 333. 335, 338. 

Pasandin, 129, 1,^7, 148, 150, 326, 

33 *. 333. 

Paiupata, 20. 21 (Smarta), 110, 175, 
190, 192, 201, 217. 

Pasupata (weapon), 240. 

Patidana (or, Paittdana), 81, 98. 
Paundarika (a lake), 231. 

Paundra, 107, 236, 

Paundravardhana, 107, 

Penance. 36, 42, 43. 46, 69, 102, 156, 
164, 178, 180, 192, 200, 232, 314, 
33*. 336. 355- 

Penance-forest of the Sun (named as 
Surya-ksetra, etc.), 61-3, 94, 99, 
103, 105, 106. 

Persian element, 23. 

Personal virtues, 152, 192. 

Pessimistic view of life, 335. 

Phala-veda, 201, 

Physical characteristics of men and 
women (stri-purusa-samudrika-lak- 
sana), 77. 

Physician (cikitsaka), 163, 168, 192, 

33 °- 

Pihgala, 39, 44, 52. 54. 

Pippala, (tree), 270. 

Pis'aca, 168. 

Planets, 49-50, 51, 53,54. 155,162, 
181, 189. 

Poetics, 184. 

Poison-doctor, 168, 175. 

Poison-girl, 307. 

Portents, 160. 200, 

Prabhasaka (Upapurina), 13. 
Prabhasa-ksetra, 123, 360. 

Praci (a river), 62, 105, 106, 

Pradyumna, 37, 217. 

Pragjyotisa, 107, 191, 233, 

Prahelikas (Riddles), 185, aio, 211. 
Prahlada, 122, 126, 131, 132, 22c, 222, 


225, 228, 229, 233, 244, 249, 250, 
262, 263. 

Prakrit (language), 183, 184. 

Prakrti (Adya), 262, 273, 312. 313, 
318, 338. 

Prapnuyana, 45, 52, 

Pratisthana, 130, 163, 

Pravaras, 162. 

Prayaga, 164, 219, 270, 275, 313. 344. 
Priest, 320 (grama-yajaka, loka-yajaka). 
Prize-fighting, 178, 

Prose, loi, 218. 

Prostitute, 262, 263. 

Prthu, *62. 

Pundarika (a sage), 220, 222, 226, 228, 
234, 246, 249, 

Pundirasvamin, 102, 104. 

Pukkasa, 178, 306. 

Pulkasa, 286. 

Punishment (for sins and crimes), 314. 
Punjab, 60,61,99, 101, 104, 107, 108, 
214, 216. 

Purnaka, 81, 98, 

Puri, 309, 

Pururavas, 130, 132, 163, 164, 202-4, 
206, 

Purusa (of Samkhya), 234, 312. 
Purusa-sukta, 180, 

Putusottama-ksetra, 107, 272, 306, 

309. 

Puskara (a holy place), 123, 164, 191, 
193, 220 (-aranya), 231. 

Puskara (a person), 172, 190, 209. 
Puskara-dvipa, 41. 

R 

Radha (or, Radhika), 284, 285, 359. 
Raghu-vamia (of Kalidasa), 206. 
Raivataka (a holy place), 37, 123. 
Raivata (name of a Brahmin), 251. 



392 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Raivata (or, Raivanta, son of Surya), 

43. 54- 

Raja-dharma, lya-iSa. 

Rajagrha (a city), 169, 172, 206. 

Rajasuya (sacrifice), 307. 

Rajna, 39, 45, 52, 54. 36. 

Rajni, 38, 42, 52-4, 56. 75, 189. 

Raksasas, 170, 171, 271. 

Rama (Bhargava or Jamadagnya, or 
Parasu-), 146, i6o, i6i, 172, 173, 
21 1, 239, 305, 307, 312. 

Ramakhyana {i.e. Ramayana), 16 1. 

Rama (Langali or Musali), 133, 145, 
146, 312. 320. 

Ramanuja, 360. 

Rama (son of Dasaratha), 145, 146, 
169, 220-2, 226, 227, 233, 239, 
240, 272, 288, 306, 307, 320, 347. 

Rimayana, 26, 29, 138, 141, 197, 202, 
222, 276, 284, 347, 

Rasas. — Their names, 185-7, 284, 285. 

Rasa (-ktida or -lila), 279, 284, 285, 352. 

Rashnu, 39. 

Raiis, 205, 291, 337, 338. 

Racha-yatra. — (Sec under ‘Car-festival’). 

Ratnagriva (a king), 107. 

Ravana (and his family), 169-170, 233, 
263-4. 

Ravana-vadha (of Oandin), 339. 

Ravigupta (author of the Sarngadhara- 
faddhati), 345. 

Rebirths (of creatures), 67, ^24, 135-6, 
151, 164, 179-180, 213, 227 

(samsara-vrksa), 315, 338. 

Religious syncretism, 22, 

Rcva, 123, 236, 305, 317. (Sec also 
under ‘Rivers’). 

Revanta, 43. 44, 52-4. 73, 183. 

Revenue, 149. 177, 324. 

Rg-veda, 129, 161, 175, 180. 

Rice (its varieties), 194, 214, 


Rites (malevolent, magic), 124, 128, 

Rite's (Srauta, Smarta, Puranic, etc.), 
129, 139, 154, 177, 180-181, 314- 

5. 3*9- 


Rivers. — Their names such as Bahuda, 
Bhimarathi, Devahrada, Gandaki, 
Godavari, Gomati, Hiranvati, Iksu- 
mati, Iravati, Kalindi, Kave i, Krsna, 
Ksipra, Lauhitya, Narmada, Parna- 
sa, Payosni, Sarasvati, Sarayu, 
Satadru (or ^atadrava), Sir.dhu, 
Sita, Sona, Sudama, Tamia, Tamra- 
parni, Tapati, Tausi, Tungabhadra, 
Vedasmrti, Vetravati, yipasa (or 
Vaipasa), Vitasta, etc,, 47, 60-62, 
72,78,99,107, 123, 159, t‘^4-6, 
168-9, 171. 172, 175, 215.220, 
231, 233, 282. 292, 306, 307, 317, 

344. 345. 

Rjihva, 79. 

Rjisvan, 79, 80, 81, 97. 

Rudraksa, 313, 322. 

Rudra (or, Rudras), 38, 39, 45, 46, 120, 
I2I, 139, 226, 227, 233, 234, 254- 
5, 256 (nila-lohita), 269-270, 273, 
318, 322. 

Rukmina (a king), 233. 

Rupa Gosvamin, 287. 


S 


Saci (worship of), 179, 189. 
Sacraments, 177, 178, 192,293,308 
(ten), 323. 

Sacrifice (Vedic), 137, 152, 182. 
Sadanana, 170, 171, 

Sadhyas, 121, 189. 

Sagara, 159, 315.6. 

Sages, — Their names such as Atri, 
Dalbhya, Dattatreya, Galava, 
Gargya, janauti, Kanva, Kratu, 



INDEX 


393 


Mrkandu, Parasara, Pulalia, Pulast- 
ya, Sanaka, Sanandana. Ssnatana, 
Sanatkumara, ^ankha, Sumantti, 
Sveta, Uttanka, Visvamitra, and 
others. 34, 71, 89. 109, 124, 130, 
143, 146, 147. 159. 160. 162, 164, 
171, 191, 213, 214, 227, 306, 315, 
3 V. 318. 342. 

Sahasranika (a king), 227, 261. 
Saivadharma (Upapurana), 1 1. 

Saiva (Parana), 3, 18, 291. 

Saivism, 267. 

Saka-dvipa, 40-42, 81, 99, 100. 
Saka-dvipi Brahmins, 34, 99, 100, 

350. 

Sakas, 316, 

Sakitai, 41. 

Sakta (system of religion), 23. 

Sakti (Active Power, and her names), 
233.239,241.285,312. 318.319, 

338- 

Sakti (or. Saktri. father of Paiaiara), 
23a, 240. 241. 

Saktism, 112 (Tantric), 267, 277 
(Tantric). 

Sakuntata, 356. 

Sakyas, 149, 

Salagrama (or, Saligrama, name of a 
place), 123, 130, 193, 231, 234, 
3 » 5 -- 

Salagrama (stone), 276, 282, 354, 
Salokya, 274, 

Sama-veda, 129, 161, 175, 180, 295. 
Samba, 30-108, 190, 

Sambadi^a, 107, 108. 

Sambapura, 42, 60-62, 70, 101, 103, 
107, 108. 

Samba-furana (or, Samba), 2, 4-14, 
16, 29-108, 242, 243. 

Sambarayani, 167, 200, 201, 

Sambhala (or Sambhala or Sambhala or 


Sambhalagrama, a village), 233, 

3047 - 
Sambharayani, 129, 

Samdhyacala, 107, 

Sainjna, 42-44, 71, 74. 

Satnkaracarya, 138, 209, 240, 308, 

339 - 

Sainkara (the god', 159, 217, 240, 

298. 303. 322. 

Samkarsana, 217. 

Samkhya, 22, 36,44, 110, iii, 175, 
192, 225. 234. 

Sampravartins, iii. 

Sanaiscara, 43. 

Sanatkumara, 4-12, 282, 288-91, 301, 
302, 311, 312, 337. 342. 
Sanatkumara, or, Sanatkumara (Upa- 
purana). 10-12, 290, 291, 350. 
Sanatkumdriya (Upapurana), 290, 350. 
Sanatkumarokta or Sanatkumara-frokta 
(Upapurana), 290, 350. 

Sanda (a demon), 128, 146. 

Sani, 72. 

Santanu, 232. 

Santi-karma, 176, 18 1. 
Sapta-kohkanakas, 233. 

Sarasvatl (a goddess), 52. 

Sarcnu, 42. 

Sarinistha, 307. 

Sarhgadhara-faddhati, 345. 

Sarupya, 274. 

Satanika, 71, 78. 112, 120, 131, 133, 

140. 154- 

Satarupa, 227. 

Sati, 162. 

Satvata, 197, 355. 

Satyavati, 16. 

Saudasa (Mitrasaha), 316-7. 

Saugatas, 149. 

Saukeya (Upapurana), 7. 

Saukra (Upapurana), 12. 


5 ° 



394 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Saunaka, 33, 113, 120, 121, 125, 126, 
131, 133, MO, 221, 237, 238, 269, 
282, 283, 304, 31 1, 

Saura, 23, 29-108, 112, 113, 151, 348, 
350 - 

Sauradharma, 29, 141,347-9. 
Saura-furana (or, Saura), 3, 4-12, 18. 
Saurastta, 292. 

Sauvira, 130, 165, 166, 292. 

Savara, 272. 

Savitra (Upapurana), 7. 

Savitri, 176, 232 (wife of a Biahmin). 
Science of government, 125. 

Science of house-building (vastu-vidya) 

»75- 

Scythian (coins), 29. 

Scythian (kings), 30, 

Sect, 20, 22, 23, 25, 27. 

Sectarian rivalry, 22. 

Sectarian ( tilaka) marks, 270, 272, 

3°5. 3*3. 3'9. 322- 
Sectary, 21, 22, 1 12, 137, 325, 347 
Serpent, 218, 285. 

Servant (dasa, dasi), 194, 234. 

Service to Visnu (and his temple), 122, 
166, 315, 32t. 

Sevaks (Brahmin), 100, 350, 

Seven gems (sapta ratiiani), 166, 

Shoes, 47, 160, 

Siddhaputras, M9- 
Siddhas, 46, 102, 107. 

Sins, 124, 192, 229, 240,314,331, 

355- 

Sita (wife of R^ma), 233. 

Sitoda (a river), ro7. 

Siva, 8, 22, 30, 53, 67, t66, 17 1, 270, 

305. 3*3. 322- 

Sivadharma, 4-12, 113-5, M'- 347* 

348. 

Sivadharmaka, 13. 

Sivadharmottara, 348. 


Siva-furatia, 3. 

iiva purana (of Bengal), 341, 444. 

Siva (Upapurana), 4, 10, ii. 

Siva rahasya, 236. 

Six acts (vasikarana, etc.), 35, 64, 180. 
Skanda (Purana) or Skanda-purana , 3, 
7, 8, 236, 242. 

Skanda (Upapurana), 4, 7-10, 

Smatta, 20, 21, 23, iii, 112. 

Smrti, 35, 112,135, M 7 . m8. *52. 
323. 329 - 

Snake, 50, 160, 162, 

Snake catcher, 125. 

Snana-grha, 52. 

Solar (dynasty or race), 26, 159, 228, 

257- 259. 306. 

Soma, 52, 53, 55, 80, 98, 257. 
Soma-pHrana, 242. 

Sphuta brahma-siddhanta (of Brahma- 
gupta), 2 1 1. 

Spurious Puranas, 353. 

Sraddha, 55, 313, 321. 

Sraddha, 153 (Brahmins to be fed), 
156, 163-4, 202-4, 216, 263, 300, 

314. 323. 327. 330. 342. 

Sraosba, 39. 

Srausa, 39, 54. 

Sravakas, 149. 

Sri, 52, 53, 123, 176, 270. 

Sribhagavata (Purana), 3. 

Sri-sukta, 180. 

Sruti, 135, 147, 148. 152, 
State-astrologer, 168, 173. 

Sthulasiras (a demon), 220-2, 225, 228, 
229. 233, 244, 248, 249. 

Stosa. 39, 45, 52, 54, 56. 

Stotras (Stavas), 127-8, 130, 167.8, 
201, 218. 

Styles of architecture, 211 (Nagara, 
Dravida and Vesara). 

Suhhadra, 272, 309. 



INDEX 


395 


SubhasitSvali, 345. 

Sub-sects, 20. 

Sub-systems (of religion), 23. 
Suda-sastra, 201. 

Suddhodana (a king), 228. 

Sudra, 41, 125, 131, 136, 144, 149, 
152, 153, 217, 228, 230, 285, 298, 
300,317, 323-5, 331-4. 

Sugriva (a monkey), 233. 

Sujihva, 79. 

Suka, 36, 304. 

Sukra, 122, 233. 

Sulka (nuptial fee), 294. 

Sumadana (a river), 107. 

Sun, 29-108, 217. 

Sundirasvamin, 102, 106. 

Sunga (dynasty), 30. 

Sun. — His different names, 33, 49, 56, 
61, 100, 103. 

Sun-worship, 23, 29-108, 205. 
Superstition, 26. 

Surgeon, t68. 

Surupa, 42. 

Surya, 7, 8, 35, 38. 

Surya-ganga (a river), 106. 
Siirya-purana, 100, 349-350. 
Surya-siddhanta, 51. 

Susarmsn (a Brahmin), 262. 

Susuksma (Upapurana), 7, ico, 

Suta. 33,34,140,178 (mixed caste), 
221, 222, 227, 238, 251, 269, 282. 
283. 3”. 3*2. 

Sutira, lOi, 102, 104, 105. 

Sveta-dvipa, 41, 217, 284. 

Sveta- gahga, 272. 

Symbol (of worship), 30. 

Symptoms of death, 192. 

Systems of religion, 20, 21, 23, 1 12. 

T 

Taksan, 73. 


Tala, 189. 

Talajahghas, 315. 

Tamralipta, 107. 

Tamraliptakas, 160. 

Tantra, 63, 66, 93, 117, 238, 308, 
Tantric(elements, influence, symbolism, 
cult. Mantra, etc.), 53-56, 63, 74, 
92, 93, 1 12 (Saktism), 142,212, 
217, 2t8, 236-8, 267, 277, 291, 

3°4. 344- 

Tantricism, 74, 92, 93, 325, 335, 344, 
Tantric work, 64, 344. 

Tantrik, 68 (Sauras), 236, 238, 325, 
326. 

Tapatl, 43, 44, 61, 72, 73, 99. 

Tarksya (an incarnation of Visnu), 146. 
Tarksya (Parana), 236, 242, 353. 

Tax, 177, 

Temple (of the Sun, Visnu, and other 
deities), 30.32, 40, 47, 51, 52, 54, 
60-63, 75. 97. *07. 122. 128, 130, 
13 1, 165, 190, 196, 229 (service 
to), 233, 270, 301, 314, 315. 
Theatrical performance, 229. 
Thirty-three sacrificing gods, 49. 

Time. — Its measurement, 161, 162, 
225-226. 

Tirthas (or holy places, including the 
mental ones), 175, 248, 249, 251, 

293. 30*. 328. 

Traividya-siddhanta, 51, 

Tribes. — Their names (such as Cina, 
Cola, Haihaya, Kamboja, Khasa, 
Nisada, Parsnika, Pulinda, Saka, 
Savara, Talajahgha, Varvara, 
Yavana, etc.), 158, r6o, 211, 214, 
307. 3*5-7- 

Trimurti, 22 (doctrine of). 

Tripundra, 313, 322. 

Tripura, 170. 

Trnabindu (a sage), 234. 



396 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURaNAS 


Tulasi (plant), 126, 255, 262, 270, 
271, 273, 276, 288, 308, 314, 321, 

339. 349. 354 - 

U 

Udayacala, 69, 70. 102-5, *° 7 - 
Udayadri, 107. 

Udayagiri, 107. 

Udayana (a king), 228. 

Uma, 162, 165, 166, 169,201,215, 
312, 319. 338, 

Umbrella, 47. 160, 173. 

Utvasi, 129, 163, 188, 202, 206, 231. 
Urviiu, 273. 

Urantfrer/ta (Upapurana), 4-10, ii. 12, 
Usija, 79. 

Utkala. 82, 83, 106. 

Utkocas (or, Utkaucas), 149, 332. 

V 

Vahttija (Parana), 3. 

Vahni’purana, 3, 

Vaidathina, 79. 

Vaidisa, 130. 

Vaikhanasas, 122. 

Vaikhanasa (Tantra), 93. 
Vairagya-sataka, 339. 

Vaisarnpayana, 34, 124, 240. 

Vaisnava (Purana), 3 , 5, 7, 8, 232, 
236,240.241,353. 

Vailya, 149, 228. 295, 297, 299, 300, 

325, 332- 

yskovakya, 161, 

yallabhadcva (author of the Subbasita~ 
vali). 345. 

yalmiki, 161, 190, 191, 202. 
yimana (an incarnation of yisnu), 
234. 317. 

VSmana-furafia, 3, 22, 242. 

Vamana (Upapurana), 4, 9, 10, 351. 

yahga, 293. 


Varaha (or, Varaha-furana), 3, 221, 
237, 238, 242. 

yaraha-parvata, 163, 1^4, 216. 
Vardbamana, 107, 217. 

Varanasi, 164, 313, ^18, 344, 345. 
Vardbusika, 163. 

Varnasrama-dbarma, 20, 32, 110-2, 

135, 151, 152, 227, 228, 230, 260, 

278, 3 ° 5 . 314 5- 325. 

Varsma, 81, 98, 

Varuna. 33, 44, 48, 53 (called Jala- 
dhipa), 55. 64, 78, 89, 130, 158. 
162, 172, 191, 228 (a name of 
Aditya), 231. 252. 

Varuna (Upapurana), 4-12. 
ySsavadatta. 228, 

yasistba, 12, 36, 37, 64, 65, 76, 78, 

81, 94. 95. 109. 1*4* *39'MU 

162, 231, 232, 252, 316, 343, 348. 
Vasistha-lainga, 9, 11-13. 

Vasistha.lihga (Upapurana), 7. 

Vasistha or Vasistha (Upapurana), 10- 
12. 

Vastu-devata, 176. 

Vasudeva, 355. 

yasudeva, 37, 38 (names of his wives), 
74, 95, 1 1 iff., 196, 217, 218, 224, 

23** ^ 34 » 3 i®> 35 '- 
Vasiis, 38, 121. 

Vayaviya (Purana). 3. 

Vayaviya (Upapurana), 4, 6. 

Vctyavya (Purana), 3. 7. 
yayu, 240, 241. 

Vayti-purana, 8, 206 (of four Padas), 
242. 

Vayu-Hpapurana, 18, 

ycdanta (system of philosophy), 22, 

III. 

Vedas. 20, 29. 33 . 35 - 38. 4 *. ^ 3 . 8«. 
93, 98, 109-112, 125, 128,129, 

* 35 . *39. *48. * 49 - * 5 ^. 



INDEX 


397 


175, 182, 192, 193, 201, 219, 228, 
262, 267. 277, 281, 323, 326, 3 
.Vedavati, 169-170, 234. 
yena, 162. 

Vidharbha, 130, 165, 316. 
yidathin, 79. 
yidusaka, 107. 
yidya, 312, 318. 
yidyadharas, 4/}, 222. 

Vikramorvasiya, 163, 206. 
yinayaka, 45, 52, 124, 170, 179, 181, 
*89. 

yindhya (mountain), 169, 270. 
yirata, 240. 

yisakhayupa (a holy place), 123. 
yisakhayupa (a king), 305, 306. 
yisasana (a city), 307. 
yisnu, 22, 30, 37, 38, 41, 52, 53, 64, 

1 1 1£. 224.8, 23^, 237,238,241, 
*54» 270, 303, 304, 354. 
Vistiudharma, 10,113, “^-155.347. 
348. 

Visnudharmottara, 10, 155-218, 348. 
Visnudharmottaramrta, 210, 360. 
yisnu (his different names), 234, 269. 
yisnu-naivedya, 161, 273. 
y isnu-purana, i, 5, 242. 

Visnu-rahasya, 236. 
yisnurata (Pariksit), 304. 
yisnuyasas, 145, 233, 304, 307. 
yisvakarman, 32, 40, 42-44, 47, 54, 
60, 62, 8t, 82, 188, 189, 228. 
yis'varatha (king of Dravida), 285. 
yows, 81, 120, 123. 126. 177,217, 
218, 314. 

yraja-lila (of Krsna), 284, 285, 
yratas (and their names), 123, 125, 
126, 153, 156, 164, 167, 177, 191. 
2,213-4, 231, 255, 263,270,273, 
291, 292, 301, 302, 307, 314. 317, 

323. 345- 349> 350. 355. 356. 


yratya, 129. 

Vrddha-garga, 206. 
yrddha-tirtha, 301, 
yrksayurveda, 201. 

yrndavana, iii, 123,217.281,283, 
284, 287, 3ic», 352, 
yrtra, 160, 169, 

yyasa, 16, 23, 27, 95, 120, 161, 221, 
222, 240, 242, 260, 269, 281-3, 
289, 31 1, 348. 

yyoman (a god), 39, 49, 50, 52, 190, 
218. 

yyuha. III, 129, 133, 217, 

,W 

War, 1^5, 156, 181-2. 

Weapons (of wai). — Their names, 174, 

3'7. 

Week-days, 89, 161, 205, 242, 291, 

337. 338. 

.Weight (measurement of), 331, 

Wheel, 30, 31, 

Wine (sura, mada), 38, 180. 324, 330. 
331 (varieties of). 

Women, 32, 122, 123, 125, 136. 148, 

*52-4. >72. » 73* >75-7. >94.205. 
217. 230, 285, 286, 288,294.302. 
324. 325- 

Women of note.— Their names (Arun- 
dhati, Gargi, Lalita or Lalitika, Na- 
yanasundari, Prabhavati, Puloma, 
Renuka, Sandili, ^iladhana. Sulabha, 
Sumana, Susanta, and others), 123, 
130-2, 136, i6o, 165, 166. 168, 

307- 

Wool, 297. 

Worlds. — ^Their names, 130, 158, 313. 

Y 

Yagas, 25 (kriya-yaga, siddhi-yaga, 
etc.). 



398 


STUDIES IN THE UPAPURANAS 


Yajakas, .j6, 51. 95, 96, 99. 
Yajnavalkya, 16, 18, 123. 

Yajurveda, 129, 139, 1 41, 161, 173. 

175. 

Yaksa, 38, 168. 

Yama, 42 (Staddha-tieva), 43, 45, 53, 
54- 72 - 73> 92 . ‘37- *7*. > 89 . 

23 239, 252, 254, 271, 315, 335. 
Yama-inarga, 315. 

Yami (sister of Yama), 42, 43, 231, 

252. 

Yamuna, 43, 61, 62, 70, 72, 73, 101-3, 
105. 123. 155, 159. 189, 215, 271, 
3»3. 344- 

Yantra (Tantric), 55, 63, 218, 344. 
Yasoda, 355. 

Yavanas, 211, 276, 316, 


Yoga (also Kriya-yoga or Karma-yoga, 
Bhakti-yoga and Jnana-yoga) 36, 
51, 56, 110, 120, 121, 126-9, 

‘33- * 34 - 7 . >53- 

175, 192, 193, 220, 228, 230, 245, 
249, 269, 286, 306, 315, 319, 320. 
Yoga-sastra, 227. 

Yogin, 36, 67, 127, 131, 321. 
Yudhisthira, 147, 289, 355, 
Yuga-dharma, 145, 161, 327, 331-5. 
Yugas (and their names and extents), 
161, 222, 225, 273, 306, 307, 311; 

3«5- 33*. 


2odiacal signs, 276, 337. 

Zoroaster, 98. 4 ^^? 


i* , 




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ERRATA 

Incorrect 

upabhedan 

from 

cotinuation 

Vishu 

VoE II 

Kalanirnapa 

Ciasi6ed 

338-41 

sravanabhyam 
( 2 ) 
inlined 
agad 
speakes 
Vasudeva 
mistakas 
Cat., No, 1162 

dimatram 
tridasanam 
baddrt 
Nilakntha 
Die... No. 456 



*fn= foot-note. 


karma-dhumi 


11 * 1 ^- ( New Delhi !- 

Corre 
upabhe 
form. 

continuation. 

Vi.snu. 

Vol.’ III. 

Kalanirnaya. 

Classified. 

pp. 338 41, No. 1758. 
sravanabhyam. 

( 1 ). 
inclined, 
jagad. 
speaks. 

Vasudeva. 
mistakes. 

Cat. of 1853, pp. 329- 
330. Nos. 1162-4. 
dvimatram. 
tridasanam. 
badari. 

Nllakantha. 

Berlin cat. of 1853, 
p. 131, No. 456 
(complete in 25 chaps.), 
karma-bhumi. 





CENTRAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL LIBRAJ^V, 
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